The Principal Upanishads

Principle source: the unkown Upanishads author

Translated by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

1953

foreword

An admirable statement of the aims of the Library of Philosophy was provided by the first editor, the late Professor J. H. Muirhead, in his description of the original programme printed m Erdmann's History of Philosophy under the date 1890. This was slightly modified m subsequent volumes to take the form of the following statement

'The Muirhead Library of Philosophy was designed as a contribution to the History of Modern Philosophy under the heads- first of Different Schools of Thought — Sensationalist, Realist, Idealist, Intuitivist; secondly of different Subjects — Psychology, Ethics, Political Philosophy, Theology While much had been done m England in tracing the course of evolu- tion m nature, history, economics, morals and religion, little had been done in tracing the development of thought on these subjects. Yet “the evolution of opinion is part of the whole evolution”.

'By the co-operation of different writers m carrying out this plan it was hoped that a thoroughness and completeness of treatment, otherwise unattainable, might be secured. It was believed also that from writers mainly British and American fuller consideration of English Philosophy than it had hitherto received might be looked for. In the earlier series of books containing, among others, Bosanquet's History of Aesthetic Pfleiderer's Rational Theology since Kant, Albee's History of English Utilitarianism, Bonar's Philosophy and Political Economy Brett's History of Psychology, Ritchie's Natural Kights, these objects were to a large extent effected.

Tn the meantime original work of a high order was beine produced both in England and America by such writers as Bradley, Stout Bertrand Russell, Baldwin, Urban, Montague, and others, and a new interest m foreign works German

'S

T i£ l pub u° attentlon . ha d developed. The scope of the na?S 2!? ♦ T eXtend t d mto sometlun g more inter- the hoS * w * entermg the fifth decade of to ^tence » Sto2n £ ♦ niay contnbute to that mutual understanding between countries which ,s so pressing a need of the present

prSm^todav *S £ r ° feS n Mmthead StreSSed 18 ™ less a! g A l y i , nd few wU den y that philosophy has much to do with enabling us to meet it, although no onef £ of^t

Muirhead himself, would regard that as the sole, or even the main, object of philosophy As Professor Muirhead continues to lend the distinction of his name to the Library of Philosophy it seemed not inappropriate to allow him to recall us to these aims m his own words The emphasis on the history of thought also seemed to me very timely, and the number of important works promised for the Library in the very near future augur well for the continued fulfilment, in this and other ways, of the expectations of the original editor

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EDITED BY H. D. LEWIS

THE PRINCIPAL UPANISADS

By RADHAKRISHNAN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY THE HINDU VIEW OF LI*E AN IDEALIST VIEW OF LIFE EAST AND WEST IN RELIGION RELIGION AND SOCIETY THE BRAHMA SUTRA RECOVERY OF FAITH RELIGION IN A CHANGING WORLD THE BHAGAVADGlTA

By A N MARLOW RADHAKRISHNAN AN ANTHOLOGY

(Allen & Unwin)

EASTERN RELIGIONS AND WESTERN THOUGHT

(Clarendon Press, Oxford)

THE DHAMMAPADA

(Oxford University Press)

INDIA AND CHINA IS THIS PEACE' GREAT INDIANS

(Hind Kitabs, Bombay) Edited by radhakrishnan

MAHATMA GANDHI

(Allen & Unwin) Edited by radhakrishnan and J h muirhead

CONTEMPORARY INDIAN PHILOSOPHY

(Allen & Unwin) Edited by radhakrishnan and p T raju

THE CONCEPT OF MAN

(Allen & Unwin) Edited by radhakrishnan, a wadia, d m datta and h kabir

HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY EASTERN AND WESTERN S VOLS

(Allen & Unwin)

THE PRINCIPAL UPANISADS

EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION, TEXT, TRANSLATION AND NOTES BY

S. RADHAKRISHNAN

LONDON

GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN LTD

RUSKIN HOUSE < MUSEUM STREET

FIRST PUBLISHED IN I953 SECOND IMPRESSION I968

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preface

Human nature is not altogether unchanging but it does remain sufficiently constant to justify the study of ancient classics The problems of human life and destiny have not been superseded by the striking achievements of science and technology. The solutions offered, though conditioned in their modes of expression by their time and environment, have not been seriously affected by the march of scientific knowledge and criticism The responsibility laid on man as a rational being, to integrate himself, to relate the present to the past and the future, to live in time as well as in eternity, has become acute and urgent. The Upanisads, though remote m time from us, are not remote in thought. They disclose the working of the primal impulses of the human soul which rise above the differ- ences of race and of geographical position. At the core of all historical religions there are fundamental types of spiritual experience though they are expressed with different degrees of clarity. The Upanisads illustrate and illuminate these primary experiences.

'These are really the thoughts of all men in all ages and lands, they are not original with me. If they are not yours as much as mine, they are nothing or next to nothing,' said Walt Whitman The Upanisads deal with questions which arise when men begin to reflect seriously and attempt answers to them which are not very different, except m their approach and emphasis from what we are now inclined to accept This does not mean that the message of the Upanisads, which is as true today as ever, commits us to the different hypotheses about the structure of the world and the physiology of man We must make a distinction between the message of the Upanisads and their mythology The latter is liable to correction by advances in science Even this mythology becomes intelligible if we place ourselves as far as possible at the viewpoint of those who con- ceived it Those parts of the Upanisads which seem to us today

Zt» InH 1 ^' « 10US ai i d ? lmost UIlme ai™g, should have had value and significance at the time they were composed

Anyone who reads the Upanisads m the original Sanskrit will be caught up and earned away by the elevS^n, Se poet™ the compelling fascination of the many utterances thrS which they lay bare the secret and saLd l3SL of the

6

The Principal Upamsads

human soul and the Ultimate Reality When we read them, we cannot help being impressed by the exceptional ability, earnest- ness and ripeness of mmd of those who wrestled with these ultimate questions These souls who tackled these problems remain still and will remain for all time in essential harmony with the highest ideals of civilisation.

The Upamsads are the foundations on which the beliefs of millions of human beings, who were not much inferior to our- selves, are based Nothing is more sacred to man than his own history. At least as memorials of the past, the Upamsads are worth our attention

A proper knowledge of the texts is an indispensable aid to the understanding of the Upamsads There are parts of the Upamsads which repel us by their repetitiveness and irrelevance to our needs, philosophical and religious But if we are to under- stand their ideas, we must know the atmosphere in which they worked We must not judge ancient writings from our standards We need not condemn our fathers for having been what they were or ourselves for being somewhat different from them It is our task to relate them to their environment, to bridge distances of time and space and separate the transitory from the permanent

There is a danger in giving only carefully chosen extracts We are likely to give what is easy to read and omit what is difficult, or give what is agreeable to our views and omit what is disagreeable It is wise to study the Upamsads as a whole, their striking insights as well as their commonplace assumptions Only such a study will be historically valuable I have therefore given m full the classical Upamsads, those commented on or mentioned by Samkara The other Upamsads are of a later date and are sectarian in character. They represent the popular gods, Siva, Visnu, Sakti, as manifestations of the Supreme Reality. They are not parts of the original Veda, are of much later origin and are not therefore as authoritative as the classical Upamsads If they are all to be included, it would be difficult to find a Publisher for so immense a work I have therefore selected a few other Upamsads, some of those to which references are made by the great teachers, Samkara and Ram ami] a

In the matter of translation and interpretation, I owe a heavy debt, directly and indirectly, not only to the classical commentators but also to the modern writers who have worked

Preface 7

on the subject. I have profited by their tireless labours The careful reader will find, I hope, that a small advance in a few places at least has been made m this translation towards a better understanding of the texts.

Passages in verse are not translated into rhyme as the padding and inversion necessary for observing a metrical pattern take away a great deal from the dignity and concise- ness of the original.

It is not easy to render Sanskrit religious and philosophical classics into English for each language has its own charac- teristic genius. Language conveys thought as well as feeling. It falls short of its full power and purpose, if it fails to com- municate the emotion as fully as it conveys the idea. Words convey ideas but they do not always express moods In the Upanisads we find harmonies of speech which excite the emotions and stir the soul I am afraid that it has not been possible for me to produce m the English translation the richness of melody, the warmth of spirit, the power of enchant- ment that appeals to the ear, heart and mind I have tried to be faithful to the originals, sometimes even at the cost of elegance. I have given the texts with all their nobility of sound and the feeling of the numinous

For the classical Upanisads the text followed is that com- mented on by Sarakara A multitude of variant readings of the texts exist, some of them to be found in the famous commen- taries, others in more out of the way versions. The chief variant readings are mentioned in the notes As my interest is philo- sophical rather than linguistic, I have not discussed them In the translation, words which are omitted or understood in Sanskrit or are essential to complete the grammatical structure are inserted in brackets

We cannot bring to the study of the Upanisads virgin minds which are untouched by the views of the many generations of scholars who have gone before us. Their influence may work either directly or indirectly. To be aware of this limitation to S^. 00 ^^ . of g«*t importance in the study of ancient .texts. The classical commentators represent in their works the great oral traditions of interpretation which W been cumnt in their time. Centuries of careful Shflie behind the exegetical traditions as they finally took shKe It would be futile to neglect the work of th TcWnStoS as there are words and passages in the UpamsSHf w3c? Z

8

The Principal Upamsads

could make little sense without the help of the commen- tators

We do not have in the Upamsads a single well-articulated system of thought We find m them a number of different strands which could be woven together m a single whole by sympathetic interpretation Such an account involves the ex- pression of opinions which can always be questioned Impar- tiality does not consist m a refusal to form opinions or in a futile attempt to conceal them It consists in rethinking the thoughts of the past, m understanding their environment, and m relating them to the intellectual and spiritual needs of our own time While we should avoid the attempt to read into the terms of the past the meanings of the present, we cannot overlook the fact that certain problems are the same in all ages We must keep in mind the Buddhist saying 'Whatever is not adapted to such and such persons as are to be taught cannot be called a teaching ' We must remain sensitive to the prevailing currents of thought and be prepared, as far as we are able, to translate the universal truth into terms intelligible to our audience, without distorting their meaning It would scarcely be possible to exaggerate the difficulty of such a task, but it has to be undertaken If we are able to make the seeming abstractions of the Upamsads flame anew with their ancient colour and depth, if we can make them pulsate with their old meaning, they will not appear to be altogether irrelevant to our needs, intellectual and spiritual The notes are framed m this spirit

The Upamsads which base their affirmations on spiritual experience are invaluable for us, as the traditional props of faith, the infallible scripture, miracle and prophecy are no longer avadable The irreligion of our times is largely the product of the supremacy of religious technique over spmtual life The study of the Upamsads may help to restore to funda- mental things of religion that reality without which they seem to be meaningless

Besides, at a time when moral aggression is compelling people to capitulate to queer ways of life, when vast experi- ments in social structure and political organisation are being made at enormous cost of life and suffering, when we stand perplexed and confused before the future with no clear light to guide our way, the power of the human soul is the only refuge If we resolve to be governed by it, our civilisation may

Preface 9

enter upon its most glorious epoch. There arc many 'dis- satisfied children of the spirit of the west,' to use Romam Rolland's phrase, who are oppressed that the universality of her great thoughts has been defamed for ends of violent action, that they are trapped in a blind alley and arc savagely crushing each other out of existence When an old binding culture is being broken, when ethical standards are dissolving, when we are being aroused out of apathy or awakened out of uncon- sciousness, when there is in the air general ferment, inward stirring, cultural crisis, then a high tide of spiritual agitation sweeps over peoples and we sense in the horizon something novel, something unprecedented, the beginnings of a spiritual renaissance We are living in a world of freer cultural inter- course and wider world sympathies. No one can ignore his neighbour who is also groping in this world of sense for the world unseen. The task set to our generation is to reconcile the varying ideals of the converging cultural patterns and help them to sustain and support rather than combat and destroy one another. By this process they are transformed from within and the forms that separate them will lose their exclusivist meaning and signify only that unity with their own origins and inspirations

The study of the sacred books of religions other than one's own is essential for speeding up this process. Students of Chris- tian religion and theology, especially those who wish to make Indian Christian thought not merely 'geographically' but 'organically' Indian, should understand their great heritage which is contained m the Upanisads

For us Indians, a study of the Upanisads is essential, if we are to preserve our national being and character. To discover the mam lines of our traditional life, we must turn to our classics, the Vedas and the Upanisads, the Bhagavad-gM and me Dhamma-pada They have done more to colour our minds than we generally acknowledge They not only thought many of our thoughts but coined hundreds of the words thlt we use fj ! y * u fe ; l here ls , much m our that « degrading and

hS? , U - ? 6re 15 alS ° mU ? h that 15 hfe -g ivin S and di5 tmg If the past is to serve as an inspnation for the future we have

to study it with discrimination and sympathy. Again the

highest achievements of the human mind and spint are not

Wh J*/* gates of the futur « are wide open

While the fundamental motives, the governing id?a S Xch

10

The Principal Upamsads

constitute the essential spirit of our culture are a part of our very being, they should receive changing expression according to the needs and conditions of our time

There is no more inspiring task for the student of Indian thought than to set forth some phases of its spintual wisdom and bring them to bear on our own life Let us, in the words of Socrates, 'turn over together the treasures that wise men have left us, glad if in so doing we make fnends with one another '

The two essays written for the Philosophy of the Upamsads (1924), which is a reprint of chapter IV from my Indian Philo- sophy, Volume I, by Rabindranath Tagore and Edmond Holmes, are to be found m the Appendices A and B respectively

I am greatly indebted to my distinguished and generous friends Professors Sumti Kumar Chatterji, and Siddhesvar Bhattacharya for their great kindness in reading the proofs and making many valuable suggestions

Moscow,

October, 1951

S R.

contents

PACB

Preface 5

Scheme of Transliteration 13

List of Abbreviations X4

Introduction 15

I. General Influence 17

II. The Term 'Upanisad' 19

III. Number, Date and Authorship 20

IV. The Upanisads as the Vedanta 24 V. Relation to the Vedas: The Rg Veda 27

VI. The Yajur, the Sama and the Aiharva 44

Vedas

VII. The Brahmanas 46 VIII. The Aranyakas 47

IX. The Upanisads 48

X, Ultimate Reality: Brahman 52

XI. Ultimate Reality. Atman 73

XII. Brahman as Atman 77

XIII, The Status of the World and the Doc-

trine of Maya and Aviiya 78

XIV. The Individual Self go XV. Knowledge and Ignorance 95

XVI. Ethics 104

XVII Karma and Rebirth tt*

12 The “Principal Upanisads

PAGE

XVIII. Life Eternal 117

XIX. Religion 131

TEXT, TRANSLATION AND NOTES

I . Brhad-aranyaka Upantsad 147

II ' Chdndogya Upamsad 335

III , Attareya Upamsad 513

IV 'TattUrtya Upantsad 525 V *> ha Upamsad 565

VI > Kena Ufantsad 579

VII. (Katha Upantsad 593

VIII. .Prasna Upamsad 649

IX iMundaka Upamsad 669

X 'Mandukya Upamsad 693

XI * Svetaivatara Upamsad 707

XII Kausitakl Brahmana Upamsad 751

XIII Matin Upantsad 793

XIV. iSubala Upantsad 861

XV. Jabala Upamsad 893

XVI Pamgala Upamsad 901

XVII Katvalya Upamsad 925 XVIII . Vajrasiicika. Upamsad 933

Appendices

(a) Rabmdranath Tagore on The Upani- sads 937 (6) Edmond Holmes on The Upanisads 943 Selected Bibliography 949 General Index 951

SCHEME OF TRANSLITERATION Vowels aaiiuurfleaioau

111

h

Consonants

gutturals

k

kh g gh

n

palatals

c

ch j jh

n

cerebrals

t

th 4 4h

n

dentals

t

th d dh

n

labials

P

ph b bh

m

semx-vowch

y

r 1 v

sibilants

s

as in sun

s palatal sibilant pronounced like the soft s of Russian

s cerebral sibilant as in shun aspirate h

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Attareya Upamsad . . . A U

Anandagiri A

Bhagavad-gUa B.G,

Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad . . . B U.

Brahma Sutra . . B S

Chdndogya Upamsad . . C U.

Indian Philosophy by Radhaknshnan I P.

Isa Upamsad Isa

Jabdla Upamsad …. Jabala

Kena Upamsad . . . Kena

Katha Upamsad …. Katha

Kausitakl Upamsad . . K U

Mahabharata …. MB

Maitri Upamsad …. Maitri

Mandukya Upamsad . . . Ma U.

Mundaka Upamsad … M U

Paingala Upamsad . . . Pamgala

Prasna Upamsad …. Prasna

Rangaramanuja R.

Ramamrja's Commentary on the

Brahma Sutra R B.

Ramanuja's Commentary on the

Bhagavad-gitd . . . R B G.

RgVeda . . . . . RV

Samkara 5

Samkara's Commentary on the

Brahma Sutra … SB Samkara's Commentary on the

Bhagavad-gttd . . . . S B G

Subala Upamsad . . . . Subala

Svetdivatara Upamsad . . S U.

Tattttrtya Upamsad TU.

Upam§ad U

Variant V

introduction

I

GENERAL INFLUENCE

The Upamsads represent a great chapter in the history of the human spirit and have dominated Indian philosophy, religion and life for three thousand years. Every subsequent religious movement has had to show itself to be in accord with their philosophical statements Even doubting and denying spirits found m them anticipations of their hesitancies, misgivings and negations. They have survived many changes, religious and secular, and helped many generations of men to formulate their views on the chief problems of life and existence.

Their thought by itself and through Buddhism influenced even m ancient times the cultural life of other nations far beyond the boundaries of India, Greater India, Tibet, China, Japan and Korea and in the South, in Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula and far away m the islands of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans In the West, the tracks of Indian thought may be traced far into Central Asia, where, buried in the sands of the desert, were found Indian texts *

The Upanisads have shown an unparalleled variety of appeal during these long centuries and have been admired by different people, for different reasons, at different periods They are said

” 'For the historian, who pursues the history of human thought, the Upanisads have a yet far greater significance From the mystical doctrines of the Upanisads, one current of thought may be traced to the mysticism of the Persian Sufism, to the mystic, theosophical logos doctrine of the Neo-Platomcs and the Alexandrian Christian mystics, Eckhart and Tauler, and finally to the philosophy of the great German mystic of the nineteenth century, Schopenhauer ' Wmtcmitz: A History of Indian Literature E T Vol I (1927), p 266 See Eastern Religions and Western Thought Second Edition (1940), Chapters IV, V, VI, VII It is said that Schopenhauer had the Latin text of the Upanisads on his table and 'was m the habit, before going to bed, of performing his devotions from its pages ' Bloomfield Religion of the Veda (1908) p s<t 'From every sentence [of the Upanisads], deep original and sublime thoughts arise, and the whole is pervaded by a high and holy and earnest spirit In the whole world . there is no study so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Upanisads They are products of the highest wisdom They are destined sooner or later to become the faith of the people Schopenhauer.

i8 The Principal Uflam$ads

to provide us with a complete chart of the unseen Reality, to give us the most immediate, intimate and convincing light on the secret of human existence, to formulate, m Deussen's words, 'philosophical conceptions unequalled in India or perhaps anywhere else in the world,' or to tackle every funda- mental problem of philosophy 1 All this may be so or may not be so But of one thing there is no dispute, that those earnest spirits have known the fevers and ardours of religious seeking, they have expressed that pensive mood of the thinking mind which finds no repose except in the Absolute, no rest except in the Divine. The ideal which haunted the thinkers of the Upanisads, the ideal of man's ultimate beatitude, the perfection of knowledge, the vision of the Real m which the religious hunger of the mystic for divine vision and the philosopher's ceaseless quest for truth are both satisfied is still our ideal A N. Whitehead speaks to us of the real which stands behind and beyond and within the passing flux of this world, 'some- thing which is real and yet waiting to be realised, something which is a remote possibility and yet the greatest of present facts, something that gives meaning to all that passes, and yet eludes apprehension, something whose possession is the final good, and yet is beyond all reach, something which is the ultimate ideal and the hopeless quest' 2 A metaphysical curiosity for a theoretical explanation of the world as much as a passionate longing for liberation is to be found in the Upanisads Their ideas do not only enlighten our minds but stretch our souls

If the ideas of the Upanisads help us to rise above the glamour of the fleshly life, it is because their authors, pure of soul, ever striving towards the divine, reveal to us their pictures of the splendours of the unseen. The Upanisads are respected not because they are a part of intti or -revealed literature and so hold a reserved position but because they have inspired generations of Indians with vision and strength by their in- exhaustible significance and spiritual power. Indian thought

» Cp W. B Yeats 'Nothing that has disturbed the schools to controversy escaped their notice ' Preface to the Ten Principal Upanisads (1937), P 11

» Science and the Modern World, (1933), p. 238

Introduction

19

has constantly turned to these scriptures for fresh illumination and spiritual recovery or recommencement, and not in vam. The fire still burns bright on their altars. Their light is for the seeing eye and their message is for the seeker after truth 1

II

THE TERM 'UPANISAD'

The word 'upamsad' is dervied from upa (near), ni (down) and sad (to sit), i e. sitting down near. Groups of pupils sit near the teacher to leam from him the secret doctrine In the quietude of forest hermitages the Upanisad thinkers pondered on the problems of the deepest concern and communicated their knowledge to fit pupils near them The seers adopt a certain reticence in communicating the truth They wish to be satisfied that their pupils are spiritually and not carnally minded 5 To respond to spiritual teaching, we require the spiritual disposition

The Upanisads contain accounts of the nvystic significance of the syllable awn, explanations of mystic words like tajjalan, which are intelligible only to the initiated, and secret texts and esoteric doctrines. Upamsad became a name for a mystery, a secret, r ahasyam, communicated only to the tested few 3 Wen

' Tl * artlcle 011 Christian Vedantism, Mr R Gordon Milburn writes Ctestaamfy in India needs the Vedanta We missionaries have not realised this with half the clearness that we should We cannot move freely and joyfully in our own religion; because we have not sufficient termsand modes of expression therewith to express the more immanen-

£ hnstiamty A - Ver y use£ul ste P ^ the recognition of certain books or passages in the literature of the Vedanta as Consti- tuting what might be called an Ethnic Old Testament The nermann of ecclesiastical authont.es could then be asked fo? reaSin™^ found in such a canon of Ethnic Old Testament at divine seraSl with passages from the New Testament as alternates to £L Testament lessons ' Indian Interpreter S» alternatlves to 0Id

+ ,1 P *l ' T ° ^ ^ Father Md M^er of this universe is a hatrt Sie^^i- ^. * U impossible”^ oVSm

™<l«g«hyam, vedagithyopamsaU;it S Sdhafn.SU V 6.

20

The Principal Upamsads

the question of man's final destiny was raised, Yajiiavalkya took his pupil aside and whispered to him the truth. 1 According to the CMndogya Upantsad, the doctrine of Brahman may be imparted by a father to his elder son or to a trusted pupil, but not to another, whoever he may be, even if the latter should give him the whole earth surrounded by the waters and filled with treasures 1 In many cases it is said that the teacher com- municates the secret knowledge only after repeated entreaty and severe testing

Samkara derives the word upantsad as a substantive from the root sad, 'to loosen,' 'to reach' or 'to destroy* with upa and m as prefixes and kmp as termination 3 If this derivation is accepted, upantsad means brahma-knowledge by which ignorance is loosened or destroyed The treatises that deal with brahma-knowledge are called the Upamsads and so pass for the Vedanta The different derivations together make out that the Upamsads give us both spiritual vision and philosophical argument 4 There is a core of certainty which is essentially mcommunicable except by a way of life. It is by a strictly personal effort that one can reach the truth

III

NUMBER, DATE AND AUTHORSHIP

The Upamsads form a literature which has been growing from early times Their number exceeds two hundred, though

guhyalamam Math t VI 29

abhayam vat brahma bhavah ya evam veda, iti rahasyam Nrsxmholiara- tSpani U VIII

d[iarme rahasy itpanisat sySt Amarakosa

upamsadam rahasyam yac cmlyam S on Kena IV 7 The injunction of secrecy about the mysteries reserved for the initiated is found among the Orphics and the Pythagoreans

' B U III 3 13

* III 11 5, BU III 2 13

3 Introduction to the Hatha In his commentary on T U , he says, upantsantiam va asyam param sreya xtt

4 Oldenberg suggests that the real sense of Upantsad is worship or reverence, which the word upSsana signifies UpSsana brings about oneness with the object worshipped See Keith The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and the Upamsads (1925), p 492.

Introduction 21

the Indian tradition puis it at one hundred and eight.' Prince Muhammad Dara Shikoh's collection translated into Persian (1656-1657) and then into Latin by Anquetil Duperron (1801 and 1802) under the title Oupnckhat, contained about fifty. Colebrooke's collection contained fifty-two, and this was based on Narayana's list (c. A d. 1400). The principal Upanisads are said to be ten. Sarhkara commented on eleven, Ua, Kcna, Kalha, Praina, Mundaka, Mandukya, TaillirTya, Aiiarcya, CMndogya, Brhad-dranyaka and Svctahatara He also refers to the Kau§i- takl, Jabala, Mahanarayana and Paingala Upanisads in his Commentary on the Brahma Sutra These together with the MaitrayaqTya or Maxtri Upamsad constitute the principal Upanisads. Ramanuja uses all these Upanisads as also the Subdla and the Cuhka. He mentions also the Garbha, the Jabala and the Malta Upanisads Vidyaranya includes Nm- mhottarec-tdpanl Upanisad among the twelve he explained in his Sarvopamsad-arthdnubhuii-prakaia. The other Upanisads which have come down are more religious than philosophical. They belong more to the Purana and the Tantra than to the Veda. They glorify Vedanta or Yoga or Sarhnyisa or extol the worship of Siva, Sakti or Vi§nu*

1 See the Muktiks U , where it is said that salvation may be attained by a study of the hundred and eight Upanisads I 30-39

» There is, however, considerable argument about the older and more ongpal Upanisads Max Muller translated the eleven Upanisads quoted by Samkara together with Matirayamya Deussen, though he translated no less than sixty, considers that fourteen of them are original and have a connection with Vedic schools Hume translated the twelve which Max Muller selected and added to them the Mandukya. Keith in his Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and the Upanisads includes the Mahanarayana His hst of fourteen is the same as that of Deussen

S? I t tlo

ffi fJS^i 1 Sacre * B ?°£ of«- East, Mead and Chattopadnyaya

f T Kn„ T T h

22

The Principal Upantsads

Modem criticism is generally agreed that the ancient prose Upanisads, Attareya, Kausitaki, Chandogya, Kena, Taitttrlya and Brhad-aranyaka, together with Ida and Katha belong to the eighth and seventh centuries b c They are all pre-Buddhis- tic. They represent the Vedanta in its pure original form and are the earliest philosophical compositions of the world. These Upanisads belong to what Karl Jaspers calls the Axial Era of the world, 800 to 300 b c , when man for the first time simul- taneously and independently in Greece, Chma and India ques- tioned the traditional pattern of life

As almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanisads. Some of the chief doctrines of the Upamsads are associated with the names of renowned sages as Arum, Yajnavalkya, Balaki, SVetaketu, Sandilya They were, perhaps, the early exponents of the doctrines attributed to them The teach- ings were developed in pansads or spiritual retreats where teachers and pupils discussed and defined the different views

As a part of the Veda, the Upanisads belong to srutt or re- vealed literature They are immemorial, sanatana, tuneless Their truths are said to be breathed out by God or visioned by the seers They are the utterances of the sages who speak out of the fullness of their illumined experience They are not reached by ordinary perception, inference or reflection, 1 but seen by the seers, even as we see and not infer the wealth and not of colour m the summer sky The seers have the same sense of assurance and possession of their spiritual vision as we have of our physical perception The sages are men of 'direct' vision, in the words of Yaska, saksat-krta-dharmanah, and the records of their experiences are the facts to be considered by any philo- sophy of religion The truths revealed to the seers are not mere reports of introspection which are purely subjective The inspired sages proclaim that the knowledge they communicate is not what they discover for themselves It is revealed to

commentaries are found in the edition of the Upamsads published by the Pamni Office, Allahabad

1 They are relevant in matters which cannot be reached by perception and inference aprapie iastram artkavat MimamsS Siitra I I 5

Introduction

them without their effort 1 Though the knowledge is an experi- ence of the seer, it is an experience of an independent reality which impinges on his consciousness. There is the impact of the real on the spirit of the expericncer. It is therefore said to be a direct disclosure from the 'wholly other/ a revelation of the Divine Symbolically, the Upanisads describe revelation as the breath of God blowing on us 'Of that great being, this is the breath, which is the Rg Veda.'“- The divine energy is compared to the breath which quickens It is a seed which fertilises or a flame which kindles the human spirit to its finest issues It is interesting to know that the Brhad-aranyaka Upanhad tells us that not only the Vedas but history, sciences and other studies are also 'breathed forth by the great God. '3

The Vedas were composed by the seers when they were in a state of inspiration. He who inspires them is God.< Truth is impersonal, apaurussya and eternal, niiya. Inspiration is a joint activity, of which man's contemplation and God's revelation are two sides The Svet&svalara Upanisad says that the sage SVetasvatara saw the truth owing to his power of contemplation, tapal}-prabhava, and the grace of God, devajrasada.i The dual significance of revelation, its subjective and objective character, is suggested here.

The Upanisads are vehicles more of spiritual Rumination than of systematic reflection. They reveal to us a world of rich and varied spiritual experience rather than a world of abstract

1 puru$a-prayalnath vtna prakatlbhuta S BU.II i io, MO II I.6;R.V.X 90 9- u o j 4 i m ^ e *?aiyayttas maintain that the Vedas were comDocsd by God vrhUe the MimSmsakas bold that they were not coml^S either by man or by God, but have easted from all etaS fo™ of sounds It is perhaps a ray of saving that &e S^SthTS eternity exist from everlasting to everlastirm Arisb3u2L»S iJ? faMMrt truths of rebgKm JL etemS^SS ^

24

The Principal Upanisads

philosophical categories Their truths are verified not only by logical reason but by personal experience. Their aim is prac- tical rather than speculative Knowledge is a means to freedom. Philosophy, biahma-vidya, is the pursuit of wisdom by a way of life.

IV

THE UPANISADS AS THE VEDANTA

The Vedanta meant originally the Upanisads, though the word is now used for the system of philosophy based on the Upanisads Literally, Vcddnia means the end of the Veda, vedasya antah, the conclusion as well as the goal of the Vedas The Upanisads are the concluding portions of the Vedas Chrono- logically they come at the end of the Vedic period As the Upanisads contain abstruse and difficult discussions of ultimate philosophical problems, they were taught to the pupils at about the end of their course When we have Vedic recitations as religious exercises, the end of these recitals is generally from the Upanisads The chief reason why the Upanisads are called the end of the Veda is that they represent the central aim and meaning of the teaching of the Veda 1 The content of the Upanisads is vedanta vijnanam, the wisdom of the Vedanta * The Samhitas and the Brahmanas, which are the hymns and the liturgical books, represent the karma-kanda or the ritual portion, while the Upanisads represent the piana-Mnda or the knowledge portion The learning of the hymns and the per- formance of the rites are a preparation for true enlightenment 3

The Upanisads describe to us the life of spirit, the same yesterday, to-day and for ever. But our apprehensions of the ufe of spirit, the symbols by which we express it, change with

1 hlesu tatlavad vede vedantah su-prattsflntali Mttkhka U I 9 Again, vedB, brahmatma-visaya Bhagavata XI 21 35 Stmmkalva-vidyS-prah- patlaye sarve-vedanta Srabhyante S B Introduction vedanto -nama upamsat pramanam Vedanta-sara

* M U III 2 6 S U speaks of the highest mystery m the Vedanta vedanie paramam guhyam VI 22

3 Much of the material in the C U and B U. belongs properly to the Brahmanas

Introduction 25

time. All systems of orthodox Indian thought accept the authoritativeness of the Vedas, 1 but give themselves freedom in. their interpretation. This variety of interpretation is made possible by the fact that the Upanisads are not the thoughts of a single philosopher or a school of philosophers who follow a single tradition. They are the teachings of thinkers v,ho were interested in different aspects of the philosophical problem, and therefore offer solutions of problems v.hich %ary in their in- terest and emphasis There is thus a certain amount of fluidity in their thought which has been utilised for the development of different philosophical systems. Out of the wealth of sugges- tions and speculations contained in them, different thinkers choose elements for the construction of their own systems, not infrequently even through a straining of the texts. Though the Upanisads do not work out a logically coherent system of metaphysics, they give us a few fundamental doctrines which stand out as the essential teaching of the earlv Upanisads. These are recapitulated in the Brahma Stllra.

The Brahma Sutra is an aphoristic summary of the teaching of the Upanisads, and the great teachers of the Vedanta develop their distinctive views through their commentaries on this work. By interpreting the surras which are laconic in form and hardly intelligible without interpretation, the teachers justify their views to the reasoning intelligence.

Different commentators attempt to find in the Upanisads and the Brahma Sutra a single coherent doctrine, a svstem of thought which is free from contradictions. Bhartrp'rapanca who is anterior to Samkara, maintains that the selves and the physical universe are real, though not altogether different from Brahman. They are both identical with and different from fnS^T *? e * be * consti tating a unitv in diversity Ultimate Reahty evolves into the universal creation srsti and theuniverse . retreats into it at the time of dissolution, pralaya *

The advatta of Samkara insists on the transcendenV Sre

1 Even the Buddhists and -the Tafn-ie .,,.,„-←

1 See Indian Antiquary (1924), pp . 77 _g &

26

The Principal Upamsads

of non-dual Brahman and the duality of the world including Isvara who presides over it Reality is Brahman or Atman No predication is possible of Brahman as predication involves duality and Brahman is free from all duality The world of duality is empirical or phenomenal The saving truth which redeems the individual from the stream of births and deaths is the recognition of his own identity with the Supreme 'That thou art' is the fundamental fact of all existence 1 The multi- plicity of the universe, the unending stream of life, is real, but only as a phenomenon

Ramanuja qualifies the non-dual philosophy so as to make the personal God supreme While Brahman, souls and the world are all different and eternal, they are at the same time in- separable * Inseparability is not identity Brahman is related to the two others as soul to body They are sustained by Him and subject to His control Ramanuja says that while God exists for Himself, matter and souls exist for His sake and sub- serve His purposes The three together form an organic whole Brahman is the inspiring principle of the souls and the world The souls are different from, but not independent of, God They are said to be one only in the sense that they all belong to the same class The ideal is the enjoyment of freedom and bliss in the world of Narayana, and the means to it is either prapattt or bhakti The individual souls, even when they are freed through the influence of then* devotion and the grace of God, retain their separate mdividuahty For him and Madhva, God, the author of all grace, saves those who give to Hun the worship of love and faith

For Madhva there are five eternal distinctions between (i) God and the individual soul, (2) God and matter, (3) soul and matter, (4) one soul and another, (5) one particle of matter and another. The supreme being endowed with all auspicious qualities is called Visnu, and Laksmi is His power dependent on Him Moksa is release from rebirth and residence in the abode of Narayana Human souls are innumerable, and each of them is separate and eternal The divine souls are destined for salvation Those who are neither very good nor very bad

» CU VI. 8 7, B.U. 1. 4. 10.

* a-prihak-siddha

Introduction

27

are subject to samsara, and the bad go to hell. Right knowledge of God and devotion to Him are the means to salvation Without divine grace there can be no salvation 1

Baladeva adopts the iew of actntya-bhedabheda Difference and non-difference are positive facts of experience and yet cannot be reconciled. It is an incomprehensible synthesis of opposites Ramanuja, Bhaskara, Nimbarka and Baladeva believe that there is change m Brahman, but not of Brahman 1

RELATION TO THE VEDAS RG VEDA

Even the most inspired writers are the products of their environment They give voice to the deepest thoughts of their own epoch A complete abandonment of the existing modes of thought is psychologically impossible The writers of the Rg Veda speak of the ancient makers of the path 3 When there is an awakening of the mind, the old symbols are interpreted m a new way.

In pursuance of the characteristic genius of the Indian mind, not to shake the beliefs of the common men, but to lead them on by stages to the understanding of the deeper philosophical meaning behind their beliefs, the Upamsads develop the Vedic ideas and symbols and give to them, where necessary, new meanings which relieve them of their formalistic character Texts from the Vedas are often quoted in support of the teachings of the Upamsads

The thought of the Upamsads marks an advance on the ntuahstic doctrines of the Brahmanas, which are themselves different in spirit from the hymns of the Rg Veda A good deal of tune should have elapsed for this long development. The mass of the Rg Veda must also have takL time to produce!

X l ?T 3 ™ rStbkyah Ptnebhyah patM-krdbhyaf,

B

28

The Principal TJpanisads

especially when we remember that what has survived is probably a small part compared to what has been lost. 1

Whatever may be the truth about the racial affinities of the Indian and the European peoples, there is no doubt that Indo- European languages derive from a common source and illustrate a relationship of mind In its vocabulary and inflexions Sanskrit 1 presents a striking similarity to Greek and Latin Sir William Jones explained it by tracing them all to a common source 'The Sanskrit language,' he said m 1786, m an address to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 'whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure, more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs, and m the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident, so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all without believing them to have sprung from some common source which perhaps no longer exists There is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothic and the Celtic, though blended with a different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit, and the old Persian might be added to the same family '

The oldest Indo-European literary monument is the Rg Veda 3 The word 'Veda,' from vid, to know, means knowledge

1 'We have no right to suppose that we have even a hundredth part of the religious and popular poetry that existed during the Vedic age ' Max Muller St* Systems of Indian Philosophy (1899), p 41

* samskrta perfectly constructed speech

3 'The Veda has a two-fold interest it belongs to the history of the world and to the history of India In the history of the world, the Veda fills a gap which no literary work in any other language could fill It carries us back to times of which we have no records anywhere, and gives us the very words of a generation of men, of whom otherwise we could form but the vaguest estimate by means of conjectures and inferences As long as man continues to take an interest in the history of his race and as long as we collect m libraries and museums the relics of former ages, the first place m that long row of books which contains the records of the Aryan branch of mankind will belong for ever to the Rg Veda ' Max Muller Ancient History of Sanskrit Literature (1859), p 63 The Rg Veda, according to Ragozin 'is, without the shadow of a doubt, the oldest book of the Aryan family of nations ' Vedic India (1895), P rl 4

Winternitz observes 'If we wish to learn to understand the beginnings of our own culture, if we wish to understand the oldest Indo-European

Introduction

29

par excellence, sacred wisdom Science is the knowledge of secondary causes, of the created details; wisdom is the know- ledge of primary causes, of the Uncreated Principle The Veda is not a single literary work like the Bhagavad-gM or a collection of a number of books compiled at some particular time as the Tn-pitaka of the Buddhists or the Bible of the Christians, but a whole literature which arose in the course of centuries and was handed down from generation to generation through oral transmission. When no books were available memory was strong and tradition exact. To impress on the people the need for preserving this literature, the Veda was declared to be sacred knowledge or divine revelation. Its sanctity arose spontaneously owing to its age and the nature and value of its contents. It has since become the standard of thought and feelmg for Indians

The name Veda signifying wisdom suggests a genuine spirit of inquiry. The road by which the Vedic sages travelled was the road of those who seek to inquire and understand. The questions they investigate are of a philosophical character. 'Who, verily, knows and who can here declare it, where it was born and whence comes this creation? The gods are later than this world's production Who knows, then, whence it first came into being?' 1 According to Sayana, Veda is the book which describes the transcendent means for the fulfilment of well- being and the avoidance of evils *

There are four Vedas. the Rg Veda which is mainly composed

culture, we must go to India, where the oldest literature of an Indo- European people is preserved For, whatever view we may adopt on the problem of the antiquity of Indian literature, we can safely say that the oldest monument of the literature of the Indians is at the same tune the oldest monument of Indo-European literature which possess ' A History of Indian Literature, E T. Vol. I (1927), p. 6 See alsoBloomfield: The Religion of the Veda (1908), p 17. He says that the JRg Veda is not only 'the most ancient hterary monument of India' but also 'the most ancient literary document of the Indo-European peoples' 'This literature is earlier than that of either Greece or Israel, and reveals a high level of civilisation among those who found m it the expression of thexr worship 'according to Dr Nicol Macnicol See his Hindi (Scriptures (1938), p Xrv r ' X rag

30

The Principal Upamsads

of songs of praise , the Yajur Veda, which deals with sacrificial formulas, the Soma Veda which refers to melodies, and the Atharva Veda, which has a large number of magic formulas Each contains four sections consisting of (1) Samhita or collec- tion of hymns, prayers, benedictions, sacrificial formulas and litanies, (n) Brahmanas or prose treatises discussing the significance of sacrificial rites and ceremonies, (in) Aranyakas or forest texts, which are partly included in the Brahmanas and partly reckoned as independent, and (iv) Upamsads

Veda denotes the whole literature made up of the two portions called Mantra and Brahmana 1 Mantra is derived by Yaska from manana, thinking s It is that by which the contemplation of God is attempted Brahmana deals with the elaboration of worship into ritual Parts of Brahmanas are called Aranyakas Those who continue their studies without marrying are called aranas or aranamanas They lived m hermitages or forests The forests where aranas (ascetics) live are aranyas Their speculations are contained in Aranyakas

Yaska refers to different interpretations of the Vedas by the ritualists (ydjmkas), the etymologists (nairuktas) and mytholo- gists (aiUhasikas) The Brhad-devatd which comes after Yaska's Ntrukta also refers to various schools of thought in regard to Vedic interpretations It mentions atma-vddms or those who relate the Vedas to the psychological processes

The Rg Veda, which comprises 1,017 hymns divided into ten books, represents the earliest phase m the evolution of religious consciousness where we have not so much the com- mandments of priests as the outpourings of poetic mmds who were struck by the immensity of the universe and the in- exhaustible mystery of life The reactions of simple yet unsophisti- cated minds to the wonder of existence are portrayed m these joyous hymns which attribute divinity to the striking aspects of nature We have worship of devas,3 deities like Surya (sun),

1 mantra-brahmanayor veia namadheyam Apastamba m Yajna-pan- bhas a

* Nmtkta VII 3 6

3 The devas are, according to Amara, the immortals, amarah, free from old age, mrjarah, the evershimng ones, devah, heavenly beings, tndaiSh. the knowing ones, vibudhah, and gods or deities, surah

Introduction

31

Soma (moon), Agni (fire), Dyaus (sky), Prthivi (earth), 1 Maruts (storm winds), Vayu (wind), Ap (water), Usas (dawn). Even deities whose names are no longer so transparent were originally related to natural phenomena such as Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Aditi, Visnu, Pusan, the two Asvms, Rudra and Parjanya Qualities which emphasise particular important aspects of natural phenomena attained sometimes to the rank of inde- pendent deities 1 Savitr, the inspirer or the hfe-giver, Vivasvat, the shining, were at first attributes and names of the Sun but later became independent Sun-gods Some of the deities wor- shipped by the different tribes were admitted into the Vedic pantheon Pusan, originally the Sun-god of a small shepherd tribe, becomes the protector of travellers, the god who knows all the paths. Some deities have their basis m abstract qualities such as sraddha, faith, vianyu, anger.3 We also come across Rbhus, or elves, Apsaras or nymphs, Gandharvas or forest or field spirits.4 Asm as who become the enemies of the gods in the later Vedic works retain in the JRg Veda the old meaning of 'possessors of wonderful power' or 'God' which the corre- sponding word Ahura has in the Avcsta 5

1 In Greek mythology Zeus as sky-father is m essential relation to earth mother See A B Cook Zeus (1914) I, p 779

' The ancient Greeks advanced the natural elements into cods by deifying their attributes Apollo shone in the sun Boreas howled in the &und«bolt laStS Ze ” S threatened m the hgMnmg and struck in the

I ™ 6S £ J m r i n the latest h y mns of the tenth bo <* of *e He Veda 1 The Vedic Indians were not phallus worshippers Siina-dcvali (R V

«. * 5 ; 3 ' does not mean P h allus-worshippers YSska savs

afrahmacaryaUy arlhah Though it is a bahuvrihi compound inZ those whose deity is phallus, the word 'deva' is toW^a^T^ ™™^^,laksya rtha Jt means those ™ho L adSctS tosex life

*1t '^tS^tnS^f th S™^™ of sex and stomach • mJl^^^^I^; ^ch « the ~ of the of Islam, flS^dwfc ^^^“^ The Mushms of Be™! tend tn^J? gW are not ^^ther effaced, are capabkfo la v^ S ^%°V^ ® urSn wluch

32

The. Principal Upam$ads

Varuna, a god common both to the Indians and the Iranians, regulates the course of the sun and the sequence of the seasons He keeps the world in order and is the embodiment of truth and order which are binding on mankind He protects moral laws and punishes the sinful The Vedic Indians approach Varuna in trembling and fear and m humble reverence and ask for forgiveness of sms 1 Indra, who is a long among the gods, occupying the position of Zeus in the Greek Olympus, is mvoked by those who are fighting and struggling Agni is the mediator between men and gods The hymns speak of him as a dear fnend, the master of the house, grha-pah He bears the sacrificial offerings to the gods and brings the gods down to

an ancient dynasty and a venerable religion, a change, apparently almost unparalleled in history, was in the course of a few years brought over the land Where for centuries the ancient hymns of the Avesta had been chanted and the sacred fire had burned, the cry of the Mu'ezzin sum- moning the faithful to prayer rang out from minarets reared on the ruins of the temples of Ahura Mazda The priests of Zoroaster fell by the sword, the ancient books perished in the flames, and soon none were left to represent a once mighty faith but a handful of exiles flying towards the shores of India and a despised and persecuted remnant in solitary Yezd and remote Kirman Yet, after all, the change was but skin deep and soon a host of heterodox sects born on Persian soil — Shi'ites, Sufis, Ismailis and philosophers arose to vindicate the claim of Aryan thought to be free and to transform the religion forced on the nation by Arab steel into something which, though still wearing a semblance of Islam, had a significance widely different from that which one may fairly suppose was intended by the Arabian prophet ' A Year amongst the Persians (1927), p 134

1 Varuna becomes Ahura Mazda (Ormuzd), the supreme God and Creator of the world In one of those conversations with Zoroaster which embody the revelation that was made to him, it is recorded, Ahura says, 'I maintain that sky there above, shining and seen afar and encompas- sing the earth all round It looks like a palace that stands built of a heavenly substance firmly established with ends that he afar, shining, m its body of ruby over the three worlds, it is like a garment inlaid with stars made of a heavenly substance that Mazda puts on * Yasht XIII Like Varuna, who is the lord of rta, Ahura is the lord of asa As Varuna is closely allied with Mtlra, so is Ahura with Mtlhra, the sun-god Avesta knows Verethragna who is Vrtrahan, the slayer of Vftra Dyaus, Apamnapat (Apam Napat), Ga-ndharva (Gandarewa), Krianu (Keresani), Vayu (Vayu), Yama, son of Vtvasvant (Yima, son of Vivanhvant) as well as Yajiia (Yasna), Hotr (Zaotar), Atharva priest (Athravan) These point to the common religion of the undivided Indo- Aryans and Iranians

In the later Avesta, the supreme God is the sole creator but his attri- butes of the good spirit, righteousness, power, piety, health and immor- tality become personified as 'the Immortal Holy Ones.'

Introduction

33

the sacrifice. He is the wise one, the chief priest, purohita, Mitra is the god of light. When the Persians first emerge into history, Mitra is the god of light who drives away darkness. He is the defender of truth and justice, the protector of righteous- ness, the mediator between Ahura Mazda and man 1

Mitra, Varuna and Agni are the three eyes of the great illuminator Sun. 1 Aditi is said to be space and air, mother, father and son She is all comprehending 3 Deities presiding over groups of natural phenomena became identified The vanous Sun-gods, Siirya, Savitr, Mitra and Visnu tended to be looked upon as one. Agni (Fire) is regarded as one deity with three forms, the sun or celestial fire, lightning or atmospheric fire and the earthly fire manifest in the altar and m the homes of men.

Again, when worship is accorded to any of the Vedic deities, we tend to make that deity, the supreme one, of whom all others are forms or manifestations He is given all the attributes of a monotheistic deity. As several deities are exalted to this first place, we get what has been called henotheism, as distinct from monotheism. There is, of course, a difference between a psycho- logical monotheism where one god fills the entire life of the worshipper and a metaphysical monotheism. Synthesising processes, classification of gods, simplification of the ideas of divine attributes and powers prepare for a metaphysical unity, the one principle informing all the deities.i The supreme

1 Mithraism is older than Christianity by centuries The two faiths •were in acute rivalry until the end of the third century a D The form of the Chnstian Eucharist is very like that of the followers of Milfaa s attain devdnam nd agad amkam caksur mihasya varunasyagnch SprS dyava prthivi antanksam siirya atma jagatas tasthusas ca

RV I 151 i

3 adtttr dyaur adtttr antanksam, adtttr mdta, sa pita, sa puirah vtive-deva adilih paiica-jana

adtttr jatant, adittr jamtvavi. RV I 89 10. For Anaximander, the boundless and undifferentiated substance which fills the universe and is the matrix m which our world is formed, is theos. * mahad devdnam asuratvam eham RV III 55 11. 'One fire burns in many ways- one sun illumines the universe, one divine dispels all darkness He alone has revealedhimself mallthesefonns.' eka evagntr bahudlia samiddha ekah suryo vi&vam ami prabhUtah ekaivosah sarvam tdam vibh&ty ekam vatdam vt babhuva sarvam R V VIII 58 2

34

The Principal Upam$ads

is one who pervades the whole universe He is gods and men. 1

The Vedic Indians were sufficiently logical to realise that the

attributes of creation and rulership of the world could be

granted only to one being We have such a being in Praja-pati,

the lord of creatures, Visva-karman, the world-maker Thus the

logic of religious faith asserts itself in favour of monotheism

This tendency is supported by the conception of rta or order.

The universe is an ordered whole; it is not disorderliness

(akosmia) * If the endless variety of the world suggests

numerous deities, the unity of the world suggests a unitary

conception of the Deity

If philosophy takes its rise in wonder, if the impulse to it

is m scepticism, we find the beginnings of doubt m the Rg

Veda It is said of Indra 'Of whom they ask, where is he' Of

him indeed they also say, he is not '3 In another remarkable

hymn, the priests are invited to offer a song of praise to Indra,

'a true one, if in truth he is, for many say, “There is no Indra,

who has ever seen him? To whom are we to direct the song

of praise ? ” '4 When reflection reduced the deities who were

once so full of vigour to shadows, we pray for faith 'O Faith,

endow us with belief 's Cosmological thought wonders whether

speech and air were not to be regarded as the ultimate essence

of all things 6 In another hymn Pra]a-pati is praised as the

creator and preserver of the world and as the one god, but

the refrain occurs in verse after verse 'What god shall we

honour by means of sacnfice ? '7 Certainty is the source of

inertia m thought, while doubt makes for progress

Agni, kindled m many places, is but one, One the all-pervading Sun, One the Dawn, spreading her light over the earth All that exists is one, whence is produced the whole world

See also X 8i 3

1 yo nah pita jamia yo vidhata dhamam veda bhuvanam visva yo devanam namadha eka eva tarn samprasnam bhuvana yanty anya

RV X 82 3

J See Plato Gorgias 507 E

S II 12 4 VIII 100, 3 if 5 X. 151 5

* Germ of the world, the deities' vital spirit, This god moves ever as his will inclines him His voice is heard, his shape is ever viewless Let us adore this air with our oblation X 168 4

1 hasmai devaya havisa vidhemal X 121

Introduction

35

The most remarkable account of a superpersonal monism is to be found in the hymn of Creation 1 It seeks to explain the universe as evolving out of One. But the One is no longer a god like Indra or Varuna, Praja-pati or Viiva-karman. The hymn declares that all these gods are of late or of secondary origin. They know nothing of the beginning of things. The first principle, that one, tad ekam, is uncharacterisable. It is without qualities or attributes, even negative ones To apply to it any description is to limit and bind that which is limitless and boundless. 1 'That one breathed breathless. There was nothing else ' It is not a dead abstraction but indescribable perfection of being Before creation all this was darkness shrouded in darkness, an impenetrable void or abyss of waters,3 until through the power of tapasfi or the fervour of austerity, the One evolved into determinate self-conscious being. He becomes a creator by self-limitation. N thing outside himself can limit him. He only can limit himself. He does not depend on anything other than himself for his manifestation. This power of

1 X “9 i SeeBU ni 9 26

3 Cp Genesis I. 2, -where the Spurt of God is said to mo e on the face of the -waters, and the Puranic description of Visr.u as resting on the Serpent Infinite in the milky ocean. Homer's Iltad speaks of Oceanos as 'the source of all things' including even the gods 14, 246, 302 Manv others, North American Indians, Aztecs, etc , have such a belief

According to Anstotie, Thales considered that all things were made of water. The Greeks had a myth of Father-Ocean as the origin of all things

Cp Nrsimha-purua-tapanX D'.I 1. 0 '

apo va idam asan sahlam era, sa praja-paiir ehah pushara-barr.e samabhavat, tiuySntor manasi hSmah samavariata mam srjeyam iti

All this remained as water along (without any form). Only PraiS-aiti came to be in the lotas leaf. In his mind arose fie desrre, “lit me'crSte this (the world of names and forms).” create

Two explanations are offered for the presence of identical symbols used m an identical manner in different parts of the world V. T PerrvandhS

S,^f^ at ^ myths »dj*a*°Is ™» derived orTSyS Egyptian culture which once spread over the world, Ieavin» behmd theS yestigeswhenitreceded This theory does not bear clcS e^Son^ .snot widely held The other expiration is that h2Stw much the same the world over, their minds are similarly consbS their experience of life under primitive condifaonsX^ SviT^ part of the world to another and it * not^SatSfS regarding the origin and nature of the world arSdlr^oSv

< /«M Orally means heat, creative heat by whTdTth J fhr^A 1, produces life from the egg ^ ctt tbe brood hen

B*

36

The Principal Upamsads

actuabsation is given the name of maya in later Vedanta, for the manifestation does not disturb the unity and integrity of the One The One becomes manifested by its own intrinsic power, by its iapas. The not-self is not independent of the self It is the avyakta or the unmamfested While it is dependent on the Supreme Self, it appears as external to the individual ego and is the source of its ignorance The waters represent the unformed non-being in which the divine lay concealed in darkness We have now the absolute in itself, the power of self-limitation, the emergence of the determinate self and the not-self, the waters, darkness, para-prakrti. The abyss is the not-self, the mere potentiality, the bare abstraction, the receptacle of all developments The self-conscious being gives it existence by impressing his forms or Ideas on it The unmamfested, the indeterminate receives determinations from the self-conscious Lord. It is not absolute nothing, for there is never a state in which it is not in some sense. 1 The whole world is formed by the union of being and not-being and the Supreme Lord has facing him this ^determination, this aspiration to existence 2 Rg Veda describes not-being (asaf) as ljrag 'with outstretched

» See Patngala U I 3

In the Puranas, this idea is variously developed Brahma Purana makes out that God first created the waters which are called nara and released his seed into them, therefore he is called Narayana The seed grew into a golden egg from which Brahma was horn of his own accord and so is called svayambhtt Brahma divided the egg into two halves, heai en and earth I 1 38 ff

The Brahmanda Purara says that Brahma, known as NSrayana, rested on the surface of the waters

Vidyaranya on MahanSrayana U. III. 16 says nara-ianranam upadara-riipai y anr.adi-paiica-bhfitant nara-iabdenocyante, le$u hhulesu yS Spa tnukhySh la ayanam adharo yasya visnoh so'yam itarayanah samudra-jala-iuy t

Cp apo nara tli proktd apo vat nara-siirtavah

ayaram tasya tah proktas Icr.a narayanas smrtah

The 1'tsru-dharn'oltara says that Visnu created the waters and the creation of the egg and Brahma, took place afterwards

1 Speaking of Boehme's mystic philosophy which influenced William Lau, Stephen Hobhouse writes that he beheies 'in the Ungmnd, the fathomless abyss of freedom or indifference, which is at the root, so to speak, of God and of all existences . the idea of the mighty but blind face of Desire that arises out of this abyss and by means of imagination shapes itself into a purposeful will which is the heart of the Divine personality ' Sel'cled Mystical Wnltrgs of Willtam l*w (1948}, p 307

Introduction 37

feet' like a woman in the throes of childbirth 1 As the first product of the divine mind, the mind's first fruit, came forth Mma, desire, the cosmic will, which is the primal source of all existence. In this hama, 'the wise searching m their hearts, have by contemplation (mismija), discovered the connection between the existent and the non-existent' s . The world is created by the personal self-conscious God who acts by his intelligence and will

This is how the Vedic seers understood in some measure how they and the whole creation arose. The writer of the hymn has the humility to admit that all this is a surmise, for it is not possible for us to be sure of things which lie so far beyond human knowledges

This hymn suggests the distinction between the Absolute Reality and Personal God, Brahman and Uvara, the Absolute beyond being and knowledge, the super-personal, super-essential godhead in its utter transcendence of all created beings and its categories and the Real manifested to man in terms of the highest categories of human experience. Personal Being is treated as a development or manifestation of the Absolute.

In another hymn/ the first existent being is called Praja-pati, facing the chaos of waters. He impregnates the waters and becomes manifest in them m the form of a golden egg or germ, from which the whole universe develops.5 He is called the one

1 I. io. 72.

» Kama becomes defined later as ice/ia, desire and knya, action It is the creative urge

Cp with Kama the Orphic god. Eros, also called Phanes, who is the pnnciple of generation by whom the whole world is created.

♦k!L*L * *v iS 3 2 ' where wnter “W he wh ° made all this does not probably know its real nature

•He, the first ongin of this creation, whether he formed it

all or did not form it. Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven He, venly, knows it, or perhaps he knows not ' 4 1 xo m X 129 7 ET by MaxMuller.

3R Tlx Principal Ufiav.iftt<te

life or soul of Hip n'”'*' (dfranaw aiitli) « Htranva-^athfsa is Htr first born clt'tcriniiintfi M-.tent whil” !itahnutn-l 'ivani , Absolute - God is in tlu» nuliu of thi it.iriM < iuh itl J 11k* u-otM is <it'l |« be a piojtrttim, < mission or » .b*iit ligation of t li*- M'.il b inc of (iod, of tlx ctcrn.il ord< r wlmh t. ' l< m.illy }»:* ■■ nt in (h* divine wisdom

“J In- I'uniftt Sft/lif' npt.its m <ori(r<t< f»im th> id< ,d of a pnmcv.il hi iiii{ fistirij: In fore inv d< t< rmm.'tt i Mst« nci* ;mrl evolving hnnv If m the « nipmcd rmiv<r” Th* b-iiit; is fori-

nccorduif; to somt nrrmtnt , ft hunu'l f rV - Iim* ff liro'”> , Thr vir, tliwdi (1 inln two InKr lb urn. nut t i'th sln< v'!_, tlr-ur'i ml 1'artli .in thr- l'Mlcr iwl lnlh< r n( all lif' ttt p! ^ t> s! tr'in- tic tijij“-” Inlfoftht ' f*r» form* llii doiicnf tlcf t rip !■> • » r ronton t m'>' turr- or slum from wliuh tie ttrv I mil (I itthj ani <• V 'vcm ruth ni'd lienii ii npinirr ft n unii;rst puit »ml h'> !• > i> rti inv u ii.i-

ns Phnnt , ) % ro , ^tt-ti J ri< ij> > n . r'i I tc Inn' <>t tl i -pot. jrt which sc t wis as cl untlifli n nti iW, v i t'i |vnT.it«* lie ntlW bv tic immtiltntr piojiUion «>f •>..[ f«>nj it Mi nt In uniting tie- mirfcrrtl parents, Htist'ii mil 1“ irih in m irri if IU> ui: prw/ r tr Mir. r -nr pursnf suproim f;i>ds On'mu-i.ui'l Ii tli ( iirriti”i»t*t<l Jth> i /n“ fat Jltrji ' Can.bndfe tvtirnt tts'ten. IV (|<»2M. p st'>

Ati.iMinatidcr tlt-idnp. .1 ahrmr MtmUr to tic Hrpliii. cniino'np} (i) I here is ,-i priin.il iindiiiirtnti.-ttttl timu, (-•) ”-pir.iii“-! «f opjw,.tr'. in pairs to form the v.nrUUirtl«r () n union of tip *<iunil«n I op^'Urt to generate life 'this form i« It r. statnl In t uripitl' (Mrianpp*. Fragment |8,|) ' J hi tile is not mint. I hitl it from mi niriihrr tint Heaen and I .irth urn on< com form, and v ?i' n thf li itl l»c-n •■imdcn d from one another, ihe tnrth to all thmp .itwl h'tmcht t!i> m up into the liRhl '

' It is quite possibk that the S”nukha ^ Um n oVvelnprtunt from the ideis stiKK^Ud in this !i inn Prmutui in tltt r (u.ntt rs) is sud to be tsistent indipendentK and frutu^t fir→i conn . into dr-tennm-ite conscioiisiiess in jntellijjince [tntl.at or fmlilli), which is .1 pnyluct of matter (aiyaftla)

5 ho dadar<a pralhamnn. jSyamiirtm asll tin ar'atr 3 .!</ anaslhS bibharti bhiimya asittstgutnta /.nt sul ho t sdi Hiiii'int up'ifi'il ptattumetat RV 1 i0( }

This distinction which becomes esfibhshul in the IJpiiunrts has its parallels in other historical dcelopments Cp tin three Bodies of the Buddha, Dhatmahaya or the Absolute Htnlitj. Sambhogakfoa, the personal God or the Logos and NtttnSnahuya or“ the historical embodi- ment of the I ogos in a niatcnal body born into the world at n given moment of lime See I P Vol I, pp 507-9 I he Sulis regard Al Haqq as the Absolute Reality, the abyss of godhead, Allah as the personal Lord, and Muhammad the prophet as the historical embodiment 3 R V X 90.

Introduction 39

ceived as a cosmic person with a thousand heads, eyes and feet, who filled the whole universe and extended beyond it, by the length of ten fingers, 1 the universe being constituted by a fourth of his nature 1 The world form is not a complete expres- sion or manifestation of the divine Reality, It is only a fragment of the divine that is manifested in the cosmic process The World-soul is a partial expression of the Supreme Lord.

Creation is interpreted in the Vedas as development rather than the bringing into being something not hitherto existent. The first principle is manifested m the whole world. Pttntm by his sacrifice becomes the whole world. This view prepares for the development of the doctrine which is emphasised in the Upanisads that the spirit m man is one with the spirit which is the pmts of the world

Within this world we have the one positive principle of being and yet have varying degrees of existence marked by varying degrees of penetration or participation of nonentity by divine being God as Hn avya-garbha is nothing of the already made. He is not an ineffective God who sums up m himself all that is given

Rg Veda used two different concepts, generation and birth, and something artificially produced to account for creation Heaven and earth are the parents of the gods; or the Creator of the world is a smith or a carpenter.

Again 'In the beginning was the golden germ From his birth he was sole lord of creation. He made firm the earth and this bright sky;'3

In this hymn Pra ]a -pati, the lord of offspring, assumes the name of Hiravya-garbJia, the golden germ, and m the Atharva Veda and later literature Hiranya-garbha himself becomes a supreme deity 4 The Rg Veda is fatmhar with the four-fold distinction of (i) the Absolute, the One, beyond all dualities and

» sa bhumim mhato vrlvd aty atisthad daiangulam I 4 « S Z a mivS bhm ™ tnpadasyamrlam dim.

3 -K V X 121 I

40

The Principal Upamsads

distinctions, (h) the self-conscious Subject confronting the object, (m) the World-soul, and (iv) the world 1

The monistic emphasis led the Vedic thinkers to look upon the Vedic deities as different names of the One Universal Godhead, each representing some essential power of the divine being ' They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agm He is the heavenly bird Garutmat To what is one, the poets give many a name They call it Agm, Yama, Matansva '» The real that lies behind the tide of temporal change is one, though we speak of it m many ways Agm, Yama, etc , are symbols They are not gods m themselves They express different qualities of the object worshipped. The Vedic seers were not conscious of any iconoclastic mission They did not feel called upon to denounce

* This list finds a parallel, as we shall see, in the hierarchy of being given in the Ma U with its four grades of consciousness, the waking or the perceptual, the dreaming or the imaginative, the self in deep sleep or the conceptual, the turiya or the transcendent, spiritual consciousness which is not so much a grade of consciousness as the total consciousness

Plato m the Ttmaeus teaches that the Supreme Deity, the Demi-urge, creates a universal World-Soul, through which the universe becomes an organism The World-Soul bears the image of the Ideas, and the world- body is fashioned m the same pattern If the whole world has not been ordered as God would have desired, it is due to the necessity which seems to reside in an intractable material, which was in 'disorderly motion' before the Creator imposed form on it

* I 164 46 ekamsantambahudhakalpayanh EV X 114 4 See B G X 41

Zeus is the supreme ruler of gods and men , other gods exist to do his bidding

Cp Cicero 'God being present everywhere m Nature, can be regarded in the field as Ceres; or on the sea as Neptune, and elsewhere in a variety of forms in all of which He may be worshipped De Nature Deorum

For Plutarch and Maximus of Tyre, the different gods worshipped m the third century Roman Empire were symbolic representations of a Supreme God who is unknowable m his inmost nature

“God himself, the father and fashioner of all is unnameable by any lawgiver, unutterable by any voice, not to be seen by any eye But if a Greek is stirred to the remembrance of God by the art of Phidias, an Egyptian by paying worship to animals, another man by a river, another by fire, I have no anger for their divergence, only let them know, let them love, let them remember '

In the Taitiiriya Samhtta and Saiapalha Brahmana, it is said that Praja-pati assumed certain forms of fish (matsya), tortoise (kiirma) and boar (varaha) for the attainment of certain ends When the doctrine of avataras, incarnations, becomes established, these three become the incarnations of Visnu

Introduction

4i

the worship of the various deities as disastrous error or mortal sin They led the worshippers of the many deities to the worship of the one and only God by a process of reintcrpretation and reconciliation

The reaction of the local cults on the Vedic faith is one of the many causes of variety of the Vedic pantheon. People in an early stage of culture are so entirely steeped in the awe and reverence which have descended to them that they cannot easily or heartily adopt a new pattern of worship. Even when militant religions fell the tall trees of the forest, the ancient beliefs remain as an undergrowth. The catholic spirit of Hinduism which we find m the Rg Veda has always been ready to give shelter to foreign beliefs and assimilate them in its own fashion. While prefemng their own, the Vedic Indians had the strength to comprehend other peoples' ways.

There is no suggestion in the Rg Veda of the illusory character of the empirical world We find varied accounts of creation. The Supreme is compared to a carpenter or a smith who fashions or smelts the world into being Sometimes he is said to beget all beings He pervades all things as air or ether (akdsa) pervades the universe. He animates the world as the life-breath tyrana) animates the human body, a comparison which has been developed with remarkable ingenuity by Ramanuja.

Rg Veda raises the question of the nature of the human self, ko nu atma 1 It is the controller of the body, the unborn part, ajo bhagah 1 , which survives death. It is distinguished from the fiva or the individual souD The famous verse of the two birds dwelling in one body, which is taken up by the Upanisads,4 distinguishes the individual soul which enjoys the fruits of actions from the spirit which is merely a passive spectators This distinction between the individual soul and the supreme self is relevant to the cosmic process and is not applicable to the supreme supra-cosmic transcendence. Those who think that the distinction is to be found in the Supreme Transcendence

I 164 4 » x. 16. 4.

3 1 X13 161 1 164. 30.

< SeeM.U III 1 i.SU. IV 6.

5 I 164 17 atra laukika-pahsa-dvaya-drsfantena liva-paramalmanau stuyele Sayana

42

The Principal Upam§ads

do not know their own origin, pitaram na veda 1 The individual souls belong to the world of Hiranya-garbha

'Let this mortal clay (self) be the immortal god '- 'Vouchsafe, 0 Indra, that we may be you '3 One can become a devata, a deity, by one's own deeds 4 The arm of the Rg Veda is to become like gods The individual soul can become the Universal Spirit

The way to spiritual attainment is through worships and moral life Vestiges of Yoga discipline are found in a late passage 5 which describes the kesins or the long-haired ascetics with their yogic powers that enabled them to move at will in space Of a mum, it is said that his mortal body men see but he himself fares on the path of the faery spirits His hair is long and his soiled garments are of yellow hue Vamadeva when he felt the unity of all created things with his own self exclaimed 'I am Manu, I am Swya '7 So also King Trasadasyu said that he was Indra and the great Varuna 8

The cardinal virtues are emphasised 'O Mitra and Varuna, by your pathway of truth may we cross '9 Mere memorising of the hymns is of no avail if we do not know the Supreme which sustains all 10

Primitive societies are highly complicated structures,

1 yasmm vrkse madhvadah suparna tiwihanie suvate cadhi viive tasyed iihuh pippalam khadv agre tan nonnaiad yah pitaram na veda

RV I 164 az

* RV VIII 19 25

3 tvc mdtapy abhuma vipia dlnyam vawina rtaya sapamtah. RV II n 12

TU II 8

5 The solitary reference to a temple ismKV X 107 10 where the sord dcva-mana, building of a god, occurs

6 RV X 136 See also Altai eya Brahmana VII 13

7 aham manur abhavam sfttyai caham R V IV 26 1

8 aham lajd varuno RV IV 42 2

9 xtasya pathii vam tatcma VII 65 3

”> tco ahsarc parame vyoman yasmm devil adhi uisuc mscduh yas tarn na veda kirn kamyati ya it tad vidus ta wie samiisatc

RV X 164 39

SceSU IV 8

Inlroduclioii

43

balanced social organisations w ith their systems of belief and codes of behaviour. The fundamental needs of society are the moral and the spiritual, the military and the economic. In Indo-European society these three functions are assigned to three different groups, the men of learning and virtue, the men of courage and fight, and the men who provide the economic needs, 1 the Brahmana, the Ksitnya and the Vai£ya. Below them were the Sudras de oted to sen ice. These distinctions are found in the Rg Veda, though they are not crystallised into castes. Ancient Iranian society was constituted on a similar pattern

Even the gods were classified into the Brahmana, the IOatnya and the Vaisya according to the benefits which they provide, moral, military or economic Our prayers are for righteousness, victory and abundance Siirya, Savitr are gods who confer spiritual benefits. Indra is a war god and A£vms give us health and food. In Roman mythology Jupiter provides spiritual benefits, Mars is the god of war and Quinnus is the god of plenty.

Piiatas or fathers or ancestral spirits receive divine worship. The king of the ancestral spirits who rules m the kingdom of the deceased is Yama, a god who belongs to the Indo-Iraman period He is identical with Yima of the Avcsta, who is the first human being, the primeval ancestor of the human race As the first one to depart from this world and enter the realm of the dead, he became its king The kingdom of the dead is in heaven, and the dying man is comforted by the belief that after death he will abide with King Yama in the highest heaven The world of heaven is the place of refuge of the departed * In the funeral hymn,3 the departing soul is asked to 'go forth along the ancient pathway by which our ancestors have departed' The Vedic Heaven is desenbed in glowing terms 'where inexhaustible radiance dwells, where dwells the King Vaivasvata '3

There is no reference to rebirth in the Rg Veda, though its elements are found The jpassage of the soul from the body, its dwelling m other forms of existence, its return to human

1 Luther felt that three classes were ordained by God, the teaching ciass the class of defenders and the working class.

3 RV x *4 3 R.V.IX 113

44

The Principal Upamsads

form, the determination of future existence by the principle of Karma are all mentioned Mitra is born again 1 The Dawn (Usas) is bom again and again* 'I seek neither release nor return 's 'The immortal self will be reborn m a new body due to its meritorious deeds '« Sometimes the departed spirit is asked to go to the plants and 'stay there with bodies '5 There is retribution for good and evil deeds in a life after death Good men go to heaven 6 and others to the world presided over by Yama 7 Their work (dharma) decided their future 8

In the Rg Veda we find the first adventures of the human mind made by those who sought to discover the meaning of existence and man's place in life, 'the first word spoken by the Aryan man '9

VI

THE YAJUR, THE SAJIA AND THE ATHARVA VEDAS

Sacred knowledge is irayl vidyd It is three-fold, being the knowledge of the Rg, the Yajur and the Soma Vedas The two latter use the hymns of the Rg and the Athana Vcdas and arrange them for purposes of ntual The aim of the Yajur Veda is the correct performance of the sacrifice to which is attributed the “whole control of the universe Deities are of less importance than the mechanism of the sacrifice In the Aiharca Veda the position of the deities is still less important A certain aversion to the recognition of the Atharva Veda as a part of the sacred canon is to be noticed Even the old Buddhist texts speak of learned Brahrnanas versed in the three Vedas 10

1 mitro jayate punah X 85 19

- punah ptmar jayamana I 92 10

3 na asyah lasmi vimucam na avriam punah V 46 1 * jivo mrtasya caratt svadhabhir amartyo marlyena sa yomh

I 164 30, see also I 164 38

sKV X 16 3

* I 154 5 1 X 14 2 8 X 16 3

5 Max Muller For further information on the R V. see I P Vol I, Ch n

10 Sulta Ktpata 1019

Introduction

45

Though we meet in the Atharva Veda many of the gods of the Rg Veda, their characters are not so distinct. The sun becomes rohita, the ruddy one. A few gods arc exalted to the position of Prajl-pati, Dhatr (Established, Vidhultr (arranger). Paramesthin (he that is in the highest). In a notable passage the Supreme in the form of Varuna is described as the universal, omnipresent witness. 1 There are references to kala or time as the first cause of all existence, kama or desire as the force behind the evolution of the universe, skambha or support who is conceived as the principle on which everything rests. Theories tracing the world to water or to air as the most subtle of the physical elements are to be met with.

The religion of the Atharva Veda reflects the popular belief m numberless spirits and ghosts credited with functions con- nected in various ways with the processes of nature and the life of man.* We see in it strong evidence of the vitality of the pre-Vedic animist religion and its fusion with Vedic beliefs. All objects and creatures are either spirits or are animated by spirits While the gods of the Rg Veda are mostly friendly ones we find in the Atharva Veda dark and demoniacal powers which bring disease and misfortune on mankind We have to win them by flattering petitions and magical rites We come across spells and incantations for gaining worldly ends. The Vedic seer was loth to let the oldest elements disappear without trace. Traces of the influence of the Atharva Veda are to be found in the Upanisads There are spells for the healing of diseases, bhai$ajyani, for life and healing ayusyani suktani. These were the beginnings of the medical science 3

The liberated soul is described as 'free from desire, wise, immortal, self-born . . . not deficient in any respect . . . wise, unageing, young M

f”?^ samnistdhya yau mantmyete raja tad veda varunah trtlyalj.

3 U. VI 4 we read of devices for securing the love of iestructaon of the lover of a wife See also K U. • X. 8 44,

a woman or

46

The Pnnctpal Upamwds

VII .

THE BRAHMANAS

The elements of the ritualistic cult found m the Vedas are developed in the Brahmanas into an elaborate system of ceremonies While in the Hg Veda the sacrifices are a means for the propitiation of the gods, in the Brahmanas they become ends in themselves Even the gods are said to owe their position to sacrifices There are many stones of the conflict between devas and asuras for world power [and of the way m which gods won through the power of the sacrifice 1

It is not the mechanical performance of a sacrificial rite that brings about the desired result, but the knowledge of its real meaning Many of the Brahmana texts are devoted to the exposition of the mystic significance of the various elements of the ntual By means of the sacrifices we 'set m motion' the cosmic forces dealt with and get from them the de- sired results The pnests who knew the details of the aim, meaning and performance of the sacrifice came into great prominence Gods became negligible intermediaries If we perform a rite with knowledge, the expected benefit will result Soon the actual performance of the rite becomes unnecessary Ritualistic religion becomes subordinate to knowledge 2

The Brahmanas are convinced that life on earth is, on the whole, a good thing The ideal for man is to live the full term of his life on earth As he must die, the sacrifice helps him to get to the world of heaven

While the Vedic poets hoped for a life m heaven after death, there was uneasmess about the interference of death in a future life The fear of re-dea.tti,punar-mriyu becomes prominent in the Brahmanas Along with the fear of re-death arose the belief of the imperishability of the self or the atman, the

« Hatha Samhita XXII. 9, Tailhrlya Samhita V 3 3, Tandya Brahmana XVIII 1 z

» See Franklin Edgerton 'The Upanisads What do they seek and Why Journal of the American Oriental Society, June, 1929

Inltoduclion

47

essential part of man's being. Death is not the end but only causes new existences which may not be better than the present one Under the influence of popular animism which sees souls similar to the human in all pares of nature, future life was brought down to earth. According to the Satapallta Biahmana, a man has three births, the fir^t whicn he gets from his parents, the second through sacrificial ceremonies and the third which he obtains after death and cremation 1

VIII

THE ARAXYAKAS

The /hanyakas do not give us rules for the performance of sacrifices and explanations of ceremonies, but provide us with the mystic teaching of the sacrificial religion As a matter of fact, some of the oldest Upam^ds are included in the Aranyaka texts, 5 which arc meant for the study of those who are engaged in the vow of forest life, the Vanaprasthas 3 As those who retire to the forests arc not like the house- holders bound to the ritual, the Aranyakas deal with the meaning and interpretation of the sacrificial cere- monies It is possible that certain sacred rites were per- formed m the seclusion of the forests where teachers and pupils meditated on the significance of these rites The

iav V* mi £ lm,,<> ;a>' n 'f. dan nit eta matus ca adhi ptluS ca agre ath I yam W]” ah upanamah sa yad yajalc, (ad dmtlyam jayale; , ' , J. m py' a ^ yatramam agnav abhyadadhati sa yat talas sambhavah, toUrhya m3 ayatc XI 2 i i See IP Vol I, Ch III A,£.. if ! ncluded m the Aitateya Aranyaka which is tacked on to «H? a i“l™ a KU and TU belon S t0 tbe Brahmanas o£ the wCh IF' 3 * B y 1S found at the end of the Satapmha Brahmana C U of Sffm* v% r} sectlon 1S an Aranyaka belongs to a Brahmana of the BrsL jff T -l ( Talav «te™ U ) belongs to the Jaimimya Upamsad BfoT v belongs to the Wfate Yajur Veda, Hatha and S U to the Mali* y g ur ?eda, MU and Praim belong to the Aiharva Veda post -Bnffi? attr ? buted to a school of Black Yajur Veda, is perhaps 3 S ]Udged by Its lan g” a S e . style and contents P

4$ The Principal Uj>anisads

distinction of Brahmana and Aranyaka is not an absolute one.

IX

THE UPA2aSADS

The Aranyakas 1 shade off impeiceptTbfy into the Upanisads even as the Brahman as shade off into the Aranyakas. While the student tyrahnacariii) reads the hymns, the house- holder (grliasfha) attends to the Brahmanas which speak of the daily duties and sacrificial ceremonies, the hermit, the man of the forest (pdnaprasthd), discusses the Aranyakas, the monk who has renounced worldly attachment (samiyasin), studies the Upanisads, which specialise in philosophical speculations.

The great teachers of the past did not claim any credit for themselves, but maintained that they only transmitted the wisdom of the ancients. 2 The philosophical tendencies implicit in the Yedic hymns are developed in the Upanisads.

Hymns to gods and goddesses are replaced by a search for the reality underlying the fmx of things. *What is that which, being known, everything else becomes known?'3 Kena Upamsad gives the story of the discomfiture of the gods who found out the truth that it is the power of Brahman which sustains the gods of fire, air, etc 4 YThile the poets of the Veda speak to us of the many into which the radiance of the Supreme has split, the philosophers of the Upanisads speak to us of the One Reality behind and beyond the fiux of the world. The Vedic deities are the messengers of the One Light which has

* AiiWjZ Arsr-jS's (III. I. I.} bsgfcis -with the H3e 'The Upanisadof t'rt Samhiis; a'.hSias szri h-iay a up3ri:afs^saisoSair?hy ay ana Aranyaka

VTI. 2.

5 Cp. Confcdus: 'I am not bom endorsed -Kith knowledge I am a man ■vrho loves the ancients ssd has made every effort to acqnire their learning.* L r tr. yj, VH. io.

i M.tT. I i 3;seeElsoT.U. II. S.

* See also 3 U. HI. <j i-io

Introduction 49

burst forth into the universal creation. They serve to mediate between pure thought and the intelligence of the dwellers in the world of sense

When we pass from the Vcdic hymns to the Upanisads we find that the interest shifts from the objective to the subjective, from the brooding on the wonder of the outside world to the meditation on the significance of the self The human self contains the clue to the interpretation of nature. The Real at the heart of the universe is reflected in the infinite depths of the soul. The Upanisads give m some detail the path of the inner ascent, the inward journey b)' which the individual souls get at the Ultimate Reality. Truth is within us. The different Vedic gods are envisaged subjectively 'Making the Man {purusa) their mortal house the gods indwelt him ' l 'All these gods are m me 'He is, indeed, initiated, whose gods within him are initiated, mind by Mind, voice by Voice '3 The operation of the gods becomes an epiphany 'This Brahma, verily, shines when one sees with the eye and likewise dies when one does not see '< The deities seem to be not different from Plato's Ideas or Eternal Reasons.

In the Upanisads we find a criticism of the empty and barren ritualistic religion s Sacrifices were relegated to an inferior position They do not lead to final liberation, they take one to the world of the Fathers from which one has to return to earth again in due course « When all things are God's, there is no point m offering to him anything, except one's will, one's self The sacrifices are interpreted ethically. The three periods of life supersede the three Soma offerings 7 Sacrifices become self- denying acts like ptmisa-mcdha and sarm-vtedha which enjoin abandonment of all possessions and renunciation of the world. For example, the Brhad-aranydka Upamsad opens with an account of the horse sacrifice {aioa-medlta) and interprets it as a meditative act m which the individual offers up the

' Atharva Veda XI 8 18

8 Jaiminiya Vpamsad Brahmana I 14 2

* KausitahiBrBhnanaVll 4

* KU II 12 and 13

« an t 1 2 V £5 X • B U. HI 9 6, ax , C U I 10-12, IV. 1-3. 'CU III ' I g' 2 l6 ' CU V 10 3> PnSml 95 M U.I. 2 10.

5o

The Principal Upamsads

whole universe in place of the horse, and by the renuncia- tion of the world attains spiritual autonomy in place of earthly sovereignty 1 In every Jtoma the expression svaha is used which implies the renunciation of the ego, svaiva- haiiana -

There is great stress on the distinction between the ignorant, narrow, selfish way which leads to transitory satisfac- tions and the way which leads to eternal life Yajfia is Karma, work 3 It is work done for the improvement of the soul and the good of the world, atmonmtaye jagaddhttaya Samkhyaycma Brahmana of the Rg Veda says that the self is the sacrifice and the human soul is the sacnficer, purnso vai yajiiah, atma yajamdnah The observance of the Vedic ritual prepares the mind for final release, if it is in the right spirit <

Prayer and sacrifice are means to philosophy and spiritual life While true sacrifice is the abandonment of one's ego, prayer is the exploration of reality by entering the beyond that is within, by ascension of consciousness It is not theoretical learnings We must see the eternal, the celestial, the still If it is unknowable and incomprehensible, it is yet realisable by self-disciphne and integral insight We can seize the truth not

1 Devi Bhagavata says that the Supreme took the form of the Buddha in order to put a stop to wrong sacrifices and prevent injury to animals dttsia-yajiia-vtghdtaya pasu-himsa ntvrilaye bauddha-rupam dadhau yo'stm tasmat devaya te namah Animal sacrifices are found in the Vedas (inserted) by the twice-born who are given to pleasures and relishing tastes Non-injury is, venly, the highest truth

dvijair bhoga-ratair vede dariitam himsanam paioh jihva-svada-patath kamam ahimsaiva para mala s Yaska explains it thus sit aha lit va, sva vag Slieti va, svam p>aheit va, svahutam havir juholi tti va Ktrukta VIII 21 3 Cp B G III 9, 10

Manu says 'Learning is brahma-yajna, service of elders is pilr-yajna, honouring great and learned people is deva-yajna, performing religious acts and chanty is bhuta-yajiia and entertaining guests is nara-yajiia ' adhyapanam biahma-yajHaJi pilr-yajiias ttt tarpanam homo datvo bahr bhauto nr-yajiio alithi-pRjanam * Laugaksi Bhaskara points out at the end of the Arlha-samgraha, so'yant dkarniah yad uddisya vthilah lad-uddesena knyamanah tad-hetuh, isvararpana-bitddhja knyamanas lit mhsreyasa-heiuh s CU VII 1 2 3

Juiioduclioit

51

by logical thinking, but by the energy of our whole inner being. Prayer stalls with faith, with complete trust in the Being to whom appeal is made, with the feeling of a profound need, and a simple faith that God can giant us benefits and is well disposed towards us When we attain the blinding experience of the spiritual light, we feel compelled to proclaim a new law for the world

The Upanisad seers arc not bound by the rules of caste, but extend the law of spiritual univcrsalism to the utmost bounds of human existence The story of Satyakama Jabala, who, though unable to give his father's name, was yet initiated into spiritual life, shows that the Upanfcad wnters appeal from the rigid ordinances of custom to those divine and spiritual laws which are not of today or of yesterday, but live for ever and of their origin knoweth no man The words tat fvam asi are so familiar that they slide off our minds without full compre- hension.

The goal is not a heavenly state of bliss or rebirth in a better world, but freedom from the objective, cosmic law of karma and identity with the Supreme Consciousness and Freedom The Vedic paradise, svaiga, becomes a stage in the individual's growth 1

The Upamsads generally mention the Vedas with respect and their study is enjoined as an important duty 1 Certain verses from the Vedas such as the gayabi form the subject of meditations* and sometimes verses from the Vedas are quoted «i support of the teaching of the Upamsads 4 While the Upamsads use the Vedas, their teaching is dependent on the personal experience and testimony of teachers like Yajnavalkya, bandilya The authority of the Vedas is, to no small extent, due to the inclusion of the Upamsads m them

It is often stated that Vedic knowledge by itself will not do. In the Chandogya Upamsad.i Svetaketu admits that he has s JcfJ he sv ^ a off ered as a reward for ceremonial conformity is only a B%«rateXI gr< ™ th ° f thC human SOu1, saUva S wt ° da y«

bJth r ™?h h ° panuad efines “ var S a a s sat-samsarga Heaven and Hell are tum tne cosmic process atrmvavamkassvargah Bhagavata III. 30 29 5 vi ^ 4 32 ' 1 9- 3 BU VI. 3 6. 4 BU I 3 10

52

The Principal Upanisads

studied all the Vedas but is lacking in the knowledge 'whereby what has not been heard of becomes heard of, what has not been thought of becomes thought of, what has not been under- stood becomes understood ' Narada tells Sanatkumara that he has not the knowledge of the Self though he has covered the entire range of knowledge, from the Vedas to snake-charming 1

X

ULTIMATE REALITY- BRAHMAN

To the pioneers of the Upanisads, the problem to be solved presented itself in the form, what is the world rooted m ? What is that by reaching which we grasp the many objects perceived in the world around us' They assume, as many philosophers do, that the world of multiplicity is, in fact, reducible to one single, primary reality which reveals itself to our senses m different forms This reality is hidden from senses but is discernible to the reason The Upanisads raise the question, what is that reality which remains identical and persists through change'

The word used in the Upanisads to indicate the supreme

reality is brahman It is derived from the root brh 'to grow,

to burst forth ' The derivation suggests gushing forth, bubbling

over, ceaseless growth, brhattvam Samkara derives the word

'brahman' from the root brlialt to exceed, ahiayana and means

by it eternity, punty For Madhva, brahman is the person in

whom the qualities dwell in fullness, brhanto hy asmtn gunah

The real is not a pale abstraction, but is quickemngly alive, of

powerful vitality. In the Rg Veda, brahman is used in the

sense of 'sacred knowledge or utterance, a hymn or incantation,'

the concrete expression of spiritual wisdom Sometimes Vac

is personified as the One. 1 Vtsva-karman, the All-Maker is said

to be the lord of the holy utterance 3 Brahman is manira or

prayer. Gradually it acquired the meaning of power or potency

of prayer, It has a mysterious power and contains within

itself the essence of the thing denoted Brhaspati, Brahmanas-

pati are interpreted as the lord of prayer.

' VII i fi » KV X 125, Aeharva Veda TV 30

3 X. 81. 7, X. 71.

Introduction 53

In the Brahmanas, brahman denotes the ritual and so is regarded as omnipotent. He who knows brahman knows and controls the universe. Brahman becomes the primal principle and guiding spirit of the universe 'There is nothing more ancient or brighter than this brahman

In later thought, biahman meant wisdom or Veda As divine origin was ascribed to the Veda or brahman, the two words were used with the same meaning. Biahman or sacred know- ledge came to be called the first created thing, brahma pratha- majam and even to be treated as the creative principle, the cause of all existence.

The word suggests a fundamental kinship between the aspiring spirit of man and the spirit of the universe which it seeks to attain The wish to know the Real implies that we know it to some extent. If we do not know anything about it, we cannot even say that it is and that we wish to know it If we know the Real, it is because the Real knows itself in us The desire for God, the feeling that we are in a state of exile, implies the reality of God in us All spiritual progress is the growth of half-knowledge into clear illumination. Religious experience is the evidence for the Divine In our inspired moments we have the feeling that there is a greater reality within us, though we cannot tell what it is From the movements that stir in us and the utterances that issue from us, we perceive the power, not ourselves, that moves us Religious experience is by no means subjective God cannot be known or experienced except through his own act If we have a knowledge of Brahman, it is due to the working of Brahman m us a Prayer is the witness to the spirit of the transcendent divine immanent in the spirit of man. The thinkers of the Upanisads based the reality of Brahman on the fact of spiritual experience, ranging from simple prayer to lUummated experience The distinctions which they make in the nature of the Supreme Reality are not merely logical, iney are facts of spiritual experience

I ^ ata pathaBrahnanaX 3 5. 11 find T P h» St Anse *?- 'I cannot seek Thee except Thou teach me, nor rXed TV, 6 61 ? Thou reveal Thyself, Rwni 'Was it not I who sum- naml ? ,, Ion & servlce - was lt: not I wh o m ade Thee busy with my name? Thy calling “Allah” was my “Here am I”.' y

54

The Principal ZJ-pamsais

The thinkers of the Upanisads attempt to establish the reality of God from an analysis of the facts of nature and the facts of inner life

'Who knows and who can declare what pathway leads

to the gods' Seen are their lowest dwelling-places only, What pathway leads to the highest, most secret

regions 1

The Upanisads assume that it is a distorted habit of mind which identifies 'the highest, most secret regions' with the 'lowest dwelling-places ' The Real is not the actual The Upanisads ask, What is the tajjalan from which all things spring, into which they are resolved and in which they live and have their being 2

The Brhad-araiiyaka Upanisad maintains that the ultimate reality is being, san-matram hi brahma Since nothing is without reason there must be a reason why something exists rather than nothing There is something, there is not nothing The world is not self-caused, self-dependent, self-mamtaimng All philo- sophical investigation presupposes the reality of being, asti- tva-nislha 3 The theologian accepts the first principle of being as an absolute one, the philosopher comes to it by a process of mediation By logically demonstrating the impossibility of not-being in and by itself, he asserts the necessity of being Being denotes pure affirmation to the exclusion of every possible negation It expresses simultaneously God's consciousness of himself and his own absolute self-absorbed being We cannot live a rational life without assuming the reality of being Not- being is sometimes said to be the first principle * It is not absolute non-being but only relative non-being, as compared with later concrete existence

RV III 54 CU III 14 i.scealsoTU III i,SU I i

3 Cp 'I hen God said to Moses “I am that I Am” ' Exodus III 14 1 here is a familiar distinction between nastilia and Bslilta The jieTy/t/ifi thinks that nothing exists except what we sec, feel, touch and measure The tlslifra is one who holds with R V X 31 8 naxtavad enu paro anyad astt, there is not merely this but there is also a transcendent other

« rU II 7.CU III 19 t-3

Introduction

55

Even as the nyagrodha tree is made of the subtle essence which vc do not perceive, so is this world made of the infinite Brahman 1 'It is at the command of that Imperishable that the sun and the moon stand bound in their places It is at the command of that Imperishable that the heaven and the earth stand each m its own place It is at the command of that Imperishable that the very moments, the hours, the days, the nights, the half-months, the months, the seasons and the years have their appointed function in the scheme of things It is at the command of that Imperishable that some nvers flow to the cast from the snow-clad mountains while others flow to the west '* When Balaki defines Brahman as the person in the sun {adUyc put and successively as the person m the moon, in lightning, in ether, m wind, in fire, m the waters, also as the person m the mind, m the shadow, in echo and in the body, King Ajatasatru asks, 'Is that all?' When Balaki con- fesses that he can go no farther, the king says, 'He who is the maker of all these persons, he, verily, should be known ' Brahman is satyasya satyam, the Reality of the real, the source of all existing things J

In some cosmological speculations the mysterious principle of reality is equated with certain naturalistic elements Water is said to be the source of all things whatsoever 4 From it came satya, the concrete existent Others like Raikva look upon air as the final absorbent of all things whatsoever, including fire and water 5 The Hatha Upantsad tells us that fire, having entered the universe, assumes all forms. 6 The Chandogya Upani- sad, however, makes out that fire is the first to evolve from the Primaeval Being and from fire came water and from water the earth At the time of dissolution, the earth is dissolved in water, and water in fire and fire in the Primaeval Being 7 Akaia, ether, space, is sometimes viewed as the first principle

In regard to the development of the universe, tne Upanisads

' CU VI 12 For the usage of the world as a tree, seeR V I 164 20,

i t? 0 5 ' 43 r

that +1P J? 1 8 9 Au § ustul e m his Conjcssions expresses the thought n» f. 7?1 gs ot the world declare through their visible appearance j ^ttatttey are created XI 4 5 ° y II 1 i B.U V = t

' VI g. 4

< B.U V 5 1 5 C U IV 3 1-2 « II 5

56

The Principal Upam$ads

look upon the earliest state of the material world as one of extension m space, of which the characteristic feature is vibration represented to us by the phenomenon of sound From akaia, vayit, air arises Vibration by itself cannot create forms unless it meets with obstruction The interaction of vibrations is possible in air which is the next modification To sustain the different forces, a third modification arises, icjas, of which light and heat are the manifestations We still do not have stable forms and so the denser medium of water is pro- duced A further state of cohesion is found in earth The development of the world is a process of steady grossemng of the subtle akaia or space All physical objects, even the most subtle, are built up by the combination of these five elements Our sense experience depends on them By the action of vibration comes the sense of sound, by the action of things in a world of vibrations the sense of touch, by the action of light the sense of sight, by the action of water the sense of taste, by the action of earth the sense of smell

In the Tatthriya Upamsad* the pupil approaches the father and asks him to explain to him the nature of Brahman He is given the formal definition and is asked to supply the content by his own reflection 'That from which these beings are born, that m which when born they live, and that into which they enter at their death is Brahman ' What is the reality which conforms to this account? The son is impressed by material phenomena and fixes on matter (anna) as the basic principle He is not satisfied, for matter cannot account for the forms of life He looks upon life (prana) as the basis of the world Life belongs to a different order from matter Life, again, cannot be the ultimate principle, for conscious phenomena are not commensurate with living forms There is something more in consciousness than in life So he is led to, believe that con- sciousness (manas) is the ultimate principle But consciousness has different grades The instinctive consciousness of animals is quite different from the intellectual consciousness of human beings So the son affirms that intellectual consciousness (vijnana) is Brahman Man alone, among nature's children

III

Introduction

57

has the capacity to change himself by his own effort and trans- cend his limitations Ex'en this is incomplete because it is subject to discords and dualities Man's intellect aims at the attainment of truth but succeeds only m making guesses about it; there must be a power m man which sees the truth unveiled Adeeper principle of consciousness must emerge if the funda- mental intention of nature, which has led to the development of matter, life, mind, and intellectual consciousness, is to be accomplished The son finally arrives at the truth that spiritual freedom or delight {ananda), the ecstasy of fulfilled existence is the ultimate principle. Here the search ends, not simply because the pupil's doubts are satisfied but because the pupil's doubts are stilled by the vision of Self-evident Reality. He apprehends the Supreme Unity that lies behind all the lower forms The Upamsad suggests that he leaves behind the discursive reason and contemplates the One and is lost in ecstasy 1 It concludes with the affirmation that absolute Reality is satyam, truth, jMnam, consciousness, anantam, infinity.

There are some who affirm that ananda is the nearest approxi- mation to Absolute Reality, but is not itself the Absolute Reality. For it is a logical representation The experience gives us peace, but unless we are established in it we have not received the highest

In this account, the Upanisad assumes that the naturalistic theory of evolution cannot be accepted The world is not to be viewed as an automatic development without any intelligent course or intelligible aim Matter, life, mind, intelligence are different forms of existence with their specific characteristics

1 Cp Jalal-uddin Ruml

'I died a mineral and became a plant,

I died a plant and rose an animal,

I died an animal and I was man

Why should I fear' When was I less by dying?

Yet once more I shall die as man, to soar

With the blessed angels, but even from angelhood

I must pass on All except God perishes

When I have sacrificed my angel soul,

I shall become that which no mind ever conceived.

O, let me not exist < for Non-existence proclaims,

“To him we shall return ” '

58

The Principal Upamsads

and modes of action, each acting on the other but not derived from each other The evolution of life in the context of matter is produced not by the material principle but by the working of a new life-principle which uses the conditions of matter for the production of life Life is not the mechanical resultant of the antecedent co-ordination of material forces, but it is what is now called an emergent. We cannot, by a complete knowledge of the previous conditions, anticipate the subsequent result There is an element of the incalculable Life emerges when the material conditions are available, which permit life to organise itself m matter. In this sense, we may say that matter aspires for life, but life is not produced by lifeless particles So also life may be said to be aspiring for or be instinct with mind, which is ready to emerge when conditions enable it to organise itself in living matter Mind cannot be produced from things without mind When the necessary mental conditions are prepared, intelligence qualifies the mental living creature Nature is working according to this fundamental intention, which is being accomplished because it is essentially the instrument of the Supreme Being

The world is not the result of meaningless chance There is a purpose working itself out through the ages It is a view which modem science confirms By interpreting the fragmentary relics of far remote times, science tells us how this earth in which we live was gradually adapted to be a place where life could develop, how life came and developed through uncounted centuries until animal consciousness arose and this again gradually developed, until apparently, man with self-conscious reason appeared on the scene. The long record of the develop- ment of the human race and the great guts of spiritual men like the Buddha, Socrates, Jesus make out that man has to be trans- cended by God-man

It cannot be argued that, when material particles are organised in a specific way, life arises The principle of organisation is not matter The explanation of a thing is to be sought in what is above it in the scale of existence and value and not below it Matter cannot raise itself It moves to a higher level by the help of the higher itself It cannot undergo inner development without being acted upon by something above it The lower

Introduction 59

is the material for the higher. Life as the matter for mind and form for physical material- so also intellect is form for the mind and matter for the spirit The eternal is the origin of the actual and its nisus to improvement. To think of it as utterly trans- cendent or as a future possibility is to miss its incidence in the actual We cannot miss the primordiality of the Supreme, 'Verily, m the beginning this world was Brahman ' l There is the perpetual activity of the Supreme in the world

The Upanisad affirms that Brahman on which all else depends, to uhich all existences aspire, Brahman which is sufficient to itself, aspinng to no other, without any need, is the source of all other beings, the intellectual principle, the perceiving mind, life and body It is the principle which unifies the world of the physicist, the biologist, the psychologist, the logician, the moralist and the artist. The hierarchy of all things and beings from soulless matter to the deity is the cosmos. Plato's world-architect, Aristotle's world-mover belong to the cosmos. If there is ordered development, progressive evolution, it is because there is the divine principle at work in the universe.

Cosmic process is one of universal and unceasing change and is patterned on a duality which is perpetually in con- flict, the perfect order of heaven and the chaos of the dark waters Life creates opposites, as it creates sexes, in order to reconcile them 'In the beginning the woman (Orvafi) went about in the flood seeking a master' 1 Indra, for example, divided the world into earth and sky. He 'produced his father and mother from his own body.' This conflict runs through the whole empirical world, and will end when the aim of the universe is accomplished. Creation moves upward towards the divine. When the union between the controlling spirit and the manifesting matter is completed, the purpose of the world, the end of the evolutionary process, the revelation of spirit on earth is accomplished The earth is the foothold of God, the mother of all creatures whose father is heaven 3

1 BU I 4 lo-n.MaitrtVI 17.

1 weftanff sahle pahm Jaimwtya Upamsad Brahnana I 5 6 ivlJ£? C ™ iese behev <* *at Chien (Heaven) is the father and Khan l*iartn) is the mother of all terrestrial existence Zeus as Sky-father is m

6o

The Principal Upamsads

The conflict is not final The duality is not a sterile dualism Heaven and earth, God and matter have the same origin

As regards the primordial God Hiranya-gaibha, a circular process is found The primal being spontaneously produces the primeval water, from this comes the primordial God as the first born of the divine Order, the golden germ of the world 'who was the first seed resting on the navelof the unborn ^Huanya-garbha who is the World-soul expresses his spirit through the environ- ment He manifests the forms contained within himself The world is fixed in him as are the spokes m the hub of a wheel He is the thread, suttatman, on which all beings and all worlds are strung like the beads of a necklace He is the first-born, prathama-ja He is also called Biahma and these Bta/wids are created from world to world 5

In the Rg Veda,3 Huanya-garbha is the golden germ which enters into creation after the first action of the creator In the Samkhya, prakrti is treated as unconscious and develops on account of the influence of the multitude of individual subjects, and the first product of development is mahat, the great one, or buddhi, the intellect It is the development of cosmic uitelli-

essential relation to Earth-mother The two are correlative See A B Cook Zeus (1914), Vol I, p 779

Zoroaster reaches the conception of a single spiritual God, Ormuzd or Ahura Mazda, in whom the principle of good is personified, while the evil principle is embodied m Ahranan, or Angra Mainyu, who limits the omnipotence of Ahura Mazda The whole creation is a combat betw een the t« o The tw o principles strive eternally m life, and in this struggle men take part Man is responsible for his actions, good or bad If he struggles against evil, confesses God and cares for the punty of his body and soul, then after four periods of three thousand years each in the world's history a time shall arrive for the final victory of good over evil, of Ormuzd over Ahnman The general resurrection of the dead and the last judgment will take place then, assuring him of his place among the saved and the righteous

The Jews adopted the two principles of good and evil and they were taken over by Christianity When Blake speaks, of the marriage of Heaven and Hell, Hea' en represents the one clear light over all and Hell the dark world of passion and the senses Divided, both are equally barren, but from their umon springs joy 'Oh that man would seek immor- tal moments 1 Oh that men could converse with God' was Blake's cry

« RV X 82, IV 58 5

1 'God once created Brahma Hiranya-garbha and delivered the Vedas to him ' S B I 4 1. 3 X 121 1

Inboduclian

61

gcncc or Hvanya-garbha On the subjective side, buddht is the first element of the hnga or the subtle body. It js the essence of the individual spirit Buddht serves as the basis for the develop- ment of the principle of individuation, ahamkara, from which are derived, on the one hand, mind and the ten sense organs, five of perception and five of action and, on the other hand, the subtle elements from which arise m their turn the gross elements. Saliva is buddht, the innermost of the three circles, the outer being rajas and lamas which arc identified with ahamkara and manas, which are the emanations of ra;a? and lamas The saliva or the buddht is the btja, the seed of the living individual, since it contains the seeds of karma which develop at each birth into a sense-organism The saliva or lutga is called the ego, the jtva As the buddht is the siilralman of the individual, so is Huaitya-garbha the suUalman, the thread-controller of the world

In the Kalha Upamsad, 1 in the development of principles the great self stands after the undeveloped and the primeval spirit Htranya-garbha, the World-soul is the first product of the principle of non-being influenced by the Eternal Spirit, Isvara. The pviuta of the Sdmkhya is the Eternal Spirit made many Htranya-garbha is the great self, mahan alma, which anses from the undiscriminated, the avyahta, which corresponds to the primitive material or waters of the Brahmanas, or the Prakrit of the Samkhya We have the Supreme Self, the Absolute, the Supreme Self as the eternal subject observing the eternal object, waters or prakrh and the great self which is the first product of this interaction of the eternal subject and the principle of objectivity The Supreme Lord, Isvara, who eternally produces, outlasts the drama of the universe S*amkara begins his commentary on the Bhagavad-gltd with the verse: 'Niirayana is beyond the unmamfest The golden egg is produced from the unmanifest The earth with its seven islands and all other worlds are m the egg.' The names and forms of the manifested world are latent in the egg as the future tree is in the seed

Hiranya-garbha answers to the Logos, the Word of Western 'III io.ii,VI.7.8,seealsoKU.I. 7

62

The Principal Upam$ads

thought For Plato, the Logos was the archetypal idea For the Stoics it is the principle of reason which quickens and informs matter Philo speaks of the Divine Logos as the 'first born son/ 1 'archetypal man,'* 'image of God,'3 'through whom the world was created '4 Logos, the Reason, 'the Word was in the beginning and the Word became flesh ' The Greek term, Logos, means both Reason and Word The latter indicates an act of divine will Word is the active expression of character The difference between the conception of Divine Intelligence or Reason and the Word of God is that the latter represents the will of the Supreme Vac is Brahman 5 Vac, word, wisdom, is treated in the Rg Veda as the all-knowing The first-born of Rta is Vac 6 yavad brahma tt§thah tavati vak 7 The Logos is conceived as personal like Hiranya-garbha 'The Light was the light of men ' 'The Logos became flesh ' 8

The Supreme is generally conceived as light, jyoti$am jyotxh, the light of lights Light is the principle of communication Hiranya-garbha is organically bound up with the world Himself, a creature, the first-born of creation, he shares the fate of all creation in the end 9 But livara is prior to the World-soul 10 The principle of process applies to God While he is the expres- sion of the non-temporal he is also the temporal livara, the eternal Being functions in the temporal Hiranya-garbha Ramanuja who looks upon livara as the supreme transcendent Reality above all world events treats Brahma as the demi-urge

1 1. 414. 1 I 411 3 1 6 * II 225 5 R v 1 3 21 « A iharva Veda II I 4 See Nama-RUpa and Dharma-Rupa by Maryla Falk (1943), Ch I 7 R V X 114 8

» John I 4, 5 See B F Westcott The Gospel According to St John (1886), p XVH

9 'When all things are subjected to him then the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things under him, that God may be everything to everyone ' I Cor XV 28

10 Cp 'Before the mountains were brought forth, or even the earth and the world were made thou art God from everlasting and world without end ' See Hebrews I 10-13

Reltgto Media 'Before Abraham was, I am, is the saying of Christ, yet is it true m some sense, if I say it of myself, for I was not only before myself but Adam, that is, in the idea of God, and the decree of that synod held from all eternity And in this sense, I say, the world was before the creation, and at the end, before it had a beginning '

Introduction <>3 of creation who forms the lower world in the name and bidding of God

Why is the universe what it is, rather than something else? Why is there this something, rather than another? This is traced to the divine will This world and its controlling spirit are the expressions of the Supreme Lord While the World- soul and the world are organically related and are inter- dependent, there is no such relationship between the Supreme Lord and the world, for that would be to subject the infinite to the finite. The relationship is an 'accident' to use White- head's expression. This word 'accident' implies two different considerations, (1) that Divine Creativity is not bound up with this world in such a way that the changes which occur in the world affect the integrity of the Divme, and (2) that the world is an accidental expression of the Divine principle Creativity is not bound to express itself in this particular form If the choice were necessary it would not be free. Creation is the free expression of the Divine mind, %ccha-malram. The world is the manifestation of Hiranya-garblut and the creation oil&ara. The world is the free self-determination of God The power of self- determination, self-expression, belongs to God. It is not by itself. It belongs to the Absolute which is the abode of all possibilities, and by its creative power one of these possibilities is freely chosen for accomplishment The power of manifestation is not alien to being. It does not enter it from outside. It is in being, inherent in it It may be active or inactive We thus get the conception of an Absolute-God, Brahman— Ihara, where the first term indicates infinite being and possibility, and the second suggests creative freedom 1 Why should the Absolute Brahman perfect, infinite, needing nothing, desiring nothing, move out into the world? It is not compelled to do so. It may have this potentiality but it is not bound or compelled by it It is free to move or not to move, to throw itself into forms or remain formless If it still indulges its power of creativity, it is because of its free choice

' In the Taoist Tao T£ Chvng, Tao, literally 'Way,' stands for the Absolute, the drone ground and TS for 'power,' for the unfolding of the divme possibilities Cp also tathala or suchness and Slaya-vijMna the all-conserving or receptacle consciousness

64 The Pnncipal Upanisads

In Isvara we have the two elements of wisdom and power, Siva and Sakti By the latter the Supreme who is unmeasured and immeasurable becomes measured and defined Immutable being becomes infinite fecundity Pure being, which is the free basis and support of cosmic existence, is not the whole of our experience Between the Absolute and the World-soul is the Creative Consciousness It is prajMna-ghana or truth-conscious- ness If sat denotes the primordial being m its undifferenced unity, satya is the same being immanent m its differentiations If the Absolute is pure unity without any extension or variation, God is the creative power by which worlds spring into existence The Absolute has moved out of its primal poise and become knowledge-will It is the all-determming principle It is the Absolute in action as Lord and Creator While the Absolute is spaceless and timeless potentiality, God is the vast self- awareness comprehending, apprehending every possibility 1

Brahman is not merely a featureless Absolute It is all this world Vayu or air is said to be manifest Brahman, pratyaksam brahma The Svetdivataia Upamsad makes out that Brahman is beast, bird and insect, the tottering old man, boy and girl Brahman sustains the cosmos and is the self of each individual Supra-cosmic transcendence and cosmic universality are both real phases of the one Supreme In the former aspect the Spirit is m no way dependent on the cosmic manifold, m the latter the Spirit functions as the principle of the cosmic manifold The supra-cosmic silence and the cosmic integration are both real The two, mrguna and saguna Brahman, Absolute and God, are not different Jayatirtha contends that Samkara is wrong in holding HasXBrahman is of two kinds — brahmano dvairupyasya aprdmdmkatvdt * It is the same Brahman who is described in different ways

J Eckhart says 'God and Godhead are as different as heaven from earth . God becomes and unbecomes ' 'All in Godhead is one, and of this naught can be said God works, but Godhead works not There is no work for it to do and no working in it Never did it contemplate any- thing of work God and Godhead differ after the manner of working and not working When I come into the Ground, into the depths, into the flow and fount of Godhead, none will ask me whence I have come or whither I go None will have missed me, God passes away ' Sermon LVT Evans' E T 1 Nyaya-sndha, p 124

Inhoduclian 65

The personality of God is not to be conceived on the human lines He is not to be thought of as a greatly magnified person. We should not attribute to the Divine human qualities as wc know them.' Wc have (1) the Absolute, (2) God as Creative power, (3) God immanent in this world. These are not to be regarded as separate entities They are arranged in this order because there is a logical priority The Absolute must be there with all its possibilities before the Divine Creativity can choose one. The divine choice must be there before there can be the Divine immanent in this world. This is a logical succession and not a temporal one The world-spin I must be there before there can be the world We thus get the four poises or statuses of reality,' the Absolute, Brahman, (2) the Creative Spirit, Ihiara, (3) the World-Spirit, Hnanya-gaibha, and (4) the World This is the way m which the Hindu thinkers interpret the integral nature of the Supreme Reality. Mandiikya Upam$ad says that Biahman is catus-fiat, four-footed, and its four principles are Brahman, Ihara, Huanya-garbha and Vnaj 1

1 Aquinas says 'Things said alike of God and of other beings are not said either in quite the same sense or in a totally different sense but in an analogous sense ' Summa Contra Gentiles XXXIV God is not good ? r ]S ,n thc ,luman scnsc ' For who ,,atl1 known the mmd of the Lord?' Romans XI 34 God is personal, but, as Karl Barth says, 'personal in an incomprehensible way in so far as the conception of His personality surpasses all our views of personality This is so, 311st because He and He fjone is a true, real and genuine person Were we to overlook this and try to conceive God in our own strength according to our conception of personality, wc should make an idol out of God ' The Knowledge of God “»d the Service of God [1938), pp 3 iff J

1 In Plotmus we have a similar scheme (1) The One alone, the simple, tpXu^ 0ndltl0ned God beyond being of Basilides, the godhead of pv « which can only be indicated by negative terms We cannot thnf ex,stcnce oi rt. though it is not non-existent It cannot be “rougnt of as either subject or object of experience, as in it subject and w™»n!i ar / ,d ,? ntlcal 1S Pure impersonal experience or perhaps the 6 ouna 01 all experience, it is pure consciousness, ineffable supra-

m «f 1S not the fiTSt cause - not the crcator S° d 14 1S cause only h, rL S !r Se ~ at Ifc 1S everywhere, and without it nothing could be the JZJi”? „T he tott »]igiMe world which Plotinus calls One— Many, tWht L^h n° mC il rm f ° r archetv P es Not mere Ideas or things Thw rZ 7 Z e Dmne Thmker - not me re passive archetypical pictures UnvL I * C *I e powers ™ thm the Dmne mind 11 is personal God. exmLf . be se P arated from diversity. The most perfect form of Hk£ ZT? 01 Section, vlpis™, Divine IntellectT^t

™>»ker and thought, the personal Lord, Universal Intelligence^ The

66

The Principal Upamsads

The conception of tri-suparna is developed m the fourth section of the Taithriya Upamsad The Absolute is conceived as a nest from out of which three birds have emerged, viz Vtraj, Hiranya-garbha and Isvara The Absolute conceived as it is m itself, independent of any creation, is called Brahman When it is thought of as having manifested itself as the uni- verse, it is called Vtraj, when it is thought of as the spirit moving everywhere in the universe, it is called Hvranya-garbha , when it is thought of as a personal God creatmg, protecting and destroying the universe, it is called Isvara Isvara becomes Brahma, Vtsnu and Siva when his thfee functions are taken separately 1 The real is not a sum of these It is an ineffable unity in which these conceptual distinctions are made These are fourfold to our mental view, separable only in appearance If we identify the real with any one definable state of being, however pure and perfect, we violate the unity and divide the indivisible The different standpomts are consistent with each other, complementary to each other and necessary m their

unknowable Absolute is mediated to us through the Divine Intelligence This Intellectual principle of Plotinus is the livara of the Upanisads This universal intelligence makes possible the multiple universe For Plotinus this principle is the totality of divine thoughts or Ideas in Plato's sense These Ideas or Thoughts are real beings, powers They are the originals, archetypes, intellectual forms of all that exists in the lower spheres All the phases of existence down to the lowest ultimate of material being or the lowest forms of being in the visible universe are ideally present in this realm of divine thoughts This divine intellectual principle has both being and non-being It has, for Plotinus, two acts, the upward contemplation of the One and generation towards the lower (m) One and Many The soul of the All is the third, which fashions the material universe on the model of divine thoughts, the Ideas laid up within the Divine Mind It is the eternal cause of the cosmos, the creator and therefore the vital principle of the world God is envisaged as something apart from the world, its creator or artificer Human ideas of God are centred round him Plotinus does not make the sensible world a direct emanation from the Intelligible World It is the product or the creation of the World-soul, the third person of the Neo-Platonic trinity, herself an emanation from the intelligible World, the Nous Our souls are parts or emanations of the World-soul The three hypo- stases form collectively, for Plotinus, the one transcendent being The All-Soul is the expression of the energy of the Divine, even as the Intel- lectual principle is the expression of the thought or vision of the godhead (iv) The many alone It is the world-body, the world of matter without form It is the possibility of manifested form » See also Pamgala U

Introduction 67

totality for an integral view of life and the world If we are able to hold them together, the conflicting views which are emphasised exclusively by certain schools of Indian Vcdanta become reconciled

Absolute being is not an existing quality to be found m the things It is not an object of thought or the result of production. It forms an absolute contrast to, and is fundamentally different from, things that are, as is in its way nothingness It can be expressed only negatively or analogically It is that from which our speech turns back along with the mind, being unable to comprehend its fullness. 1 It is that which the tongue of man cannot truly express nor human intelligence conceive Samkara in his commentary on the Brahma Sutra 1 refers to an Upanisad text which is not to be found in any of the extant Upanisads Bahva, asked by Baskah to expound the nature of Brahman, kept silent. He prayed, 'Teach me, sir ' The teacher was silent, and when addressed a second and a third time he said- 'I am teaching but you do not follow The self is silence.'3

We can only describe the Absolute in negative terms. In the words of Plotmus, 'We say what he is not, We cannot say what he is.' The Absolute is beyond the sphere of predication It is the sunyata of the Buddhists It is 'not gross, not subtle, not short, not long, not glowing, not shadowy, not dark, not attached, flavourless, smell-less, eye-less, ear-less, speech-less, mmd-less, breath-less, mouth-less, not internal, not external, consuming nothing and consumed by nothing '4 It cannot be

' I U. II 4, see also Kena I 3, II, 3, Hatha I 27. 1 S B III 2 17

' upaianto'yam atma Cp the Madhyamtka view— • peramarthalas lu aryanam tiisnbn-bhuva eva

im 1 j ° nly Wl11 you see lt ' when vou cannot speak o£ it; for the raowledge of it is deep silence and the suppression of all the senses ' Hermes Tnsmegistus, Lib X 5

IV B £- Ir 8 8 ' see also 11 3 6 - IIL « 26 » IV 2 4- IV 4 22; I i 5 i4 5 ” 7 ' Tlle Buddha ' according to Atnara, is an advaya-vadxn

There was something formless yet complete. That existed before heaven and earth. Without sound, without substance. Dependent on nothing, unchanging. All-pervading, unfailing,

0*

68

The Principal Upanisads

truly designated Any description makes It into something It is nothing among things It is non-dual, advaita It denies duality. This does not mean, however, that the Absolute is non- being It means only that the Absolute is all-inclusive and nothing exists outside it

Negative characters should not mislead us into thinking that Brahman is a nonentity While it is non-empincal, it is also

One may think of it as the mother

of all things under heaven. Its true name we do not know, Tao is the by-name we give it

Tao TS'Chmg 25 A Waley's E T

The Way arid its Power (1934)

Plato says that the unfathomable ground of the universe, the absolute, is 'beyond essence and truth ' Plotmus describes the utter transcendence of the One thus 'Since the Nature or Hypostasis of The One is the engenderer of the All, it can Itself be none of the things in the All, that is, It is not a thing. It does not possess quality or quantity. It is not an Intellectual Principle, not a soul, It is not in motion and not at rest, not m space, not m time, It is essentially of a unique form or rather of no-form, since it is prior to form, as it is prior to movement and to rest, all these categones hold only m the realm of existence and constitute the multiplicity characteristic of that lower realm ' Enneads VI 9 3 'This wonder, this One, to which in verity no name may be given ' tbtd VI 9 5

'Our way then takes us beyond knowing, there may be no wandering from unity, knowing and knowable must all be left aside Every object of thought, even the highest, wc must pass by, for all that is good is later than this No doubt we should not speak of seeing, but we cannot help talking m dualities, seen and seer, instead of boldly, the achieve- ment of unity In this seeing, we neither hold an object nor trace dis- tinction, there is no two The man is changed, no longer himself nor self belonging, he is merged with the supreme, sunken into it, one with it Only m separation is there duality That is why the vision baffles telling We cannot detach the supreme to state it, if we have seen something thus detached, we have failed of the supreme ' Enneads VI 9 4 and 10

Pseudo-Dionysius, whose utterances were once accepted as almost apostolic authority, observes 'For it is more fitting to praise God by taking away than by ascnption Here we take ,away all things from Him, going up from particulars to universals, that we may know openly the unknowable which is hidden m and under all thmgs that may be known And we behold that darkness beyond being, concealed under all natural light '

Chuang Tzu's vision of the boundless world has this 'You cannot explain the sea to a frog m a well — the creature of a narrow sphere You cannot explain ice to a grasshopper — the creature of a season You cannot explain Tao to a pedant — This view is too limited ' Waley

Inlrodttclton

69

inclusive of the whole empirical world The Absolute is des- cribed as full both of light and not-light, of desire and not desire, of anger and not-angcr, of Ww and not-law, having verily filled all, both the near and the far off, the this and the that. '» Negative and positive characterisations arc given to affirm the positivity of being

To say that the nature of Brahman cannot be dctmed docs not mean that it has no essential nature of its own We cannot define it by its accidental features, for they do not belong to its essence There is nothing outside it As no inquiry into its nature can be instituted without some description, its sva>upa or essential nature is said to be sal or being, cxt or consciousness and ananda or bliss 1 These are different phrases for the same being Self-being, self-consciousness and self-delight are one. It is absolute being m which there is no nothingness It is absolute consciousness in which there is no non-consciousness It is absolute bliss in which there is no suffering or negation of bliss. All suffering is due to a second, an obstacle, all delight

Three Ways of Thought in Ancient China (1939), PP 55~* H * i?' 05 ' Chuang-Tzu, Mystic Moralist and Social Reformer (1920) Ch XVIII

Anandagin begins his commentary on Katha Upanxsad with this verse

dharma dharmadyasamsrstam karya-kurana-varjitam kaladibhir avicchwnam brahma yat tan namSmy aham Paul speaks of a vision which was not to be told and had heard words not to be repeated II Corinthians 12 ff Cp Hymn of Gregory of Nyasa, 'O Thou entirely beyond all being ' 'O Lord, My God, the Helper of them that seek Thee, I behold Thee in the entrance of Paradise, and I know not what I see, for I see naught visible This alone I know, that I know not what I see, and never can know And I know not how tojnameThee, because I know not what Thou art, and did anyone say unto me that Thou wert called by this name or that, by the very fact that he named it I should know that it was not Thy name For the wall beyond which I see Thee is the end of all manner of signification in names ' Nicholas of Cusa The Vision of God. E T Salter's E T (1928) Ch XIII 'No monad or triad can express the all-transcending hiddenness of the all- transcending super-essentially super-existing super-deity ' 'God, because of his excellence, may rightly be called Nothing,' says Scotus Engena

» BTJ IV 4 5 lia 4, 5 Katha 1 2 20-21, I 3 15, II 6 17 M.U. 1 1 6,1 7 SU V 8-10

* They are not so much qualities of Biahnum as the very nature of Brahman Commenting on the passage Brahman is truth, wisdom and infinity, satyam jUanam anantam brahma, £ wntes

satyadim h% trim vtiesanarthant padam vtiesyasya brahmanah

70

The Principal Upatusads

arises from the realisation of something withheld, by the over- coming of obstacles, by the surpassing of the limit It is this delight that overflows into creation The self-expression of the Absolute, the creation of numberless universes is also traced to Brahman All things that exist are what they are, because of the nature of Brahman as sat, ctt and dnanda All things are forms of one immutable being, variable expressions of the invariable reality To describe Brahman as the cause of the world is to give its tatastha or accidental feature 1 The defining characteristics are m both cases due to our logical needs 2 When the Absolute is regarded as the basis and explanation of the world, he is conceived as the lord of all, the knower of all, the inner controller of all 3 God has moved out everywhere sa paryagdt The Svetdsvatara Vpamsad speaks of the one God, beside whom there is no second, who creates all the worlds and rules with His powers, and at the end of time rolls them up again * He lives m all thmgss and yet transcends them The Universal Self is like the sun who is the eye of the whole universe and is untouched by the defects of our vision 6 He is said to fill the whole world and yet remain beyond its confines 'Venly motionless like a lone tree does the God stand in the heaven, and yet by Him is this whole world filled “I

The distraction between Brahman m itself and Brahman m the universe, the transcendent beyond manifestation and the transcendent in manifestation, the indeterminate and the determinate, nirguno gunl, is not exclusive 8 The two are like two sides of one reality The Real is at the same time being realised

In the metrical Upanisads, as in the Bhagavad-gUa, the per-

1 iatasthatvam ca laksya-svarupa-bahir-bhulatvam Stddhanta-Ieia-sam- graha (Kumbbakonam ed ), p 53

* They are said to be kalpita or constructed, as the non-dual Brahman is said to possess these qualities on account ,of its association with antahkarana They are manifestations through an imperfect medium and therefore limited revelations of Brahman

3 MaU 6 4 III 2 3, VI 1-12 5BUI47SUII17 <■ Hatha II 5 11 7 S U III 9

8 Cp Eckhart 'The Godhead gave all things up to God The Godhead is poor, naked and empty as though it were not, it has not, wills not, wants not, works not, gets not It is God who has the treasure and the bnde in him, the Godhead is as void as though it were not '

Introduction 7 1

sonal is said to be superior to the superpersonal. 1 puru?an na param Mwit, there is nothing beyond the person. It is doubtful whether the author of the Brahma Sutra accepted the dis- tinction of saguna and mrgwna m regard to Brahman. Even the mrgwna Brahman is not without determinations. The STdrakara makes a distinction between the super-personal (apurnsa-vidha) and the personal {purusa-vidha), i.e. between Brahman and Uvara The latter is not a human fancy or a concession to the weak m mind The ntrakara (formless), and the sakara (with form), are different aspects of the same Reality. The seeker can choose either in his spiritual practices In III. 3 we find that the author maintains that the aksara texts which describe Brahman negatively as 'not this, not this' are 'not useful for meditation ' 2 He holds that Brahman is unaffected by the different states, of waking, dream, sleep. The view that Brahman undergoes changes is refuted on the ground that they relate to the effects due to the self-concealment of Brahman Badarayana denies reality to a second principle.

Hiranya-garbha, the World-soul is the divme creator, the supreme lord Uvara at work in this universe. A definite possi- bility of the Absolute is being realised in this world In the lipamsads the distinction between Uvara and Hiranya-garbha, between God and the World-soul is not sharply drawn If the World-soul is ungrounded in Uvara, if he is exclusively tem- poral, then we cannot be certain of the end of the cosmic process When the Upamsads assert that the individual ego is rooted w the universal self or atman, it would be preposterous to unagme that the World-soul is unrelated to Uvara or Brahman.*

1 Katha I 3 11 M U II 1 1-2.

' adhyanaya ■prayojanabhavat. Ill 3 14 , see also III 3 33 valentmus whose activity may be assigned to a d 130-150, teaches a similar view The primordial essence is the Deep (Bythos) With it

Sri a „ th0Ught called also Gra ? e ( for rt ^ not conditioned) and ouence (for it made no sign of its' existence) Professor Burkitt writes M°Tm ^ “nmeasurable Deep made its own thought fecund and so pmS-i 'f 1 *! came lnt0 bem S. although it was called unique, it had a correlative side to it called Truth ” ” ”

stanrl, 1 V & “ ”~- ■*» uuutasumu, tiicic i;a.u uc no intelligent 1

Km! Coming Ancient History, Vol XII (1939), p 470

, Kfers t0 w orld-soul and not to the Supreme God m the P*ssage, where he asserts that 'God becomes and disbecomes '

72

The Principal Upamsads

Htraiiya-garblia who has in him the whole development m germ acts on the waters As we have seen, the image of waters is an ancient one by which human thought attempts to explain the development of the universe The waters are initially at rest and so free from waves or forms The first movement, the first disturbance, creates forms and is the seed of the universe The play of the two is the life of the universe When the de- velopment is complete, when what is m germ is manifest, we have the world-consummation Hvanya-garbha creates the world according to the eternal Veda, which has withm itself eternally the primary types of all classes of things, even as the God of the mediaeval scholastics creates according to the eternal archetype of Ideas which He as the eternal Word eternally possesses Brahman is the unity of all that is named 1 Hiranya-garbha or Brahma is the World-soul 2 and is subject to changes of the world He is karya Brahma or effect Brahman as distinct from Isvara who is karana Brahman or causal Brahman Hiranya-garbha. arises at every world-beginmng and is dissolved at every world-ending Isvara is not subject to these changes For both Samkara and Ramanuja, Hiranya-garbha has the place of a subordinate and created demi-urge livara is the eternal God who is not drawn into but directs the play of the worlds that rise and pensh and is Himself existing transcendentally from all eternity The Vedic deities are subordinate to Isvara and hold a similar position to Him in the formation and control of the world that the angelic powers and directors maintain m the heavenly hierarchy of scholasticism and of Dante

We have thus the four sides of one whole (i) the transcen- dental universal being anterior to any concrete reality, (11) the causal principle of all differentiation, (m) the innermost essence of the world, and (iv) the manifest world They are co-existent and not alternating poises where we have either a quiescent Brahman or a creative Lord These are simultaneous sides of the one Reality

BU I 5 17

1 For Atman as the World-soul, see Atharva Veda X. 8 44

Introduction

73

XI

ULTIMATE REALITY ATMAN

The word 'atman' is derived from an 'to breathe.' It is the breath of life. 1 GraduaEy its meaning is extended to cover life, soul, self or essential being of the mdividual. Sarhkara derives atman from the root which means 'to obtain' 'to eat or enjoy or pervade all.' 1 Atman is the principle of man's life, the soul that pervades his being, his breath, prana, his intellect, prajM, and transcends them. Atman is what remains when everything that is not the self is eliminated. The Rg Veda speaks of the unborn part, ajo bhagah3 There is an unborn and so immortal element in man,4 which is not to be confused with body, life, mind and intellect These are not the self but its forms, its external expressions. Our true self is a pure existence, self-aware, unconditioned by the forms of mind and intellect. When we cast the self free from all outward events, there arises from the inward depths an experience, secret and wonderful, strange and great. It is the miracle of self-knowledge, dbna-jfid'tia.s Just as, m relation to the universe, the real is Brahman, while name and form are only a play of manifestation, so also the individual egos are the varied expressions of the One Universal Self. As Brahman is the eternal quiet underneath the drive and activity

* SttnStevalah R.V. VII 87. 2.

5 apnoter alter atater va § on A.U. I. I. Cp also yac cSpnoti yad Matte yac catti vtsayan tha

yac cSsya santalo bhavas tasmSd atmeti Hriyate. 3 X 16 4

* Sayana says ajah janana-rahttak, ianrer.dri}abhSgavyatiriHah,

wmamed heathen philosopher as saying 'Discard all this and that and nere and there and be thyself -what thon art in thine inner not-being', which he adds is mens

b^x^- lna ^“ rnS ^' 3S ^ S ns to m ^. uire ^ xlia *k e BSfrtt” 6 °f our inward

Who am I? How came this world? What is it?

How came death and birth? Thus inquire

Within yourself; great will be the benefit (yon will derive from such foquiry). ro ham, fraiham idam, kith va, Patham tr.arana-jar.mam wcarayantare vetlham mahat tat phalatn esyasi.

I. 40

74

The Principal Upanisads

of the universe, so Atman is the foundational reality under- lying the conscious powers of the individual, the inward ground of the human soul There is an ultimate depth to our life below the plane of thinking and striving 'The Atman is the super- reality of the jiva, the individual ego

The Chdndogya Upamsad gives us a story, where gods and demons both anxious to learn the true nature of the Self approach Pra]a-pati who maintains that the ultimate self is free from sin, free from old age, free from death and grief, free from hunger and thirst, which desires nothing and imagines nothing It is the persisting spirit, that which remains constant in all the vicissitudes of waking, dream and sleep, death, rebirth and deliverance The whole account assumes that there is consciousness even in the apparently unconscious states, when we sleep, when we are drugged or stunned The gods sent Indra and the demons Virocana as their representatives to learn the truth The first suggestion is that the self is the image that we see in the eye, in water or m a mirror The con- ception of the self as the physical body is inadequate To indicate that what we see in another's eye, a pail of water or a mirror is not the true self, Pra]a-pati asked them to put on their best clothes and look again Indra saw the difficulty and said to Pra]a-pati that as this self (the shadow m the water) is well adorned when the body is well adorned, well dressed when the body is well dressed, well cleaned when the body is well cleaned, so that self will also be blind if the body is blind, lame if the body is lame, crippled if the body is crippled, and will perish in fact as soon as the body perishes Such a view cannot be accepted If the self is not tKe body, may it be the dreaming self? The second suggestion is that the true self is “he who moves about happy in dreams ' Again a difficulty was felt Indra says that, though it is true that this dreaming self is not affected by the changes of the body, yet in dreams we feel that we are struck or chased, we experience pain and shed tears We rage m dreams, storm with indignation, do things perverted, mean and malicious Indra feels that the self is not the same as dream-consciousness The self is not the composite of mental states, however independent they may be of the accidents of the body. Dream states are not self-existent Indra again approaches

Introduction

75

Praja-pati who gives him another suggestion that the self is the consciousness in deep sleep Indra feels that, in that state, there is consciousness neither of the self nor of the objective world Indra feels that he does not know himself nor does he know anything that exists He is gone to utter annihilation. But the self exists even m deep sleep Even when the object is not present, the subject is there The final reality is the active universal consciousness, which is not to be confused with either the bodily, or the dreaming consciousness or the consciousness in deep sleep. In the state of deep, dreamless sleep, the self wrapped round by the intellect has no consciousness of objects, but is not unconscious The true self is the absolute self, which is not an abstract metaphysical category but the authentic spiritual self The “other forms belong to objectified bemg. Self is life, not an object It is an experience, m which the self is the knowing subject and is at the same time the known object. Self is open only to self The life of the self is not set over against knowledge of it as an objective thing Self is not the objective reality, nor something purely subjective The subject-object relationship has meaning only in the world of objects, in the sphere of discursive knowledge The Self is the light of lights, and through it alone is there any light m the universe. It is perpetual, abiding light. It is that which neither lives nor dies, which has neither movement nor change and which endures when all else passes away It is that which sees and not the object seen Whatever is an object belongs to the not-self. The self is the constant witness-consciousness 1

The four states stand on the subjective side for the four lands of soul, VatSvdnara, the experiencer of gross things, Tatjasa, ™* expenencer of the subtle, Prdjna, the experiencer of the “^manifested objectivity, and the Tunya, the Supreme Self, ine Mandukya Upamsad, by an analysis of the four modes of consciousness, waking, dream, deep sleep and illumined con- sciousness, makes out that the last is the basis of the other three. S] J n Jkrough all months, years, seasons and kalpas, through all {divi- i ot time) past and future the consciousness remains one and self- ”“mnous It neither rises nor sets

fiasabda-yttga-kalpesu gatagamyesv anehatha nodeit nasiam ety eka samvid esa svayam-prabha.

Panca-da&i I 7.

76

The Principal Upamsads

On the objective side we have the cosmos, Virdj, the World-soul Hiranya-garbha, the Supreme God, Isvara, and the Absolute, Brahman 1 By looking upon Isvara as prajna, it is suggested that the supreme intelligence who dwells m the sleeping state holds all things in an unmanifested condition The divine wisdom sees all things, not as human reason does in parts and relations, but m the orgmal reason of their existence, their pnmal truth and reality It is what the Stoics call spermahkos or the seed Logos which is manifested m conscious beings as a number of seed logoi

In treatises on Yoga, the potential all-consciousness of the state of sleep is represented m the form of a radiant serpent called Kundahni or Vdg-devT We come across this representation m earlier treatises also In the Rg Veda, Vac is said to be the serpent queen, sarpa-rajni * The process of Yoga consists m rousing the radiant serpent and lifting it up from the lowest sphere to the heart, where m union vathprdna or life-breath its universal nature is realised and from it to the top of the skull It goes out through an opening called brahma-randhra to which corresponds in the cosmic organism the opening formed by the sun on the top of the vault of the sky

1 Cp William Law 'Though God is everywhere present, yet He is only present to thee m the deepest and most central part of thy soul The natural senses cannot possess God or unite thee to Him, nay, thy inward faculties of understanding, will and memory can only reach after God, but cannot be the place of His habitation m thee But there is a root or depth of thee from whence all these faculties come forth, as lines from a centre, or as branches from the body of the tree This depth is called the centre, the fund or bottom of the soul This depth is the unity, the eternity — I had almost said the infinity of thy soul, for it is so infinite that nothing can satisfy it or give it rest but the infinity of God ' Quoted m Perennial Philosophy by Aldous Huxley (1944), P 2 Again, 'My Me is God, nor do I recognise any other Me except my God Himself ' St Catherine of Genoa (ibid , p 11 )

Eckhart 'To gauge the soul we must gauge it with. God, for the Ground of God and the Ground of the soul are one and the same ' {ibid , p 12} Agam 'The highest part of the soul stands above time and knows nothing of time ' 'There is a principle m the soul altogether spiritual I used to call it a spiritual light or a spark But now I say that it is free of all names, void of all forms It is one and simple, as God is one and simple '

1 X 189, X 125 3 Alharva Veda IV 1

Introduction 77 XII

BRAHMAN AS ATMAN

In the early prose Upanisads, atman is the principle of the individual consciousness and Brahman the superpersonal ground of the cosmos Soon the distinction diminishes and the two are identified God is not merely the transcendent numinous other, but is also the universal spirit which is the basis of human personality and its ever-renewing vitalising power Brahman, the first principle of the universe, is known through atman, the inner self of man In the Satapatha Brahmana 1 and the Chandogya Upanisad 2 it is said 'Verily this whole world is Brahman,' and also 'This soul of mine within the heart, this is Brahman ' 'That person who is seen in the eye, He is atman, that is Brahman '3 God is both the wholly other, transcendent and utterly beyond the world and man, and yet he enters into man and lives in him and becomes the inmost content of his very existence 4

Narayana is the God m man who lives in constant association with nara, the human being. He is the immortal dwelling in the mortals 5 The human individual is more than the universe He lives independently in his own inexpressible infinity as well as in the cosmic harmonies We can be one with all cosmic existence entering into the cosmic consciousness We become superior

$tt X * 111 14 1

B»»r . 4 10 C P Keith 'It is impossible to deny that the Atman- ora&man doctrine has a long previous history in the Brahmanas and is

t elopment of the ldea of umt y of * he R S Ve <i<* ' The Religion

•T c ™ l *° s J>P h y of the Veda and the Upamsads, p 494 Heraclitus says 1 searched myself • The Logos is to be sought within, for man's nature is

r w° Sm and re P r esents the nature of the whole MvnS “°^ nus '° n e that seeks to penetrate the nature of the Divine Dovn+ T>, See ^Pty mto ^ natur e of his own soul, into the Divinest wl T 3 ? 511 He must fire t make abstraction of the body, then of the all a™ Wlu ? lx budt U P bodv ' then of a11 the faculties of sense, of tovra^rtt emotions and every such triviality, of all that leans we dK^K ”“^ mat K kit after this abstraction is the part which somenf +v e 4 . a ^ the lma S e 01 the Divme Mmd, an emanation preserving <C UTV tDmne Light V 39 6 s R V IV *2 ^ om ^ lva fe vats hs&mahsan&mhyalmanyavasthitam

7 8

The Prmctpal Upam$ads

to all cosmic existence by entering into the world-transcending consciousness Answering to the four grades of consciousness, waking, dream, deep sleep, spiritual consciousness, we have the four states of the individual, sthula (gross), sfikpna (subtle), karana (causal) and the pure self As livara is the cause of the world, so the causal self is the source of the development of the subtle and the gross bodies 1

XIII

THE STATUS OF THE WORLD MAYA AND AVIDYA

The ecstasy of divine union, the bliss of realisation tempts one to disregard the world with its imperfections and look upon it as a troubled and unhappy dream The actual fabnc of the world, with its loves and hates, with its wars and battles, with its jealousies and competitions as well as its unasked helpfulness, sustained intellectual effort, intense moral struggle seems to be no more than an unsubstantive dream, a phantas- magoria dancing on the fabnc of pure being Throughout the course of human history, men have taken refuge from the world of stresses, vexations and indignities m the apprehension of a spirit beyond The prayer to 'lead us from unreality to reality, from darkness to light, from death to immortality' assumes the distinction between reality, light and immortality and unreality, darkness and death The Katha Upam?ad warns us not to find reality and certainty in the unrealities and uncertainties of this world 2 The Chdndogya Upam$ad tells us that a covering of untruth hides from us the ultimate truth even as the surface of the earth hides from us the golden treasure hidden under it 3 The truth is covered by untruth, anrta The Brhad-dranyaka and the lia Ujximsads speak to us of the veiling of truth by a disc of gold and invoke the grace

' The first taltva is the root of manifestation, called tnahat or the great principle In ahamkara we find individual consciousness which proceeds from the intellectual principle by an individualising deter- mination Sometimes, cttta is said to be the first product of prakrh, with its triple character of buddht or discrimination, ahamkara or self-sense and manas or mind

» II 4 2, 3 VIII 3 1-3

Introduction

79

of God for removing the veil and letting us see the truth. 1 According to the Svetaivatara Upani$ad, we can achieve the cessation of the great world-illusion, viiva-maya-mvrttih by the worship of God. 3 If this aspect of spiritual experience were all, the world we live in, that of ignorance, darkness and death would be quite different from the world of underlying reality, the world of truth, light and life The distmction would become one of utter opposition between God and the world. The latter would be reduced to an evil dream from which we must wake up as soon as possible 3

Indifference to the world is not, however, the mam feature of spiritual consciousness Brahman, the completely trans- cendent, the pure silence has another side. Brahman is appre- hended m two ways. Sarhkara says, dvirupam ht brahma- vagamyate, nama-rupa-vikdra-bhedopadhi-viiistam, tad vipantam sarvopadhi-warptam Both the Absolute and the Personal God are real, only the former is the logical prius of the latter. The soul when it rises to full attention knows itself to be related to the single universal consciousness, but when it turns outward it sees the objective universe as a manifestation of this single consciousness. The withdrawal from the world is not the conclusive end of the spiritual quest. There is a return to the world accompanied by a persistent refusal to take the world as it confronts us as final. The world has to be redeemed and it can be redeemed because it has its source in God and final refuge m God.

There are many passages where the world of duality is suggested to be only seeming.4 The existence of duality is not admitted to be absolutely real. In the passage of the Chandogya Uj>ani ? ad regarding the modifications of the three fundamental constituents of being, fire, water and food, it is said that just as all that is made of clay, copper or iron is only a modification, a verbal expression, a simple name, the reality being clay,

r * 5 * * I 10

3 C P Afma-bodha 7

tSvat satyamjagad bhattm iuhtihSr-rajaiam yaihci

4 .^yj, yavan na jnayate brahma sarvadhisthanam advayam

IV , „ ibBn B a duality as it were (tva) ' B U II 4 14, see also

8o

The Principal Upamsads

primary forms of reality It is suggested that all things are reducible to reality, bemg mere modifications All this is to be understood as meaning that the Absolute stands above becoming and passing away which it transcends

In the Maitri Upanisad, the Absolute is compared to a spark, which, made to revolve, creates apparently a fiery circle, an idea expanded by Gaudapada m his Karika on the Mdndukya Upanisad This may suggest that the world is a mere appear- ance Even here the intention may well be to contrast the reality of the Absolute with empirical reality without making the latter an illusion

The assertion that with the knowledge of the Self all is known 1 does not exclude the reality of what is derived from the Self When the AUarcya Upanisad asserts that the universe is founded in consciousness and guided by it, it assumes the reality of the universe and not merely its apparent existence To seek the one is not to deny the many The world of name and form has its roots in Brahman, though it does not con- stitute the nature of Brahman 2 The world is neither one with Brahman nor wholly other than Brahman The world of fact cannot be apart from the world of bemg From one being no other being is born It exists only m another form, samsthanan- tarcna 3

Maya, in this view states the fact that Brahman without losing his integrity is the basis of the world Though devoid of all specifications, Brahman is the root cause of the universe * 'If a thing cannot subsist apart from something else, the latter is the essence of that thing ' The cause is logically prior to the effect 5 Questions of temporal beginning and growth are sub- ordinate to this relation of ground and consequent The world does not carry its own meaning To regard it as final and ultimate is an act of ignorance So long as the erroneous view

< B V II 4 5. 7, 9 C U VI i 2 M U I i 3

» aio ruma-THpe sanavasthe brahmanaw&tmavati, na brahma tad Stmifan f> on 1 V II 6 I

i & on C I' I 2 2 Irtsrasyajagatobrahma-kSryalvallad-ananyatvae ca SB II i 20

4 s-ni- t!”-a-rahtto'pt jagato miilant $ onKalhall 3 12

5 £ on B U II 4 7

o.'j/ stddhih ptul I dryolpalleh liHrnva sadbhSvah £ onBU I 2 1

Introduction 81

of the independence of the world does not disappear, our highest good will not be realised

The world is the creation of God, the active Lord. The finite is the self-limitation of the infinite. No finite can exist in and by itself It exists by the infinite If we seek the dynamic aspect we are inclined to repudiate the expenence of pure conscious- ness. It is not a question of either pure consciousness or dynamic consciousness These are the different statuses of the one Reality They are present simultaneously in the universal awareness

The dependence of the world on God is explained in different ways In the Chandogya Upanisad, Brahman is defined as tarfalan as that {tat) which gives rise to (?«), absorbs (U) and sustains [an) the world 1 The Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad argues that satyam consists of three syllables, sa, it, yam, the first and the last being real and the second unreal, madhyato anrtam The fleeting is enclosed on both sides by an eternity which is real * The world comes from Brahman and returns to Brahman Whatever exists owes its being to Brahman 3 The different metaphors are used to indicate how the universe rises from its central root, how the emanation takes place while the Brahman remams ever-complete, undiminished 4 'As a spider sends forth and draws in (its thread), as herbs grow on the earth, as the hair (grows) on the head and the body of a living person, so from the Imperishable arises here the universe '5 Again, 'As from a

' HI i 4

n ^ 1 1 Be ^ e te ” s of the Anglo-Saxon Council summoned to decide w the question of the acceptance of the Christian faith m 627 One of the th P om P ared 1:116 We of man on earth with the flight of a sparrow storm f ban 1 uet hal1 m winter, 'a good fire in the midst, whilst the one h ram and snow P revai1 abroad, the sparrow, I say, flying in at from tif' and lmmedia *ely out at another, whilst he is withm, is safe immprf 1 y™* 37 storm, but after a short space of fair weather, he he had vamshes out of your sight, into the dark winter from which Went So this hf e of man appears for a short space, but of what

VeneraKit 01 what M to foUow we are utterly ignorant ' Bede the see B G in 28 eStaSftCa ' History of the English Nation (1916), pp 91 ff

; s c MT y iii.bu in s

Pvme its ; if * nuS ' Ima S me a spring which has no commencement, trann.,,11? J° r ^ ^ nv «rs. never exhausted by what they take, ever its full self ' III 8 9 Enneads 5 M U I. 1 7

82

The Principal Upamsads

blazing fire sparks of like form issue forth by the thousands even so, many kinds of beings issue forth from the Immutable and they return thither too '» The many are parts of Brahman even as waves are parts of the sea All the possibilities of the world are affirmed in the first being, God The whole universe before its manifestation was there The antecedent of the

/ manifested universe is the non-manifested universe, 1 e God God does not create the world but becomes it Creation is expression It is not a making of something out of nothing It is not making so much as becoming It is the self-projection of the Supreme Everything exists m the secret abode of the Supreme 2 The primary reality contains within itself the source of its own motion and change The Sveta&vatara Upamsad mentions the different'views of

creation held at the time of its composition, that it is due J ' to time, to nature, to necessity, to chance, to the elements, to the Person or the combmation of these It repudiates all these views and traces the world to the power of the Supreme 3

The Svetasvatara Upamsad describes God as maym, the wonder-working powerful Being, who creates the world by His

■II i i

1 In the Rg Veda there are suggestions that the Imperishable is the basis of the world and that a personal Lord Brakmanas-pati (X 72 2), Vt&va-karman (literally the All-maker), Purusa (X 90), Htranya-garbha (X 121 1) produces tiie world The Upamsads refer to the early cosmo- logical speculations, but these are not their real interest

3 Gaudapada mentions different theories of creation Some look upon creation as the manifestation of the superhuman power of God, vtbhutt, others look upon it as of the same nature as dream and illusion, svapna-maya-svarSpd, others trace it to the will of God tcchS-malram prabhoh srstih Still others look upon kala or tune as the source, some look upon creation as intended for the enjoyment of God (bhoga) , still others attribute it to mere sport (krida), but Gaudapada's own view is that creation is the expression of the nature of the Supreme, 'for what desire is possible for Him whose desire 15 always fulfilled 7 '

devasyaisa svabhavo'yam apta-kumasya ka sprka Karika I 6-9

The world is the revelation of God's nature To the question, why does perfect being instead of remaining eternally concentrated in itself suffer the accident of manifesting this world, the answer is that manifesting is of the very nature of God We need not seek a cause or a motive or a purpose for that which is, in its nature, eternally self -existent and free The sole object of the dance of Siva is the dance itself

Introduction

83

powers. 1 Here mayd is used in the sense in which the Rg Veda employs it, the divine art or power by which the divinity makes a likeness of the eternal prototypes or ideas inherent in his nature Indra is declared to have assumed many shapes by his maya. 1 Maya is the power of I&vara from which the world arises He has made this world, 'formed man out of the dust of the ground and breathed into him a Irving soul.' All the works of the world are wrought by Hrm. Every existence contained in time is ontologically present in creative eternity. The Supreme is both transcendent and immanent. It is the one, breathing breathless, tad ekam, antd avatam. It is the manifest and the unmanifest, vyaktdvyaktdh, the silent and the articulate, iabddiabddh. It is the real and the unreal, sad-asat,3 While the world is treated as an appearance in regard to pure being, which is indivisible and immutable, it is the creation of I&oara who has the power of manifestation. Maya, is that which measures out, moulds forms in the formless. God has control

' III 10 This power or Sahti is contained in the Supreme as oil in oilseeds

itvecchayS para iaklih hva-taltvaikatam gala Jatah pansphuraly Sdau sarge iatlam Mad tva The power is Sakii or Maya. We speak in inadequate ways when we speak of Sakh as Maya Narada tells Rama m the Devi Bhagavaia, that this power is eternal, primeval, and everlasting

Srnu rama sada nitya iakiir adya sanaiani. Nothing is able to stir without its aid:

tasyah iakttth vtna ko'pi spanditum na ksamo bhavel. When we distinguish the creation, preservation and dissolution in the wrm of Brahma, Vtsnu and £iva, then: power is also this Sakti: mstioh palana-iakiis sa karir-iaktth ptltir mama ntdrasya nSia-iaktts sa y, Ivanya-iaktth para itva.

ine energy of everyone is a part of the divine SaHt The Supreme with « power created the creator Brahma, puroam santsrjya brahmadtn

in regard to Rama and Sita, Slta becomes Sakti In the Sila U. she « said to be mCtla-prakrto

V'l ha ^ va ^}^yamu1a^ahrit-samjiiUS. is non e P evi V- Durga's name is accounted for. 'Beyond whom there B called Dnrga. Because she saves from crisis therefore she a caued Dorga '

yasyah parataram r.asti, satsa durga prdktritia 1 irr attrgal samirayate yasmad devi durgeti kathyate.

j?v 4 V 8:seeBUIL 5 19. *- vx 5 7-MU.II. 2 1 PraSnaU 5 6.

8 4

The Principal Upamsads

of maya, he is not subject to it If God were subject to maya. he would not be infinite supreme existence Any being compelled to manifest itself is not free Isvara has m him the power of manifestation, non-manifestation and other-manifestation, kartum, a-kartum, anyatha-kartum Brahman is logically prior to Isvara who has the power of manifestation, and takes him over into His transcendental being when He is not manifestmg His nature

This dual nature of the Supreme provides the basis for the reality of personality in God and man, and so for authentic religious experience This world, far from being unreal, is intimately connected with the Divine Reality This complex evolving universe is a progressive manifestation of the powers of the Supreme Spirit from matter to spiritual freedom, from anna to ananda The purpose of the cosmic evolution is to reveal the spirit underlying it God lives, feels and suffers m every one of us, and m course of time His attributes, knowledge, beauty and love will be revealed m each of us

When the Katha Upamsad says that the Supreme Lord experiences the results of deeds, 1 it suggests that we are the images and likenesses of God, and when we experience the results of our deeds, He does also There is an intimate con- nection between God and the world of souls *

Deussen holds that the idealistic monism of Yajnavalkya is the mam teaching of the Upamsads and the other doctrines of theism, and cosmogonism are deviations from it caused by the inability of man to remain on the heights of pure speculative thought The view which regards the universe as actually real, the Atman as the universe which we know, and the theistic developments are said to be departures from the exalted idealism of Yajnavalkya It is not necessary to look upon the theism emphasised m the Katha and the Svetasvatara Upamsads

• I 3 i

1 Cp Angelus Silcsius 'I know that without me God cannot live an instant '

Eckhart 'God needs me as much as I need him '

Lad> Julian 'We are God's bliss, for in us He enjoyeth without end ' When Pascal states that Jesus Chnst will be in agony till the end of the world, he means that there is a side to God, the temporal, where he suffers m ctezy innocent man who is persecuted and tortured

Introduction

85

as a declension from the pure monistic idealism It is m the direct line of development of Upamsad thought

The Absolute is not a metaphysical abstraction or a void of silence It is the absolute of this relative world of manifesta- tion What is subject to change and growth in the world of becoming reaches its fulfilment m the world of the Absolute. The Beyond is not an annulling or a cancellation of the world of becoming, but its transfiguration The Absolute is the life of this life, the truth of this truth

If the world were altogether unreal, we cannot progress from the unreal to the Real If a passage is possible from the empirical to the Real, the Real is to be found m the empirical also The ignorance of the mind and the senses and the apparent futilities ^ of human life are the material for the self-expression of that Being, for its unfolding. Brahman accepts world existence The Ultimate Reality sustains the play of the world and dwells in it <f That is why we are able to measure the distance of the things of the world from the Absolute and evaluate their grades of being 1 There is nothing in this world which is not lit up by God Even the material objects which lack the intelligence to discover the nature of the divine ground of their being are the emanations of the creative energy of God and they are able to reveal to the discerning eye the divine within their material frames What is not possible for inanimate and non-rational beings is open to the rational human being He can attam to a knowledge of the divine ground of his being He is not coerced into it, but has to attain it by the exercise of his choice The mchangeableness of the Supreme does not mean that the universe is a perfectly articulated mechanism m which every- thing is given from the beginning The world is real as based on Brahnan-, it is unreal by itself

Cosmic existence partakes of the character of the real and the

equ^f ^ Bernar d 'God -who, in his simple substance, is all everywhere than f ' nevertne ^ ess . m efficacy, is in. rational creatures in another way than 1 n tff^h 1011 ^* an( * ln g00t * ratlonal creatures in another way is m irrational creatures m such a way as not to comiitt* j j ded by them - b y a11 rational ones, however, he can be comnrlvjT, trough knowledge, but only by the good is he to be comprehended also through love ■

86

The Principal Upant sads

unreal It is aspiring to become completely real 1 The Chandogya Upamsad rejects the view that the world was originally a-sat or non-being, and from it all existence was produced * It affirms 'In the beginning this world was ]ust being, one only without a second '3

y The Supreme is described as a kavt, a poet, an artist, a maker or creator, not a mere mutator Even as art reveals man's wealth of life, so does the world reveal the immensity of God's life The

I Brahma Sutra refers to the creation of the world as an act of hild, play, the joy of the poet, eternally young

If immutability is the criterion of reality, then the world of manifestation has no claim to reality Change is the pervading feature of the world Changing things imply non-existence at the beginning and non-existence at the end * They are not constantly present Mortality is imprinted on all beings who are subject to birth, decay, dissolution and death This very planet will decline and dissolve While change is the mark of the relative world, this changing world reaches its fulfilment in the Absolute What is incomplete m the relative world of becoming is completed in the absolute world of being

Maya is also used for prakrh, the objective principle which the personal God uses for creation All nature, even in the lowest, is in ceaseless movement, aspiring to the next higher stage, of which it is itself an image or lower manifestation Prakrh, not-self, matter all but cast out from the sphere of being, is tending feebly to get back to the self, receives form and is thus linked up with Absolute Bemg Even matter is Brahman 5 Prakrit by itself is more a demand of thought than a fact of existence Even the lowest existence has received the impress of the Creative Self It is not utter non-existence Abso-

» Cp Vakya-sudha

ash bh&H priyam rupam nama cely amia-paHcakam Sdyam trayam brahma-ritpam jagad-ritpam ato dvayam

“VI 21 3 VI 2 2 sad-aspadam sarvam sarvalra S

4 Sdav ante ca yan nasli vartamane 'pi tat tatha Gaudapada KurikcL

II 6

Milarepa, the Tibetan mystic says 'All worldly pursuits end in dispersion, buildings in destruction, meetings in separation, births in death '

5 annam brahmch vyajanSt T U. Ill

Introduction

87

lute non-being is non-existent. It is impossible in a world which flows freely from the bounty of being Prakrtt is called non- being It is not strictly correct. This description indicates its distance from being. It is the ultimate possibility on the side of descent from the Divine, almost non-being, but not utter non-being.

While prakrtt is said to be the maya of God, its forms seem to us individual souls to be external to us. It is the source of our ignorance of its real nature.

While the world is created by the power of maya of livara, the individual soul is bound down by maya in the sense of mdya, or ignorance The manifestation of Primordial Being is also a concealment of His original nature. The self-luminous moves about clothed in the splendours of the cosmic light which are not His real nature We must tear the cosmic veil and get behind the golden brightness which Savitr has diffused The Upanisad says 'Two birds, inseparable friends cling to the same tree. One of them eats the sweet fruit, the other looks on without eatmg. On the same tree man sits, grieving, immersed, bewildered by bis own impotence (an-Ua) But when he sees the other lord (&«), contented and knows his glory, then his grief passes away '* We mistake the multiplicity for ultimate reality. If we overlook the unity, we are lost in ignorance

When we get to the concept of prakrtt we are in the realm of Btranya-garbha. The similes employed by the Upamsads, salt and water, fire and sparks, spider and thread, flute and sound assume the existence of an element different from being Into the original stillness of prakrti, Btranya-garbha or Brahma sends sound, nada-brahma By his ecstatic dance the world evolves. This is the meaning of the symbol of Nafa-rdja. His dance is not an illusion It is a timeless fact of the Divine Reality The forms are manifestations of the Real, not arbitrary inventions out of nothing. Form, rupa, is the revelation of the formless a-rupa. «a»w, name, is not the word by which we describe the object' out it is the power or the character of reality which the form of a thing embodies The Infinite is nameless for it includes au names The emphasis right through is on the dependence of

» S.U. IV 6 and 7.

88

The Principal Upamsads

the world on Brahman The relative rests in the Absolute There can be no echo without a noise The world is not self- explanatory, it is not the cause of itself It is an effect The lia Upamsad indicates that the basic reality is the One, and the derivative and dependent reality is the many 1 When the Kena Upamsad says that Brahman is the mind of mind, the life of life, it does not assert the unreality of mind and life, but affirms the inferiority, the incompleteness of our present existence All that we find in the world is an imperfect representation, a divided expression of what is eternally in the Absolute Being

The world depends on Brahman, and not Brahman on the world 'God is the dwelling-place of the universe, but the uni- verse is not the dwelling-place of God' is a well-known Rabbmic dictum The world of experience with its three states of waking, dream and deep sleep is based on the subject-object relation This duality is the principle of all manifestation The objects are perceived in both dream and waking and the distinction of seer and seen is present m both The world of manifestation is dependent on the Absolute The Absolute Spirit which transcends the distinction between the subject and the object is logically prior to the manifested world 1 The world is a process of becoming, it is not being

The Upamsads make it clear that the waking state and the dream state are quite distinct The objects of the dream state are illusory, not so those of waking experience “There are no chariots in that state (of dreaming), no horses, no roads He himself creates chariots, horses, roads '3 Imaginary objects exist only during the time we imagine them, kalpana-kala, but factual objects exist not only when we perceive them but also when we do not perceive them, bahyas ca dvaya-kalah* The spatio-temporal order is a fact, not a state of mmd or a phase of consciousness

Avtdyd is mentioned in the Upamsads as the source of delusion The Katlia Upamsad speaks -of people living in ignorance and thinking themselves wise, who move about wandering m search of reality, like blind men following the

1 4 and 5 1 See Gaudapada Kanka on Ma U II 4 and 5

3 B U IV 3 9 and 10. * $ on Mandttkya Ranks II 14

Introduction

89

blind If they had lodged themselves in vidya, wisdom, instead of avidya, ignorance, they would easily have seen the truth 1 The Chandogya Upamsad distinguishes between vidya or knowledge which is power and avidya. or ignorance which is impotence 4 While maya. is more cosmic in significance, avidya is more subjective We are subject to avidya when we look upon the multiplicity of objects and egos as final and funda- mental Such a view falsifies the truth It is the illusion of ignorance. The world of multiplicity is out there, and has its place, but if we look upon it as a self-existing cosmos, we are making an error.3 While the world process reveals certain possibilities of the Real, it also conceals the full nature of the Real Avidya breeds selfishness and becomes a knot m the heart which we should untie before we can get possession of the Self in the recesses of our heart 4 The Prahia Upamsad tells us that we cannot reach the world of Brahman unless we have shaken off the crookedness in us, the falsehood (anrtam) in us, the illusion (maya) in us 5

The world has tie tendency to delude us into thinking that it is all, that it is self-dependent, and this delusive character of the world is also designated maya. m the sense of avidya. When we are asked to overcome maya, it is an injunction to avoid worldhness Let us not put our trust in the things of this world. Maya, is concerned not with the existence of the world but with its meaning, not with the factuality of the world but with the way in which we look upon it

There are passages in the Upanisads which make out that the world is an appearance, vacdrambhanam vikdro ndmadheyam, while Reality is pure bemg. There are others which grant reality to the world, though they maintain that it has no reality apart from Brahman Sarnkara tells us that the former is the true teaching of the Upanisads, while the latter view is put forward only tentatively as a first step in the teaching to be later

” Kaiha I 2. 4. 5 * I 1 1

3 Ma y* 13 viewed as the power that makes for delusion 1 I0 ' wSi co mohartha-vacanah yai ca prapana-vacdkah tarn prapayah ya mtyam, sS maya pankirttta <MTJ it T t Brahma-vaivariaPuranaXKVIl.

' • i1,1 - 10 sr. 16

go

The Principal Upanisads

withdrawn The reality conceded to the world is not ultimate It is only empirical

If we keep in mind the fourfold character of the Supreme, we shall avoid confusion in regard to the status of the world If we concentrate attention on Brahman, the Absolute, we feel that the world is not independent of Brahman but rests m Brahman The relationship between the two cannot be logically articu- lated If we turn to the personal livara, we know that the world is the creation of Brahman and not its organic expression The power of creation is called maya If we turn to the world process which is a perpetual becoming, it is a mixture of being and non-being, sat and asat, the divine principle and prakrtt Hiranya-garbha and his world are both subject to tune, and should be distinguished from the eternal But the temporal becoming is by no means false

As to why the Supreme has this fourfold character, why it is what it is, we can only accept it as the given reality It is the ultimate irrationality in the sense that no logical derivation of the given is possible It is apprehended by us in spiritual con- sciousness, and accounts for the nature of experience in all its aspects It is the only philosophical explanation that is possible or necessary

XIV

THE INDIVIDUAL SELF

Jiva is literally, 'that which breathes,' from jiv 'to breathe ' It referred originally to the biological aspect of man's nature which goes on throughout life, m waking, dream and sleep It is called purusa in the sense of pun-iaya or 'that which dwells in the citadel of the heart ' This means that the biological serves the ends of another, the soul or psyche 'It is this soul which reaps the fruits of deeds and survives the death of the physical body It is the bhoktr, the enjoyer, hartr, the doer 1 It is the vijMna-tnaya atma The jiva consists of a material body, the

» See Praina IV 9 Kafka I 3 4

Introduction 91

principle of breath {prdna), regulating the unconscious activi- ties of the individual, and the principle of conscious activities {manas) which uses the five sensory organs (indnyas) of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste and the five organs of action, viz speech, hands, feet, excretory and generative organs. All these are organised by vijndna or buddhi. The basis of the indi- viduality of the ego is vijndna or intelligence which draws round itself mind, life and body. 1 The ego belongs to the relative world, is a stream of experience, a fluent mass of life, a centre round which our experiences of sense and mind gather. At the back of this whole structure is the Universal Consciousness, Atman, which is our true being.

The human individual is a complex of five elements, anna, pram, manas, mjMna and ananda. The Highest Spirit which is the ground of all being, with which man's whole being should get united at the end of his journey, does not contribute to his self-sense. Life and matter are organised into the gross physical body, sthula-ianra, mind and life into the subtle body, suksma-farira, intelligence into the causal body, karana-iarira and Atman, the Universal Self is the supreme being sustaining the others The ego is the manifestation of the Universal Self using memory and moral being which are changing formations. Purusa is sometimes used for the Atman which is higher than buddht Buddhi belongs to the objective hierarchy of being Purusa is the subjective light of consciousness that is reflected in all beings

The natural sciences, physics and chemistry, anatomy and Physiology, psychology and sociology treat man as an object of inquiry. They show that man is a link in the chain of living Jemgs, one among many He has a body and a mind which belong to him, but his self is not derived from any of these, tnough it is at the root of them all All empirical causalities and

be!n£ P Tn He i W * ° lm ? WS more and more clearl y ^ stains fuller Thfi «»m « trees sa P onl y K seen > m aiun »als consciousness

mtelWr 1 .^ 6 , 311(1 more clear m man for he 18 most endowed with the S b l to0ws to - morr °w. he knows the world and what is not As for «Lm ^ v morfaI he desures the immortal, being thus endowed num«twf Ung f and thust com V^ their knowledge But this tafo Vvo^V 8 , above all-the world Whatever he reaches he desires u E° Beyond it ' Axtareya Aranyaka II 1 3

92

The Principal Upam?ads

biological processes of development apply to his outer being, but not to his self The physical, the biological, the psychological and the logical aspects are aspects of his nature, his koias, as the Taitttriya Upanisad calls them There are great possibilities of empirical investigation, but man is more than what he knows about himself

The ego is a unity of body, life, mind and intelligence It is not a mere flux, as some early Buddhists and Hindus thought. Intelligence which is the unifying principle gives us the ego- consciousness Memory is one factor which helps to preserve the continuity of the ego which is also influenced by a number of factors which are not present to our memory and are hardly grasped by our surface consciousness The sub-conscious plays a great part in it The nature of the ego depends on the principle of organisation and the experience to be organised As we have an enormous variety of experiences with which we can identify ourselves, an infinite number of objects which we can pursue, fame, career, possessions or power, we have an infinite number of individuals marked out by then: past and present experi- ences, their education and environment What we are depends on what we have been The ego is a changing formation on the background of the Eternal Being, the centre round which our mental and vital activities are organised The ego is perpetually changing, moving up and down, up towards union with the divine godhead or down to the fiendish extremes of selfishness, stupidity and sensuality The self-transcending capacity of the pva is the proof that it is not the limited entity it takes itself to be

The hierarchies of existence and value correspond The order of phenomena which has the lowest degree of reality in the existential scale has the lowest degree of value m the ethical or spmtual scale The human individual is higher than the animal, plant or mineral

What is the relation of the Universal Self to the individual selves? Different views are held on the matter 3amkara believes that the Universal Self is identical with the individual self The individual self is eternally one with and also different from the Universal Self, says Ramanuja The individual self is

Introduction 93

eternally different from the Universal Self according to Madhva. 1 When the soul is said to be an am&a or fragment of the Divine mind, it is to indicate that it is subsequent to the Divine mind, as a recipient of the Divine idea. The souls therefore serve as matter for the Divine Forms. This is the truth indicated in the Samkhya theory of the multiplicity of selves Though the self is one in all, in the manifested world, there is an amia, fragment, part or ray of the self which presides over the movements of our personal lives through the ages. This persistent divine form is the real individuality which governs the mutations of our being This is not the limited ego, but the Infinite Spirit reflecting itself in our personal experience. We are not a mere flux of body, life and mind thrown on the screen of a Pure Spirit which does not affect us in any way. Behind this flux there is the stable power of our being through which the Infinite Spirit manifests itself. The Divine has many modes of mani- festation, and at many levels, and the fulfilment of the purposes of these modes constitutes the supreme scope of the eternal kingdom In the world of manifestation the ground of created being is God's idea of it, which, because it is divine, is more real than the creature itself. The soul, therefore, represents an idea of the divine mind, and the different souls are the members of the Supreme. The soul draws its idea of perfection from the Divine Creator who has given it existence. The soul's substantial existence derives from the Divine mind, and its perfection consists in the vision of the Divine mind, in its effectuating thedivine pattern for it in its consciousness and character.

There does not seem to be any suggestion that the individual egos are unreal They all exist only through the Self and have no reality apart from It. The insistence on the unity of the T^? e Sdf M th& constitutive reality of the world and of the

indiwrt^?^*”? ° n the ^«. “Mia nSnS-vyapadeiSd anyatha cati (the tC are difiV^V 5 1 th6 W as it i» not taught that

and the tTa , also the contrary), §. indicates that 'the individual

ISTX.”? which h eat » the same (notmth- ttatToiTtL^ J£?^ a Z! ^^fhable from fire)' and concludes mearuneof™^! 2 doctlmes of difference and non-difierence the

94

The Pnncvpal Upamsads

latter The plurality of individual souls is admitted by the Upamsads The individuals do not resolve themselves m the Universal Absolute so long as the world of manifestation is functioning The released individuals know themselves as the Self and not as the psycho-physical vehicles which are animated by the Self and so are incarnations of the Self These vehicles are causally determined and are subject to change

The individual is, m a sense, created by God after His own image and in His own likeness, but he has his creaturely form We do not know our own possibilities The individual ego is subject to amdya or ignorance when it believes itself to be separate and different from all other egos The result of this separatist ego-sense, ahamkara, is failure to enter into harmony and unity with the universe This failure expresses itself m physical suffering and mental discord Selfish desire is the badge of subjection or bondage When the individual shakes off this avidya, he becomes free from all selfishness, possesses all and enjoys all 1

The unity of the Self does not make the distinctions of the individual souls irrelevant There is no mixing up of the fruits of action, as the different individual selves are kept distinct by their association with buddhi 1 Our lives become meaningful in so far as they partake of the divine logos The logos is seen m close connection with the logical or rational element in us The Divine Reason is immanent m our reason The ego's possession of intelligence gives it the capacity for moral choice It may either turn to the Indwelling Spirit or pursue the separate interests of the ego It may open itself to the Self or shut itself away from It One leads to light and life, the other to darkness and death We have the seeds of both m us We may live a life controlled by flesh and blood and earth-born intellect or we may lay ourselves open to God and let Him work m us As we choose the one or the other, we are led to death or immortality 3 When

• Cp Boettuus 'In other living creatures, ignorance of self is nature, in man it is vice '

2 bttddhi-bhedena bhoktr-bhed&l S SB II 3 49

3 Cp MB

amrtam catva ntftyut ca dvayam dehe pratisfhitam mrtyur apadyale mokat, satyenapadyate amrtam 'In each human body the two principles of immortality and death are

Introduction 95

we forget our true nature and lose ourselves in the things of the world, we have evil and suffering

Alienation from our true nature is hell, and union with it is heaven There is a perpetual strain in human Me, an effort to reach from the arbitrary into an ideal state of existence. When we divinise our nature, our body, mind and spirit work flawlessly together and attain a rhythm which is rare in life

Without the individual there is neither bondage nor libera- tion The Eternal in His transcendent form as Brahman or cosmic being as livara does not arrive at immortality. It is the individual who is subject to ignorance and who rises to self- knowledge. The self-expression of the Supreme through the individuals will continue until it is completed The Divine possesses always its unity, and Its aim in the cosmic process is to possess it in an infinite experience through many conscious selves So long as we are subject to ignorance, we stand away from God and are immersed in our limited egos. When we rise to self-knowledge, we are taken up mto the Divine Being and become aware of the Infinite, Universal Consciousness in which we live.

XV

INTUITION AND INTELLECT. yIDYA (KNOWLEDGE) AND AVIDYA (IGNORANCE)

If buddht, vyMna, intelligence, has its being turned towards the Universal Self it develops intuition or true knowledge, Wisdom. But ordinarily, intelligence is engaged in discursive reasoning and reaches a knowledge which is, at best, imperfect, t toough the processes of doubt, logic and skilful demonstration u reflects on the data supplied by manas or the sense-mind with ts knowledge rooted in sensations and appetites At the intellectual level we grope with an external vision of things, bte ?L eCtS are extrmsicall y opposed to one another. We are its ' h ♦ eiTOr Znd capacity. Integral knowledge possesses is o°f? v truly and securel y- Nothing is external to it. Nothing

0 The Principal Upant$ads

all-comprehensive self-awareness It is the means of knowledge and knowledge itself

Intuitive knowing is immediate as distinct from the discursive and mediate knowledge It is more immediate than sensory intuition, for it overcomes the distinction between the knower and the known which subsists in sense-intuition It is the perfect knowledge, while all other knowledge is incomplete and imperfect m so far as it does not bring about an identification between subject and object All other knowledge is indirect and has only symbolic or representative value The only generally effective knowledge is that which penetrates into the very nature of things But m lower forms of knowledge this pene- tration of the subject into the object is limited and partial Scientific understanding assumes that an object can be known only if it is broken up into its simpler constituents. If anything organic is handled m this manner, its significance is lost By employing intuitive consciousness we know the object with less distortion and more actuality We get close to perceiving the thing as it is

/ Knowledge presupposes unity or oneness of thought and being, a unity that transcends the differentiation of subject and object Such knowledge is revealed in man's very existence 1 It is unveiled rather than acquired Knowledge is concealed in ignorance and when the latter is removed the former mani- fests itself What we are, that we behold, and what we behold, that we are Our thought, our life and our being are uplifted in simplicity and we are made one with truth Though we cannot understand or describe, we taste and we possess. We become new 1 When the beatific vision of Absolute Being has

1 Eckhart says 'God in the fullness of His Godhead dwells eternally in His image (the soul itself) * Rudolf Otto Mysticism East and. West (1932). P ”

* Cp Plotinus 'And one that shall know this vision— with what passion of love shall he not be seized, with what pang of desire, what longing to be molten into one witii this, what wondering delight 1 If he that has never seen this Being must hunger for It as for all his welfare, he that has known must love and reverence It as the very Beauty, he will be flooded with awe and gladness stricken by a salutary terror, he loves with a veritable love, with sharp desire, all other loves than this he must despise, and disdain all that once seemed fair ' Enneads E T MacKenna Vol I (1917), p 86

Introduction 97

once dawned on the dazzled beholder, the savour of the phe- nomenal is gone for it is seen to be steeped in the noumenal

The report which the mind and the senses give, so long as they are unenlightened by the spirit in us, is a misleading report. Yet that report is the basis from which we have to proceed What the world and the individual seem to be are a distortion of what they really are, and yet through that distortion we arrive at the reality. Even as the conclusions of common sense are corrected by those of scientific understanding, the conclusions of the latter require to be corrected by the light of the spirit m us The abstractions of the intellect require to be converted into the actuality of spiritual experience and the concrete vision of the soul.

If the real is misconceived as an object of knowledge, it cannot be known. Empirical objects may be known by outer observation or inner introspection But the self cannot divide itself into the knower and the known. Logical reasoning is incapable of comprehending tbe living unity of God and man, the absolute and the relative. Logical incapacity is not evidence of actual hnpossibihty. Reality unites what discursive reason is incapable of holding together. Every atom of life is a witness to the oneness and duality of God and the world. Being can never be objectified or externalised. It is co-inherent and co-existent in man. It is unknowable because we identify existence with objectivity This is true, to a limited extent, of purely external things like tables and chairs. They are net to be reduced to sensations or concepts arising in the knowing mind But spiritual reality is not revealed in the way in which objects of the natural world or principles of logic are appre- hended Yajfiavalkya tells us that the self is its own light when the sun has set, when the moon has set, when the fire is put out, atnmvasya jyohr bhaoati 1 It is our deepest being behind the vestures of body, life, mind and intellect. Objectivity is not the criterion of reality, but the criterion is reabty itself revealed in our very being. We ask for a criterion of knowledge on the assumption of a duality between the knowing subject and the known object. If the object appears alien and impenetrable,

» IV. 3. 3-6.

98

The Pnticipal Upamsads

then the question of knowing it becomes a problem. But no object can be set in opposition to the spirit and so the question of criterion does not arise True knowledge is an integral creative activity of the spirit which does not know anything external at all For it everything is its own life Here there is identity, possession, absorption of the object at the deepest level Truth m spiritual life is neither the reflection nor the expression of any other reality It is reality itself Those who know the truth become the truth brahma-vid brahmaiva bhavatt It is not a question of having an idea or a perception of the real It is just tie revelation of the real It is the illumination of being and of life itself It is satyam, jfiatum Knowledge and bemg are the same thing, inseparable aspects of a single reality, bemg no longer even distinguishable in that sphere where all is without duality

Where there is duality, there one sees another, hears another We have objective knowledge 1 While vtjMna deals with the world of duality, dnanda implies the fundamental identity of subject and object, non-duality Objectrfication is estrange- ment The objective world is the 'fallen' world, disintegrated and enslaved, in which the subject is alienated from the object of knowledge It is the world of disruption, disunion, alienation In the 'fallen' condition, man's mind is never free from the compulsion exercised by objective realities We struggle to overcome disunion, estrangement, to become superior to the objective world with its laws and determinations

We cannot, however, become aware of the true life m its unity and multiplicity, in its absoluteness and relativity, if we do not free ourselves from the world of divided and isolated objects In the objective world where estrangement and limitations prevail, there are unpenetrable entities, but in the knowledge where we have fullness and boundlessness of life nothing is external, but all is known from withm Intellect moves from object to object Unable to comprehend them all it retains their multiplicity Intellectualknowledge is a scattered, broken movement of the one undivided infinite life which is all-possessing and ever satisfied Intuitive knowing is un-

» B U. II. 4. 14

Introduction 99

imprisoned by the divisions of space, successions of time or sequences of cause and effect. Our intellectual picture is a shadow cast by the integral knowledge which possesses the object truly and securely

Reality is a fact, and facts are apprehended by intuition, whether perceptual or non-perceptual The divine primordial reality is not a fact of the empirical world, and yet as the central spiritual fact we must have a direct apprehension of it Our logical knowledge can give us indirect approximation to it but not a direct grasp of it. 1 The seers of the Upamsads not only have deep vision but are able to translate their visions into intelligible and persuasive speech. They can do so only through hints and images, suggestions and symbols, for they are not susceptible of adequate expression.

The Upanisads distinguish between a-pard vidya, lower knowledge and para vidya or higher wisdom While the former gives us knowledge of the Vedas and the sciences, the latter helps us to gain the knowledge of the Imperishable * The first principle disguises itself.3 In the Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad, the self is seen as the reality of reality 4 The reality of the world is the empirical; the true reality is the atman, the self which the empirical reality conceals A distinction is made between the taiower of texts and the knower of the self in the Chandogya Ufmtais Svetaketu cannot understand the question of

unwl+fc 0 ^ Smitl1 ' the Platomst. 'Jejune and barren speculations may lovetyfact ' atUrCS ° f Truth ' s ga™ 1611 * fc ut t^ey cannot discover her WiLham La W wites 'To find or know God in reality by any outward evident” ^ ^ytkmg but by God Himself made manifest and self- neith«:^/ OU ' ^ never 06 y° ur case either here or hereafter If For anv oth«° ' T heaven ' nor heU ' nor ti» devd - nor the flesh, can be and m? n ,w e J ai0wable m you or by yo«. t™t by their own existence thas w7° n ™ vou - ^ aU pretended knowledge of any of these witkn °, nd ^ nd wrttout this self-evident sensibility of their birth liEhtthVt sudl fcKwledge of them as the blind man hath of the ' Mtt t never entered “ito b™ ' Mere book knowledge is of no

use.

nadhir na jayate tasya kalpa-koft-iatair apt

3 R V X «r . » Saf-karma-dipika

ioo The Principal Upanisads

rebirth, despite much Vedic learning The Taiihriya Upam$ad reduces the knowledge of the Vedas to an inferior position by assigning it to tnano-maya (mind-made) self which has to be surmounted before final truth is attained 1 The self is perceived, according to the Katha Upanisad, not by logical reason but by spiritual contemplation, adhy&ima-yoga * The real is not attained by force of intellect or by much learning but is revealed to the aspirant whose will is at rest in Him 3 We realise God by the clarity of lUumination. jndna-prasadena 4

The Brhad-aranyaka Upam§ad teaches that, while those who put their trust in the intellect cannot attam to a knowledge of Brahman, yet there is an apprehension of His being by those who are childlike.5 BdVya includes humility, receptivity or teachableness and an earnest search The writer asks us to give up the pnde of learning, pdnditya. A self-denial which includes our intellectual pnde and power is demanded Purity of intellect is different from congestion of it To attain purity of vision, we require a childlike nature which we can get by tranquillising the senses, simplifying the heart and cleaning the mind

It is through quietening the strivings of the will and the empirical intellect that the conditions are realised for the revelation of the Supreme m the individual soul 'Therefore having become calm, subdued, quiet, patiently enduring and collected, one sees the Self just in the self ' 6

Even as we have an intellectual discipline for the theoretical understanding of the world, we have a moral and spiritual discipline for the direct apprehension of truth Even as we cannot understand the art of swimming by talking about it and can learn it only by getting into the water and practising swimming, so also no amount of theoretical knowledge can serve as a substitute for the practice of the life of spirit We can know God only by becoming godlike To become godlike is to become aware of the light in us, by returning consciously to the divine centre within us, where we have always been without our knowing it. Detachment (vairagya) is the essential

1 II 3 * II 12 3 Ka}ha II 20 and 23

4 M U III 1 8

5 III 5 See also Subala V 13, ' BU IV 4 23

Introduction

101

means for the attainment of wisdom (ffiana).* Only the pure in heart can see God.

We must cultivate a religious disposition. God is revealed only to those who believe that He is s When in doubt, later tradition asks us to give the benefit of the doubt to the theist. For if there is no God, there is no harm in believing in Him; if there is, the atheist would suffer.3 Faith, as trust in the universe, in its rehabihty, in its essential soundness and decency, is the starting-point of spiritual development.

Spiritual inclination is essential for the pursuit of spiritual life. In the Brhai-aranyaka. Upamsad, Yajnavalkya offers to divide all his earthly possessions between his two wives, Katyayani and Maitreyi. The latter asks whether the whole world filled with wealth can give her life eternal. Yapavalkya says: 'No, your life will be just like that of people who have plenty of things, but there is no hope of life eternal through wealth.' Maitreyi spurns the riches of the world remarking, r What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal?' Yajfiavalkya recognises the spiritual fitness of his wife and teaches her the highest wisdom

Ethical preparation is insisted on. If we do not abstain from wrong-doing, if we are not composed in our rninds, we cannot attain to spiritual wisdom.4 Our moral being must be purged <h all evil The Svetasvatara Upamsad tells tis that we should c kanse our natures to reach the goal, since even a mirror can reflect an image properly only if it is cleansed of its impurities.s we must renounce selfish desire, surrender material possessions, oecome bereft of egotism. The path is 'sharp as the edge of a and hard to cross, difficult to tread.'«

wri» T Chet Wh ° haS attained fl« goal may help the aspiring °;~ T ™ a b has not only to be demonstrated but also com- JMMcated. It is relatively easy to demonstrate a truth, but it t com mumcated only by one who has thought, willed and

Iedee to ^^ addmam 3? 6 ' which compares detachment and know-

CeJw* 11

' J&ftTS^ 4 t0 lte eternal iome of freedom and peace.*

, “I™ 11 6 12 and 13 v

«ffi 2 ,f unil '5 ^ n 14-15

1 3 *4 » CU.IY 9 3 Katkal. 2 &4

102

The Principal Upam$ads

. felt the truth Only a teacher can give it with its concrete

quality He that has a teacher knows, acaryavan puruso veda »

Only he must be a proper teacher who embodies truth and

tradition Only those who have the flame in them can stir

the fire in others

The individual should develop the habit of introversion, of

abstracting from the outside world and looking within himself

By a process of abstraction we get behind knowing, feeling and

willing to the essential Self, the God within We must silence our

speech, mind and will We cannot hear the voice of the still

spirit in us, so long as we are lost in vain talk, mental rambling

and empty desires The mind must strip away its outer sheaths

in complete detachment, return to its inward quiet and fix

its attention on the essential Self which is the ground and

reality of the whole universe The Mundaka Upani?ad brings

out the need for concentrated attention and undistracted effort 2

An ordered, disciplined training of all our powers, a change of

mind, heart and will is demanded

Several forms of meditation are advised Symbols {pratlka)

are used as supports for meditation We are free to use the

symbols which are most in conformity with our personal

tendencies Meditation on the pranava is suggested in the

Mandukya Upamsad

It is said that the Self cannot be realised except by those

whom the Self chooses 3 Self-realisation is possible through the

grace of the Divine God-vision is the fruit of strenuous effort

and Divine grace 4 Only the Spirit m us can raise us to the

spiritual status The Real, which is the basis of this manifold

world of things and mmds, can be apprehended directly and

immediately only by those who fulfil certain conditions and

submit to the leadings of the spirit We do not so much hold the

idea of the Real as the idea holds us We are possessed by it

Vidya and avidya are two ways of apprehending Reality

■ CU VI 14 a 1 III i 8 3 Katha I 2 23 MU III 2 3 4 Cp St Bernard 'Grace is necessary to salvation, free will equally so, but grace in order to give salvation, free will in order to receive it Therefore we should not attribute part of the good work to grace and part to free will, it is performed in its entirety by the common and inseparable action of both, entirely by grace, entirely by free will, but springing from the first m the second '

Introduction

103

Both are forms of relative knowledge and belong to the mani- fested universe Knowledge formulated logically is not equiva- lent to a direct and immediate apprehension of the Real. Whatever words we use, whatever concepts we employ, fall short of reality 1 The amibliava is “beyond all manifestation and is complete in itself Vtdya. stresses the harmony and mterconnections of elements which make up the world; avidya the separateness, mutual independence and strife. Vtdya helps us to appreciate intellectually the intelligible ideas about the nature of the Divine ground and the nature of the direct experience of it in relation to other experiences. It indicates the means by which we can attain Brahman. Such a system of theological doctrine points out that there is nothing mtrmsically self-contradictory about the postulate of religion, viz the divine reality, and that it is also empirically verifiable if only we are willing to submit to a discipline. The theological knowledge or vidya is different from the experience or amibhava of it The experience is recorded as a pure and direct intellectual intuition in sruh. When we reflect on the experiences or their records and reduce them to a rational order we have smrti. While the first is the domain of metaphysical principles, the second applies these principles to individual and social conduct Vtdya is nearer the truth than avtdyd

But vtdya is also understood asjnana which is of the essential nature of the Divine Reality. It is then eternal wisdom which B not the knowledge possessed by any individual. It is the wisdom hidden beneath the sheaths of ignorance It is one with the Supreme Self, which is self-evident and needs no proof, wakkrstddha, self-vaM certainty

Though intuitive wisdom is different from knowledge of the «nses or anything we can achieve by logical reflection, it is not emofa C0Dfused ^ occu ttism, obscurantism, or extravagant r °, °° It; B n °t magical insight or heavenly vision, or special nation obtained through supernatural powers. What we

to pr^rt^S 5 ^ 2511 or - ^ centimes later, Thomas Aquinas refused attauied 1 * consideration of truths about God, when once they inaaeona^r apprehension of the Divine Reality, they refer to this u «inacy 0 f verbal or logical expressions.

104

The Principal Upam$ads

attain by vision, empirical or trans-empincal, belongs to the objective world It is a distinction within the objective world, between the physical and the super-physical, between what we reach by the five senses and a sixth sense Wisdom is pure reason, capacity for fundamental truth It is the possession of the soul or it is the soul that penetrates into its own ground and depth and becomes essential being It springs from it of necessity when it meditates on itself This wisdom is eternal, universal and necessary for Sarhkara It cannot be destroyed though it may be obscured

All the same, the tradition of thought has been strong in the Upamsads We lead up to experience through intellectual knowledge For those who are incapable of integral insight, perception and inference are the only available means 1 Even men of experience do not contradict rational thought, though they go beyond it.

XVI ETHICS

The Upamsads insist on the importance of ethical life 4 They repudiate the doctrine of the self-sufficiency of the ego and emphasise the practice of moral virtues Man is responsible for his acts Evil is the free act of the individual who uses his freedom for his own exaltation It is fundamentally the choice which affirms the finite, independent self, its lordship and acquisitiveness against the universal will Evil is the result of our alienation from the Real If we do not break with evil, we cannot attain freedom 3

' Op t i-pudiys Tor those who cannot see, the reason -which is not m contradiction with the Vedas and the scriptures is the eye ' i rdtt'UistrSvtrodH yas tarhas-ca) <vr a-paiyatum I 137 • MU III 2 < BU IV , 23

J 0>mrr←ntinF on Kaiha I 2 2-3, R.lmrmuja writes 'This crse t*-ar 5i»* that meditition which should become more perfect day bj day, earn*: v rcco-iph'hrd without the dcotcc having broken with all ' U II I 1 13 “Hi- Vc'!™ do not purifj tl.e ethically unworthj ' f-ir x Hr& . ri fs'.iranti rduh Vawtha-Dharma-$8slra VI 3

Introduction 105

Man is of the divine race, but he has in him the element 'of non-being, which exposes him to evil As a spiritual being he can burst the revolving circle of nature and become a citizen of another world in unity with Absolute Being who is his creative source. Man is the mediator between God and nature and has to complete the work of creation by the in- carnation of wisdom. He must illumine what is dark and strengthen what is weak in him His entire being should labour to become one with the Divine Our fallen nature, sunk in sin, is felt as contrary to the Real and yet as existent The self feels itself to be in contradiction to all that is supremely real There is the pain of discord between the existent and the Real. In moral life the self feels itself divided against itself. And yet the struggle itself is impossible unless we look upon the desire for the divine and the consciousness of rebellion as belonging to the same self The felt contradiction is possible only through the reality which is above the discord The antithesis between what we wish to be and what we are is implicitly their unity. The divine consciousness and will must become our conscious- ness and will This means that our actual self must cease to be a private self; we must give up our particular will, die to our e S°» by surrendering its whole nature, its consciousness and character to the Divine.*

limitations of karma are mentioned 'He fetters himself by ™nself, as a bird by its nest.'* The freedom of the individual increases to the extent to which he identifies himself with the Absolute in hun, the antar-yamin. If we leave the world after having known the true self, then our life m all worlds is the life °f freedom

Some theistic Upanisads say that the inner power, the «vme, caused the man whom He will lead on high from these worlds to do good works and He causes the man whom He will ead downwards to do evil works 3 In theism the stress is on jjwne providence In the Sveta&afara Upumsad, the Self is QUaI°^ erSeer of all actions, who apportions to each person his 1 aubes, who executes justice, who restrains the evil, allots

vtragah, a Matiri III. z 3 K TJ. III. 8

io6 The Principal Upamsads

good fortune and brings to maturity the actions of the indi- vidual souls 1

The general impression that the Upani§ads require world- demal is not quite correct They insist on a spirit of detachment, vairagya, which is not indifference to the world It is not abandonment of objects but non-attachment to them We do not raise ourselves above the world by contempt for the world It is the spirit of equanimity which is insisted on To be tranqui is to envy no man, to have no possessions that another can take from us, to fear none When the Hindu thinkers ask us to adopt samnydsa or relinquishment of home and possessions, tc accept the three great renunciations, consecrated in the three vows, evangelical counsels of poverty, obedience and chastity, they point to self-denial as the root of spiritual life

Spirit of renunciation does not mean neglect of social duties Samnydsa does not mean that we owe no duties to the world, we free ourselves only from ritualistic duties Rare fruits c spirit npen on the soil of detachment s There is a popular verse which makes out that one should give up attachment, but r one is not capable of it, let him cultivate attachment, only it should be attachment to all 3

We should release ourselves from selfish likes and dislikes The Divine cannot use our mind and body so long as we wish to use them for our own ends 4

Detachment is opposed to attachment, not to enjoyment

» VI ii, i2, 4, V 5ff

a When Ernest Renan described St Francis as 'the one perfect Christian* it was felt to be an exaggeration Hardly anyone else in the Christian world comes so close to the ideal set forth in the Gospels 'He that renounceth not everything that he hath, he cannot be my disciple ' We feel that these demands are excessive and even fantastic We excuse ourselves by saying that Jesus did not mean all that he is reported to have said or that his words were not of general application We make compromises, while St Francis did not allow any compromises 3 tyakiavyo mmna-k&rah, iyaktum yadt iakyate nasatt kartavyo mama-karah kimiu sarvafra hartavyah < Cp St John of the Cross The soul that is attached to anything, however much good there may be in it, will not arrive at the liberty of /divine union For whether it be a strong wire rope or a slender and delicate thread that holds the bird, it matters not, if it really holds it fast, for until the cord be broken the bird cannot fly So the soul, held by the bonds of human affections, however slight they may be, cannot, •while they last, make its way Jo God '

Introduction 107

Enjoy through renunciation is the advice of the ISa. Upanisad. 1 Good and evil do not depend on the acts one does or does not, but on the frame of mind one has. The good man is he who concurs with the divine purpose, and the bad man is he who resists it. If one's mind is good, one's acts will be good. Our attempt should be not «0' iirach external conformity as inward cleansing From goodness of being good will and good works flow 1 When the soul is at peace, the greatest sorrows are borne lightly. Life becomes more natural and confident Changes in outer conditions do not disturb We let our Me flow of itself as the sea heaves or the flower blooms

Work by itself does not give us liberation. It cleanses the mind, purifies the heart and produces the illumination which is the immediate condition of salvation. Samkara argues that the knowledge of Brahman, as it relates to an existent being, cannot be contingent on what a person does or does not 3

Contemplation is the way to cleanse one's mind and heart. It means Test, suspension of mental activity, withdrawal into the intenor solitude m which the soul is absorbed in the fruitful silence of God We cannot stop there; we must overflow with a love that communicates what it knows to others Saints with abundant power and tireless energy work for the transfiguring of men and the changing of the course of secular history. Different methods are suited for different temperaments, and they are all permitted.4

h ' ^l&art tells us 'It is permissible to take life's blessings -with both anas, provided thou dost know thyself prepared in the opposite event to leave them just as gladly'

in = F 0 ^ 41 * 'Men should not think so much of what they ought to holm ^ 0U ^ Lt to be Tmnk not t0 Iav ti” 3 foundation of thy

as bnf Up ° n domg ' but tather u P on bem S For works do not SMlctl fy essenbalT sllould sancbr y the works Whoever is not great in his Rnrtni* ri^ mg TnU ac nieve nothing by works, whatever he may do ' ” a!*, Mystiam East and West, p 126

<SeeBG V 5. Vasistha says

n-sSdhyah kasyacid yogah hasyacil jnana-micayah To som tlt ^ am wcarya morgan dvaujagada parameivarah Viewing y< J§ a K “^possible, to others the ascertainment of truth.

Cptt? 004 h3s revealed *”° P aths We w two ^, IMS Monws 'A thing may belong to the contemplative » ways essentially or as a predisposition The moral virtues

io8

The Principal Upanisads

The ethical virtues we are called upon to adopt are mentioned in several passages Life is compared to a sacrifice where the fee shall be asceticism, liberality, integrity, non-injury to We and truthfulness 1 The Tailliriya Vpamsad gives a list of students' duties He should not be negligent of truth, virtue, welfare, prosperity, study and teaching He should perform only those acts which are irreproachable. In case of doubt concerning any act of conduct, the student should follow the practice of those Brahmanas who are competent to judge, apt, devoted, not harsh lovers of virtue In one passage all the virtues are brought together under the three da's which are heard m the voice of the thunder, namely, dama, or self- restraint, dana or self-sacnfice, and daya or compassion Prajd-pati conveys it to the three classes of his creation, gods (dcva), men {jnamtsya) and demons (asura). 1 Samkara makes out that gods have desires (kama), men suffer from greed belong to the contemplative life as a predisposition For the act of contemplation, in which the contemplative life essentially consists, is hindered both by the impetuosity of the passions and by the outward disturbances Now the moral virtues curb the impetuosity of the passions and quel! the disturbance of outward occupations Hence moral virtues belong to the contemplative life as a predisposition ' St Thomas taught there were three vocations, that to the active hie, that to the con- templative and a third to the combination of both and the last is superior to the other two There are statements to the effect that the contemplative life m itself by its very nature is superior to the active lift Vita cortemplania, he remarks, sttrplicttcr est meltor quam acttia for the contemplative life directly and immediately occupies itself with the love of God than which there is no act more perfect or more men- tonoun The contemplative life establishes man in the very heart of all «-p ntual fecunditv When St Thomas admits that the active life can be rtw'c perfect m certain circumstances, he qualifies it a great deal (0 Action will only be more perfect than the joy and rest of contem- p'.ttioi, if it i”! undcrtaVch as the result of an ov erflovv of lov e for God in o>r to fu'fil His will {u) It is not to be continuous but only an answer to a tenpo-arj emergency (m) It is purely for God's glory, it docs not di-pr*” i<», from contemplation It is an added obligation and we but tc'vt a* icon as we can to the fruitful silence of recollection that oar rouh to the Divine Union

< C V III 17

• Ti h V 2

I“ t' ” bh“'ti ~'i th'> Lord says that anyone who does not care for - j -op'- vf-n a-e in n?*J of care and simpl takes to the worship of G~>' 1 “i eCon r v “U ted

j- t”^r» i3nu WI*r,'H sar'am Sin-uram iharam hZttZm Ihijixi' fsndhySd, b+au-ary eiajuhott sah

Introduction 109

and demons from anger (krodha). By the practice of the three injunctions we free ourselves from the sway of craving, greed and anger. When the Buddha asks us to put out in our hearts the monstrous fires of infatuation, greed and resent- ment, he is emphasising the three virtues enjoined by the Upanisads.

Duma is self-control. We should reduce our wants and be pre- pared to suffer m the interests of truth. 1 Austerity, chastity, solitude and silence are the ways to attain self-control

Tapas is severe self-discipline undertaken for spiritual ends It is exercised with reference to the natural desires of the body and the distractions of the outer world. It consists of exercises of an inward kind, prayers offered in the heart, self-analysis and outer acts like fasting, self-mortification, sexual abstinence or voluntary poverty Strength is developed by a resisting force. The power gained by resisting one temptation helps us in over- coming the next To evade discipline is to empty life of its significance. Nothing is more tranquil than to be unshaken by the troublous motions of the flesh. Renunciation, nyasa, is superior to tapas or austerity or asceticism. The latter is a means to the former It is not to be made into an end m itself » Ethical

1 The vnse man overcomes anger through mind-control, lust through ™e renunciation of desire. He can attain mastery ovei sleep by develop- ing the quahty of sativa Through steadfastness he should protect the organ _ot generation and the stomach With (the help of) the eyes he swu w protect the hands and the feet Through (the power of) mind he ( Protect the eyes and the ears and through conduct he should K£ nUmi mi speech Through constant vigilance he should shed fear ™Q wroughthe service of the wise, he should overcome pride ' krodham iamem jayatt, kSmam samkalpa-varjanat saitva-samsevanSd dhira m&r&m ucchettum arhatt dhflya H&mdaram fakset, pam-padam ca cahsusa esksuh iroiram ca manasa, memo vScam ca harmana, “•pramadad bhayam }ahyad, dambham prajHopasesanUt On Cn f , ,i Brahm^uraitai^ 40-42.

ssimv j Wltil onlv coarse rice as meaTand only plain water «mdSoiBwi y my arm 38 P 5110 ™ 1 I s*Jl tod joy in the midst of these tomstulv aa< * honour acquired contrary to righteousness are ChnuiuJu F? 88 ^ cloud 'Lunyu Pt VIII Ch XV SeeF T. Cheng

the Wh.™ SSF' and others ^o live from their birth to death m Kers °* tte Ganges, do they become yogis >'

Q-ja'tma-maranSniam ca gangadt-iafim-sthuah m Wiiha-maisya-pramukhahyaginas U bhavand fctm?

no The Principal Upamsads

life includes moral uprightness though many minds feel only the need for mechanical ritual

Brahmacarya is not sex-destruction There is no gulf between flesh and spirit, but only between the fallen and the trans- figured flesh Ancient Indian thinkers were of the opinion that the seed within man and woman is intended for the purpose of creating a body by which another soul may come into physical embodiment When thus controlled, brahmacarya helps creative work of every description When the seed is wasted in sex excesses, the body becomes weak and crippled, the face lined, the eyes dull, hearing impaired and the brain inactive If brahmacarya is practised, the physical body remains j'outhful and beautiful, the brain keen and alert, the whole physical expression becomes the image and likeness of the Divme

Maum or silence is advised as leading the soul forward to contemplation 1 By the discipline of silence we curb the ex- cesses which flow from the tongue, heresy, backbiting, flattery We cannot listen to the voice of God when our minds are dissipated, given to restless activity and are filled externally and internally with noise Progress m silence is progress to the realisation of spirit When silence descends on the soul, its activities are joined to the silent creative power of God s

Dana enjoins gifts. It is negatively freedom from greed and positively assistance to those in need 'There is no hope of immortality by wealth '3 Possessiveness is condemned The

' Cp Isaiah 'The tillage of righteousness is silence ' 'In silence and in

hope shall be jour strength.'

'While all things were in quiet silence and the night was in the

midst of her course the Word leapt down from heaven * 3 13 U II 4 a Cp Jaldl-UddinRurar

Once the noble Ibrahim, as he sat on his throne,

Heard a clamour and noise of encs on the roof.

Also heavy footsteps on the roof of his palace

He said to himself, 'Whose heavy feet are these?'

He shouted from the window, 'Who goes there?'

The guards, filled with .confusion, bowed their heads, saying,

'It is wc going the rounds in search ' ~~~~

He said. 'What seek ye' 'They said 'Our camels *

He said, 'Vhoccr searched for camels on a housetop?'

They said, *c follow thj example,

ho scclrest union with God, while sitting on a throne '

Introduction

in

Taittinya U-panisad regulates the art of giving. 1 One should give with faith, one should not give without faith, one should give liberally, with modesty, with fear, with sympathy.

Dayd is karund, compassion. We should try to be at peace with all, abhor all cruelty and ill-will.* Enmity means misunder- standing. A forgiving attitude frees the individuaL We should grudge none, forgive all. So long as we remember an injustice, we have not forgiven either the person or the action. If only we know that there is more suffering than wickedness in the world, we would be kindly. It is by compassion, which shrinks from no sacrifice, that we can overcome the ravages of selfishness. We must be patient God himself is unimaginably patient.3 Tolerance, long suffering, patience are the fruits of spirit.

The ethical individual is required to become like a child.* The perfect man is a divine child, accepting the divine play, without fear or reserve, care or grief, in utter purity. A child is not entangled with things that seem important to grown-ups, Pilose occupations are mainly paltry and whose professions petrified. A child's wise incomprehension is linked with living and is more than defensiveness or disdain. We cannot return to childhood. We have to gain the state which is un- constncted by temporal purpose, but purposeful, a state in which tune and eternity coincide.

When it is said that the Upanisads adopt a spiritual view °j hfe, it does not mean that they despise body, life and mind. The latter are the conditions or instruments for the life of spurt in man They are not ends in themselves, but are means

' I II 2

IBeviBhSgavata says:

«e is no virtue lite compassion and no -vice lite the use of violence. 5 ,j, fayii-samam rtasti punyam, papain kithsa-samam fta hi. . _ . e “^ti God, merciful and gracious, long suffering and abundant

r

verted anT? CIitus - ,Tne Kingdom is of the child.' 'Except ye be con- of^S^r ame 3)5 btGe chadrel1 , ye shall not enter into the Kingdom chM» s j. !» J^-ForjVrencras- 'A great man is one who has not lost the BE * beanT^ ^”tache says- 'The] child is innocence and oblivion, a yea-sawr^f; a plav ' a self-rolling wheel, a primal motion, an holy -ajmg Thus Spake Zarathusira X. 2.

H2 The Principal Upam§ads

or opportunities for the expression of the Universal Spirit in us Spirit and life are not to be separated

The ritualistic practices are reinterpreted They are to prepare the mind for spiritual realisation, to spur it on to pierce the veil of the finite and to seek deliverance in identifica- tion with the Supreme Reality If rites are performed without the knowledge of their meaning, they are not only useless but dangerous 1 The presumptuous performer may have his head cut off a He who knows a particular nte and he who knows it not both perform a rite, but when performed with knowledge the act becomes more effective 3 Meditation on the meaning of the sacrifice sometimes took the place of the actual sacrifice 'Suppose,' Janaka asks Yajnavalkya, 'you had no milk or nee or barley to perform the fire-saenfice, agmkotra, with what would you sacrifice ? ' 'With the fruits of trees and whatever herbs there were ' 'If there were none?' 'Then with water ' 'If there were no water?' 'Then, indeed, there would be nothing here, yet, this would be offered, the truth in faith '4 When the heart is fully persuaded, there is little sense of sacrifice Sacrificial life becomes a natural manifestation of the new spirit Self-conscious sacrifice, with its burden of self-nghteousness and expectation of reward, is not of much use 5

The caste divisions are mentioned in some of the Upamsads 6 They did not, however, harden into a rigid social system In the Chandogya Upantsad five learned Brahmanas who approach Uddalaka Arum for instruction in regard to Vaisvanara Atman are taken by him to King Asvapati Kaikeya, who .gives them instruction after first demonstrating the imperfections of their views Ajatasatru of Kasi teaches Gargya Balaki the nature of Brahman, after pointing out the defects of the twelve views

' CU V 24 i 1 CU I 8,1 io-ii 3 CU I i-ro

4 Salapatha Brahmana XI 3 1

5 Yahueh says (Amos V ai) 'I hate, I despise your feast days, and I will not dwell m your solemn assemblies Though ye offer me burnt offerings and your meat offerings, I will not accept them, neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs, for I will not hear the melody of thy viols '

Again Yahweh speaks (Hosea VI 6) 'For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings ' * B U I 4 15

Introduction 113

which Gaigya Balaki sets forth. AjataSatru observes that it is not usual for a Brahmana to approach a Ksatriya for instruc- tion The doctrine of rebirth is taught by Pravahana Jaivali to Arum with the remark that the Brahmanas had never before had this knowledge. 1 Among the students of the Upani§ads is Satyaklma, of unknown origin, whose mother Jabala could not tell who his father was.*

The four &£ramas or stages of life are recognised. While the usual rule is that one has to pass through successive stages of life, exceptions are permitted. Jabah Upani^ad asks us to renounce whenever we feel a call to it. Besides, even in a house- holder's stage one can attain spiritual freedom.?

XVII

KARMA AND REBIRTH

Until we negate the ego and get fixed in the Divine Ground w are bound to the endless procession of events called samsara.4 The principle which governs this world of becoming is called karma. There are moral and spiritual laws as well as physical

' ?? t a ??° K U I, -where the teacher is the King Citra Gangyayani.

V'U IV 4

vrhJh ^ B1 * s 8 avata Pwana it is said that a house is no prison for one m controlled his senses, delights in spirit and is eager for knowledge ptendnyas atmarater budhasya » v. grhSiramah htm tu karoly avadyam

wninavagupta says that Smiu and smrtts hold that he who has right a J^ ns salvatl0a «i all stages of life and quotes. 'He that devotMi, TTv establish ed himself in the knowledge of truth, attends a house Zm performs ntes > offers he K liberated though

toflts^SamHSjrt sarvesv Siramesu muknr ih smSrtesu irutau ca yathohtam aevSrcana-ratas tattvayffiwismsfho'tithv-priyah 1 Cn fi ,J rSidham kftob dadad dravyam grhastho' pi ht mucyate to emulate ™ S l i.” w ' flftww °fPMosopky The temporal world seems itself towLf ^ * wlucil rt cannot fully obtain or express, tying

Sives to Ju ! ' Slnce lt cames a certain image of that abiding presence, BuTho 1 ? ay P artake °* it the quality of seeming to have W- and «n could not A undertook an infinite journey of

Pfemtude >?^, < ^ ne ^ P 888 ^t- ^ S^S, it continued that life, whose 11 «”»ld not comprehend by staying '

H4 The Principal Upamsads

laws If we neglect the laws of health, we injure our health, if we neglect the laws of morality, we wreck our higher life Any rational conception of the universe, any spiritual con- ception of God requires us to recognise the utter and unques- tionable supremacy of law in shaping our conduct and character

The law of Karma is not external to the individual The judge is not without but within The law by which virtue brings its triumph and ill-doing its retribution is the unfolding of the law of our being 1 The world order is a reflection of the Divine Mind The Vedic gods were regarded as the maintainers of the order, rta of the world They were the guardians of rta God, for the Svetasvatara Upam&ad, is the ordainer of karma, karmadhyak$ah, God is law as well as love 2 His love is through law The working of karma is wholly dispassionate, just, neither cruel nor merciful Though we cannot escape from the workings of this principle, there is hope, for if man is whafhe has made himself, he may make himself what he will Even the soul m the lowest condition need not abandon all hope If we miss the right path, we are not doomed to an eternity of suffering There are other existences by which we can grow into the knowledge of the Infinite Spirit with the complete assurance that we will ultimately arnve there If there is a fundamental difference between Christianity .and Hinduism, it is said that it consists in this, that while the Hindu to whatever school he belongs believes m a succession of lives, the Christian believes that 'it is appointed to men once to die, but after this the judgment '3

1 Cp the words of a fine fragment of the lost Melamppe of Euripides Dream you that men's misdeeds fly up to Heaven And then some hand inscribes the record of them Upon God's tablets, and God, reading them. Deals the world justice ' Nay, the vault of Heaven Could not find room to write the crimes of earth, Nor God himself avail to punish them Justice is here on earth, had ye but eyes

» Cp St Paul 'Behold therefore the goodness and seventy of God Romans XI 22

3 John McKenzie Two Religions (1950), p 112 Some Western philosophers and early Christian theologians accept the principle of rebirth

Introduction 115

Belief in rebirth has persisted, at any rate, from the time of the Upamsads It is a natural development from the views of the Vedas and the Brahmanas and receives articulate expression in the Upamsads 1 After mentioning the dispersal of the mem- bers of the human body at death— the eye of man goes to the stin, the breath to the wind, speech to fire, the mind to the moon, the ear to the quarters of heaven, the body to the earth, the soul to the ether, the hair to the plants and trees, the blood and seed to the waters — Yajriavalkya is asked as to what remains of the individual He takes the questioner apart, discusses with him in secret about the nature of work. In truth, ^ a man becomes good by good works and evil by evil works * Oar lives incarnate our characters

The future of the soul is not finally determined by what it has felt, thought and done m this one earthly life. The soul has chances of acquiring merit and advancing to life eternal Until the union with the timeless Reality is attained, there will be some form of life or other, which will give scope to the mdividual soul to acquire enlightenment and attain life eternal Even as non-being is only an abstract lower limit of the existential order, absolute evil is also such a lower limit. Non-being, if it existed in itself diametrically opposed to being, would be completely destroyed Such non-being is non-existent. Therefore as every existent thing has the form of the Divine, it has also the promise of good.

The Upanisads give us detailed descriptions of the manner in which a man dies and is bom again.3 The transition is illus- trated by certain examples. As a grass-hopper, when it has come to the end of a blade of grass, finds another place of support, and then draws itself towards it, similarly this self, after reaching «e end of this body, finds another place of support and then tows himself towards it. As a goldsmith, after taking a piece « gold, gives it another, newer and more beautiful shape, sHnuarly does this self, after having thrown off this body, and

rm ' Wnet he* it be of the manes, or demigods or gods or of ' BinKj 16 3 iaia P<*ll>tiBrahmanaI.5 3 4 ,X 3 3 8 'SeeBTJ.IV.3 37-38, IV 4 1-5 and 9 7. See Kaiha I 1 5-6.

n6 The Principal Upantsads

Praja-pati or Brahma, or of any other beings. 1 These passages bring out several aspects of the theory of rebirth The soul finds out its future body before it leaves the present one The soul is creative in the sense that it creates a body. At every change of body, the soul takes a newer form The state of each existence of the soul is conditioned and determined by its knowledge (mdyaj, its conduct (karma)* in the previous existence From the Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad it appears that all the organs accompany the departing soul, which enters into the samjndna and becomes possessed of knowledge and consciousness3, vijiidna The results of learning and conduct cling to the soul 4

The ignorant, the unenlightened go after death to sunless demomac regions s The good are said to go up to regions which are sorrowless, through the air, sun, and moon 6 The Chandogya Upanisad speaks of two ways open to mortals, the bright and the dark, the way of the gods? and the way of the fathers 8 Those who practise penance and faith enter the path of light, and they never return to the cycle of human existence Those who are only ethical, performing works of public utility, travel by the path of smoke, dwell in the world of the fathers till the time comes for them to fall down, then they are bom agam according to their deserts 9 The descriptions may be fictitious, but the principle of the ascent and the descent of the soul is what the Upanisads insist on Beautiful characters attain covetable births and ugly ones miserable births 10 Heaven and hell belong to the world of time

1 B TJ IV. 4 3-5 'As a man puts on new clothes in this world, throwing away those which he formerly wore, even so the soul of man puts on new bodies which are in accordance with its acts in a former life ' Vistm Smrtt XX 50 See B G II 13, 22

' BU IV 4 2 3 IV 4 3

4 Cp with this the Buddhist view that the migrating soul consists of vtpiana and the other four skandhas of vedana, feeling, samjna, per- ception, samskara or dispositions and -rupa or corporeal form

s Iia3 Kathal 1 3 B U IV 4 11

« BU V. 10 1 1 SeeRV X 19 1 B G VIII 24-26

* C U IV 15 5-6 There are minor variations m the accounts of CU andBTJ.andK.U.1 9 CU V 10 1-6 » CTJV107KUI 2.

Introduction

117

Rebirth is the lot of man until he obtains true knowledge. By virtuous acts he furthers his evolution The reward of goodness is to grow in goodness. The reward of growing in punty of heart is to gain a clearer vision of reality. Knowledge of Reality leads to salvation

It is sometimes suggested that the soul before undergoing rebirth experiences reward or punishment for its deeds in appropriate places The original Vedic belief of reward in heaven or punishment gets mixed up with the doctrine of rebirth. 1

The soul is said to be a very minute entity residing in the cavity of the heart and resembling in every respect, except size, the visible man.

XVIII LIFE ETERNAL

The fact that the individual consciousness has for its essential reality the Universal Self implies the possibility that every human being can rend the veil of separateness and gam recog- nition of his true nature and oneness with all beings. The Upanisads develop this character of life eternal.

hi the Rg Veda, what is aimed at is length of days on earth and life in the world of heaven in the company of gods In the Brahmanas, the performers of various rites are promised the reward of community of bemg, companionship and fellowship with the gods * When the Absolute Brahman was recognised, we gods became intermediaries through whose influence the end of unity with the Absolute is obtained. When Brahman and

Sa ldentlfied ' the hi & hest S oal » declared to be unity vita the Self Deliverance is different from existence in svarga

T 1 , ^ live there for ages and yet return to earth, a heir to «aee<is Deliverance, on the other hand, is astate of permanent 0n TOth tfa e Highest Self Life in paradise is a prolongation 'By VI, 2 c.TJ V.3-JO Mapatha BrShmam II. 6 4 8; XI. 4. 4. 1, ax , VI 1 2 . 3

n8 The Principal Upar.isads

of self-centred life, while life eternal is liberation from it While the former is time extended, the latter is time transcended

Enlightenment does not mean a departure in space to a new abode Arrival and departure have no meaning in the context of liberation The passages where the soul is said to go by the veins to the ra:s of the sun and to the sun» or from the moon through the worlds of fire, wind, Varuna, Indra and Praja-pati, to Brai.man- speak of the soul on the pathway to perfection The Cldndogya Upan isad states that the soul of the emancipated, at death, goes out by the hundred and first vein through the crown of the head, fire, wind and sun to Brahman 3

He who knows Brahuan becomes Brahman 4 Perfection is a state of mind, not contingent on change of time or place. It is an experience of the present, not a prophecy of the future Temporal distinctions do not apply to it, but ti any temporal terms are to be used, they will be words like 'now,' 'presently,' 'When all desires that dwell in the human heart are cast away, then a mortal becomes immortal and (even) here he attaineth to Brohman.'s Freedom is not a future state on whose coming we wait in expectation It is life in the spirit, in God who is the foundation and power of life. 6

» Kath a HI II. S - K.U. I. 2.

3 CU YTII 6 6 KU YT 16 .l/aiWMsr.

* B.U. IV. 4 9 II U III 2 9 5 KaihaVI. 14.

* The Christian scriptures say that 'the Kingdom of God is among yon ' It lives and moves secretly here and no« as the hidden ground oi ercoming Satan and the -world

Cp mohsasya ra hi vBso'sti 1 a gratrartarav. eva ta ajf.aua-hrdaya-grantk'-raso tiujPsa Mi siuriah

Sna-gns xrn 32.

Freedom is not in a particular place nor has one to go to some other village in order to obtain it; the destruction of the knot of ignorance round onr hearts is known as freedom

M.B also tells us that the fcnotver of Srahxan has neither movement nor departure

sarra-bhStSima-bhJfasya samyng-bhiifam pasyalah de^api tnargs m'lfyaM} a-padasya padaistrah

“He -who has attained the state of the self of all beings, -who has attained the perfect vision of all beings — about the path of such a person the gods themselves are perplexed, seeking to discover the place of one who has no place at all.'

Hatha YT. 14. Cp Kabir: O Friend, hope for Hun whilst you live, understand whilst yon live,

for in life deliverance abides

Introduction 119

Is moksa or liberation life with the Supreme Person whom we love and worship m this life? 1 Is it personal immortality with absolute likeness to God m the world of Brahma.? 1 Is it an impersonal absorption m the Divine Transcendent? 3 All these views are to be found in the Upanisads There are four aspects of release distinguished as sdmipya or intimacy with the divine, sdrupya or sadharmya, similarity of nature with the divme, reflecting his glory, sdlokya or conscious co- existence with the divine in the same world and sayujya or communion with the divine bordering on identity

There are certain general characteristics of the state of moksa or freedom It is conceived as freedom from subjection to time 4 As birth and death are the symbols of time, life eternal or moksa is liberation from births and deaths. It is the fourth state of consciousness beyond the three worlds, what the BJiagavad-gM calls paramam brahma or brahma-mrvana 5 It is freedom from subjection to the law of karma The deeds, good or bad, of the released cease to have any effect on him 6 Even as a horse shakes its mane, the liberated soul shakes off his sin, even as the moon comes out entire after having suffered

K d%th?° ndS be n0t broken, ” wJulst uvm g. what hope of deliverance 111

H is but an empty dream that the soul shall have union with Hun

11 „ us f xt has P^ed from the body,

„ fl e is found now, He is found then,

“ not, we do but go to dwell in the city of Death

•VJh m • E T by Rabindranath Tagore

Rrfh. Ti * w our course . what the manner of our flight (to the

need ™ °T ey io l the feet • the feet brm & us onl y fronl land to ^d, nor fcJl™ of coach or ship to carry you away, all this order of

call mihL set 5151(16 and refuse to see - you must cl °se the eyes and vision^ mTLUS 011 anothe r vision which is to be waked within you, a T?-™tobnght of all, which few turn to use ' Emuads 16 8 3 StetaTvT 0 . 2 ' M U III 1 3, III 2 6-S

5 tTb^I 1 j? . * Atharva Veda X 8 44

&e Atha^Tj tS* rt 1S dhStu beyond the three worlds In

ti*teado?L - IV < 4 3> thC f ° Urtl1 Bfium K SVar ' the hght beyond only f' anla ^sa and dyaus The Brahmanas are concerned

nt ZhJeF re ot & ods 0n the ma «« r of

«>S r^/° n ? taM » an a e nostlc attltude

B «*«aiw T, y ttnSn MSn ail oaturtham ash va na va Satapatha

120

The Principal Upanisads

an eclipse from Rahu, so does the liberated individual free himself from mortal bondage. 1 His works consume themselves like a reed stalk in the fire 2 As water does not stop on the lotus leaf, works do not cling to him 3 Works have a meaning only for a self-centred individual Liberation is the destruction of bondage, which is the product of ignorance.4 Ignorance is destroyed by knowledge and not by works 5 Freedom is not a created entity; it is the result of recognition

Knowledge takes us to the place where desire is at rest, a-kama, where all desires are fulfilled, apta-kama, where the self is the only desire, atma-kama 6 lie who knows himself to be all can have no desire When the Supreme is seen, the knots of the heart are cut asunder, the doubts of the intellect are dispelled and the effects of our actions are destroyed 7 There can be no sorrow or pain or fear when there is no other. The freed soul is like a blind man who has gained his sight, a sick man made whole He cannot have any doubt for he is full and abiding knowledge He attains the highest bliss for which a feeble analogy is married happiness He can attain any world he may seek. 8

The law of Karma prevails in the world of samsara, where our deeds lead us to higher or lower stations in the world of time. If we obtain knowledge of the eternal reality, Brahman or Atman, deeds have no power over us. The state of life eternal is said to be beyond good and evil The knower of the self ceases to be stained by action 9 He goes beyond the ethical, though rooted in it, 10 anyaira dliarmat, anyatradhannat The

' c u. vnr » c u v 24 3 3 c u rv* 14 3

« bandhana-nasa cva hi moksah na karyabhulah § onBTJ III 3 I

5 mokso na Panna-sadhyah avtdyasiamayalvSt A on B U III 3 I

6 Satapalka Brahmana'X. 54 15 B U III 4 2, IV 4 12

; M U II 2 8 '* M U III 1 10

1 Tailtiriya Brahmana III. 12 9 8.

«> Katha.II 14; see also CU. VIII 4 i.MU III 1 3;KU I 4

Cp The Buddha Majjhtna Nikdya I 135 'If you understand the parable of the raft, 3 on must discard dharma, and adharma '

John III g 'Whoever is born of God, cannot sin '

Galatians V. 18 'If you are led by the Spirit, jou are not under the law'

EcUsart 'There neither vice nor virtue ever entered in ' Dr W R Inge, writing on Christian Mystics, pointed out that the illumination of

Introdttction

121

path of virtue and vice is a means, not an end. The end is beyond the law of injunction and prohibition of good and evil. 1 Our activities, being inspired by the divine cannot be wrong'; 'Nous is never wrong,' says Aristotle. 4 The life of a free spirit is not bound by any formulas. It breaks its bonds and finds its own way to a development of its own which could never have been charted in advance. The liberated spirit conforms spon- taneously to the ethical rules. 'To one who has knowledge of the self, non-hatred and other virtues come off naturally without any effort' .3 Every religion sets before us the goal of liberation, which has a sense of exaltation, a sense of freedom and victory over the world, over evil and death.

When we are delivered m life, our condition is that of the jivan-mukta, who is freed from the bonds of conditioned exist- ence 4 His appearance continues without much outer change. His embodied state does not affect the being whom it clothes, as he has complete control over the bodily frame and knows its externality. Though tossed in the welter he retains his vision. While pvan-mukfo is deliverance during life, videha-mukti is

mystic, has 'strictly speaking no moral side, for morality, in the ordinary sense, is left behind. As the anonymous French mystic who wore The Minor of Simple Souls puts it “Virtues, I take leave of you Henceforth I shall be more free and more at peace Once I was your set ?&&. now I am delivered from your thraldom'” . . . What he means b that in the higher stage morality has become autonomous and spon- ««>«mjs. God's service has become perfect freedom.' Church Famtly Newspaper July 6, 1023

vol M W hvmaJ Nik5ya (II. 22 ff ) it is said that arrival (patipanna) m- mves a destruction without residue of good and bad conduct (kusala and tt» Vi f) Jt 1S 811 eradication of all ethical values In the parable of neht i Ma M hlma 1 35. 260 and Suiia Nipaia 21) the distinction of no nmS WTDn S. the exercise of the discriminatory consciousness are of be ten US to 0116 wto has crossed to ft” 5 ether shore than a boat would for dt? 8 has “^ed store These values are for crossing over, not mfa^° nUth ” ranatt1tS, y a ' na SahanaiihSya St Augustine points has a J? °? e , $ ould ' n ° longer use the law as means of arrival when one fias arrived • De Sp lr etLit.rf. Be Ammo. Ill i 0 433 a

3 utpannattna-prabo&hasya tv advestrtvadayo gunah.

Sn«i,„ a y a(nat0 bhavanty asya via iu sadhana-rHpittah

vKSf^* 3 ?'* X'Htermyt-stddhi. IV 69. * “wi id™ °h asnake ^S&t te on an ant-hill dead and cast away, says the Upaiusad ^ ^ Bemg venI y bodiless, he becomes immortal.

122

The Principal Upamsads

deliverance after death, when out of bodily form In either case the soul is freed from conditioned existence

There is the suggestion about krama-mukh or gradual release When the release is only partial and temporary, the individual soul descends again into the egoistic life and the higher con- sciousness is withdrawn from him The memory of that experi- ence, however, will work its way, until the impurities are removed

The different emphases we find m the Upamsads, in regard to the state of freedom, can be understood if we bear in mind the integral or fourfold character of Brahman In some passages oneness with Brahman is stressed, in others communion with the Supreme Person and in still others devotion to the Cosmic Spirit and participation m the work of the world Union with God may take many forms When the outer self is hushed, the deeper layers of consciousness are released into activity, the self may enter into the silence of the Absolute Brahman or into communion with the Eternal Person or be transported into the beatific embrace of the Cosmic Spirit The soul may pass through various realms of spirit, bathing in their light and feeding on their bliss

Yajiiavalkya centres his attention on oneness with the Absolute Brahman, a state where there is no desire, there is no passion, not even any consciousness, pretya samjna nash 1 When honey is prepared by the collection of various juices, the latter cannot discriminate from which trees they were drawn, even so when the souls are merged m the Real, they cannot discriminate from which bodies they come 2 The self rises above the distinction of subject and object which characterises all empirical consciousness It is altogether time-transcending This is impersonal immortality where the soul achieves abso- luteness, unconditioned being 3 It is illumined consciousness

1 B U II 4 12, IV 5 13 * C U VI 6 10 B U IV 3 21

3 Cp Viveka-cudamam, ascnbed to § It also occurs in Gaudapada's KSrtka, on Ma U

na mrodho na cotpathr na baddho na ca sadhakab na mwnttksur na vai mukta ity esa paramarthata There is no destruction, nor is there origination There is no one bound nor is there one practising discipline There is no seeker of freedom nor is there the freed Such is the highest state

Introduction 123

and not obhvxon of consciousness It is not a void of immobile peace where all is lost and everything is extinct. This is only one aspect of deliverance

There is also the account where the self becomes one with the Supreme Person. He who knows 'I am Brahman,' becomes the universe Even the gods cannot prevent him from becoming the universe for he is its soul 1 Man has potential universality which he actualises in the state of liberation We are one with the indeterminate pure srience in essence and with the personal Lord m the liberty of cosmic manifestation. Out of the peace and poise of Brahman arises the free activity of the liberated individual Essential unity with God is unity with one another through God In the sense of heightened awareness we do not forget the world, which seems strangely of one piece. We are lifted out of provincialism into perspective, as we become aware of something vaster, profounder, more ultimate than the world 1

'When the mind returns to its natural abode there is neither the path nor anyone who traverses it '

ciUe tu vai paravme na yanam no ca ySyinah

LanhS,vatara Suira Sylvam Levi's ed , p 322 Ntrvana is defined as the absence of the distinction of knower and knowable, grahya-grahaka-rahttata Negative descriptions of nirvana abound in Madkyamaka-Vrtti

aprahinam asampraptam anucchnmam aiaivatam amruddham anutpannam etat nirvanam ucyate

XXV

Cp Buddhalvam,

na bhavo n&pi cabhavo buddhalvam Una kathyate tasmad buddha-tatha-praine avyakrtamayo matah

Mahayana Sutralamkara. See also 22 and 26

na hiddha nahtddha buddhaia naikata na bahutS

See also

yasmm sarvam idam protam jagat sth&vara jangamam tasmmn eva layam ySXi budbudah sagare yatha. 11 TiT ® as umverse i movable and immovable is interwoven m him ,?y al ' mer gem him like bubbles in the sea CuhkaU 17 To be refunded into Brahman as an earthen vessel is refunded into its own causal substance, 1 e clay, means nothing else but complete “Huhuabon ” RB I 3 21 « B U I 4 10

vJ p Plotu »us 'We see all things, not in process of becoming, but in «ng and see themselves m the other Each being contains m itself the

teas f each Man < 38 he nc >w is, has ceased to be the All But when he Mote world m<imdlla1, he 141863 himself again and penetrates the

124

The Principal Upamsads

Rule over oneself, svdrdjya, becomes rule over the world, sdmrdjya Salvation is sarvdtma-bhdva 1

When the mind assumes the form of the Supreme through the power of meditation we have samprapiata-samadhi, when the individual is aware that his consciousness has assumed the nature of Brahman * But when all consciousness of external objects in the waking state due to the functioning of the senses, of internal objects in the dream state due to the functioning of mind, or of the unmamfested in the state of dreamless sleep is absent, we have a-samprajnata-samadhi 3 While m the former our awareness is of God, m the latter it is of the Absolute

There are passages'! which suggest that the released self retains its own form freed from the imperfections of the empirical ego and untouched by worldly pleasure and pam 5 Yet other pas- sages affirm the presence of such qualities They cannot there- fore be incompatible with pure intelligence Such is the view of Badarayana 6 The liberated self's desires are fulfilled by its mere will 7 The self is spoken of as sinless and one with the highest Person Non-separation or avibhaga from Brahman is

Referring to the desire of Eckhart to be the one, undivided, eternal, imperishable Godhead which is wholly being, wholly spirit, wholly joy, Rudolf Otto observes, 'this differs fundamentally and essentially from the simpler Christian conception of salvation to which it must always seem an extravagance, a Titanic pnde and a transgression of the impos- sible limitations of the creature, a Faustian urge as we call it to-day ' Mysticism East and West, p 181

1 'This (universe) is myself who am all this, identity with all is his highest state, the self's own natural, supreme state '

aham evedam sarvo'smiti manyate so yah sarvalma-bhavah, so'syStmanah paramo lokah, parama dlma-bhavah svabhavtkah SB on B U IV 3 20 sarvaikatvam evasya rupam IV 3 21 yat svariipam pUrnatvam para- matma-bhavam V 1 1,

• brakmakSra-mano-vrlli-pravako'hamkriim vma samprajnata-samadhis sySd dhyanSbhyasa-prakarsatah

MukHkS U II 53

3 prabha-iunyam manah-iiinyam bttddht-iiinyam cid-aimakam atad-vyavftli-ntpo'sau samSdhir mum-bh&vitah

ibid II 54

4 CU III 14 i.seealsoVII 1 5 ,VII 2 2, VII 3 1

5 Though endowed with divine qualities Audulomi contends that the nature of the liberated self is pure intelligence and it cannot have the qualities which arc dependent on limiting adjuncts B S IV 4 6, upadhi-sambandhadhliialvat lesam na caitanyavat svariipatva-sambhavah SB IV 4-6 6BSIV47 7 BS TV 4 8 CU.VIII 2 1

Introduction

125

suggested m many passages. 1 Non-separation is not absolute identity. The liberated self has no other overlord, anyddhipatih 2 There are passages where the self is said to possess adjuncts, which make for individuality and others where these are denied Badarayana reconciles the two views by affirming that the assumption or non-assumption of individual form is entirely a matter of option for the released soul.3 It can, if it so chooses, enter into many bodies created by its own will even as the flame of a lamp can convert itself into several flames 4 In the Attar ey a At any oka it is said that Vamadeva ascended from this world and attained immortality in yonder world of heaven 5 The Kausitdkz Upcmisad gives us an account of the world of Brahma with the Aparajita palace, the tree Ilya, the Salajya city and the sea Ara The passages of the Upanisads which make out that the reward of enlightenment is heaven in one form or another have in mind co-residence with Brahma or Hiranya-garbha 6 The Brahma Sutra discusses the question whether those who go by the path of the gods reach the world of Hiranya-garbha Brahma or become one with livara. Badari holds that they reach the world of Hiranya-garbha, for only to his world is going possible. Sarhkara says, 'The created Brahma aas a specific locality and so can be the goal of a journey but not the Supreme Brahman who is present everywhere and is the inner self of the travelling individual selves '7 When we reach brahma-loka, we continue to function there until the end of the process, when along with Brahma, we enter the Supreme Brahman* Saihkara thinks that all this refers to gradual

IbIw 4 4 8 ^^^ 'BSIV4-9. v „i. t A »»4-I2 yarn saSanratam samkalpayali tada saiariro bhavah.

% a 'i imiSmiadSe

. 4 J5 yathS pradipah ekdh aneka-pradipa-bhavam apadyate bhs„nL a .! l 'y°S St i evam ekah apt san muktaima aiivarya-yogat aneka- “™ n «padyasarvanisamkalpa-srstantiarirSmGviiati SB IV 4 15 ,t* 5 , « SeeBU IV.3.15 CU VIII 12 3

Parana hi manah eVa S^^yatvam upapadyate prade&avatvat, na tu SB IV 3 £ <zftw ” lwi (<wya sarva-gatatvat gantrnam pratyagatmaivSc ca

'SeePra&a V 5 Cp also.

brahmana saha te sarve sampr&pte praltsancare, When «i X ar ” SySnie krtatmanah praviianh param padam natures f,,T«ii j lutlon of wolId takes place the selves with their lnUmed ^ter the highest plane along with Brahma.

126

The Principal Upani$ads

release, krama-mukti 1 Jaimmi holds that the liberated souls enter the highest Brahman 1 Badarayana is of the view that those who meditate on symbols go to the world of the symbols and not to the world of Brahma

Even as we have the fourfold nature of the Supreme, the liberated individual has different aspects of utter peace, pure energy, devotion to the Cosmic Spirit and participation in the world He looks at the world and is lost m it, as it is a perpetual striving to raise itself above itself 3

When we refer to Absolute Brahman, we emphasise the illumined quiescence, the non-objective consciousness in which there is a total extinction of sorrow and evil, the pure bliss infinitely surpassing all human joys, far exceeding the power of man to conceive This very insight makes the self one with the Supreme and all existences Only we are no more bound to them in a false relation In our transfigured consciousness where our egoistic individuality is absent, we are not divided from others hut feel one with them Our real self is no more the individual, mental being, but is one with the Self behind the mental forms of all other selves Our body, life, mind are no more binding, but become the transparent vehicle of our divine consciousness When that end is reached we are a true becoming of the Divine, a free movement of the Universal Spint. Our body, life and mind, we feel, are one with the cosmic body, life and mind * Our spirit fills the whole world By knowing the eternal we understand the true nature of God, the world and the individual.

Spiritual wisdom (vtdya) does not abolish the world, but

removes our ignorance (avidya) of it When we rise to our true

bemg, the selfish ego falls away from us and the true integral

1 S B IV 3 ii > BS IV 3 12-14

3 Communing m this sort through earth and heaven With every form of creature, as it looked Towards the Uncreated with a countenance Of adoration, with an eye of love

Wordsworth

4 Cp Traherne 'You never enjoy the world anght till the sea itself floweth m your veins, till you are clothed with the heavens and crowned with the stars, and perceive yourself to be the sole heir of the whole world, and more than so, because men are m it who are everyone sole heirs as well as you .'

Inhodudum 127

self takes possession of us We continue to live and act in the world, though with, a different outlook The world also continues, though it is no more alien to us. To live permanently in this new consciousness is to live in eternity.

Possessing the immortality of non-birth, the redeemed self still assumes, by free volition an individual form in the mani- fested world. Birth is a becoming of the Supreme m the cosmic being. This becoming is not inconsistent with Being. It becomes a means and not an obstacle to the en)oyment of Me eternal. To be released from the cham of birth and death is not to flee from the world of becoming Bondage does not consist in the assumption of birth or individuality, but m the persistence of the ignorant sense of the separate, selfish ego. It is not the embodiment that creates the bondage but the frame of mind To the free spirit life has no terrors He wishes to conquer life for God He uses the world as the mould and condition for the manifestation of his spiritual freedom He may assume birth for the purpose of helping the world 1 There will be mdividuabsa- tion without an ego-sense The play of the individual conscious- ness can take many forms, assume many aspects and poises AH through, however, he lives in the truth of the cosmic play with bo delusion, released from ego, m full control of the manifested

The individual soul is eternal It endures throughout the cosmic process It commences at birth as the inheritor of the previous person and survives physical death in an altered form. ° r the self that has realised perfection the body ceases to be a tardea He lives in the flesh but not after the flesh

he individual is an aspect of the Transcendent in the diverse and when liberated from all limitations, he acts with centre in the Supreme The inner peace is manifested in the EST f eedom of outer activity. He will be at work in the M though he cannot wish to do any evil * He can do any thmv,+ 6 d06S rt ^terestedly 3 The desires of those whose gMs a* 5 ^ed on the Supreme do not brad 4 The freed soul

X n”c$k raha , evatko he(uste janma-karmanoh KSltdSsa. Raghu^iamia 1 BU tv l0ved ^ that he gave ' John- III 16

M *<W Smita-dhiySm kSmah kamaya halpate.

128

The Principal Upam§ads

does not aim at the improvement of humanity, but his life itself is a service His renunciation has become the natural consequence of his wisdom The CMndogya Vpanisai dis- tinguishes desires that bind from the desires that liberate, and speaks of the Supreme Self as desiring and purposing truth*

Samkara argues that the co-existence of karma or work, in- volving, as it does, the distinction of doer and the thing done, with the knowledge of the identity of the individual self with the Supreme, which negatives all such distinctions, is incon- ceivable 3 It is only self-centred action that becomes impossible. The liberated individual becomes active m God God is born m us, 1 e becomes active in us, when all powers of the soul, which hitherto have been bound and imprisoned, become liberated and set free 'For we are his offspring. '3 God becomes the centre of the free man's life so that love is radiated and good works spring forth spontaneously He is as unconscious of the power of his life as life itself, which springs, blossoms and puts forth its life's work in a free outpouring with no reflection on the why or the wherefore He lives out of his own depths, and life wells up out of itself In a sense, he is not the doer He has become one with the Universal Self, possessed by the Trans- cendent, he is udasvna or unattached The Universal Self has taken sovereign possession of the individual soul When the individual soul ascends mto the silence it becomes' vast, tran- quil, actionless It observes the actions of prakrti without taking part m them There is no personal factor, and therefore there is no bondage

Those who have attained life eternal live and wander about

1 satyah-amah, satya-amkalpah VIII 156 'This is life eternal, that they might knew thee, the only true God ' Richard of St Victor says 'The soul utterly puts off itself (1 e its self-centred desires) and puts on divine love, and being conformed to that beauty which it has beheld, it utterly passes mto that other glory '

1 Introduction to Kena

3 'I do nothing of myself' (John VIII 18). 'Not what I will but what thou wilt' (Mark XIV 36) Bcehme said 'Thou shalt do nothing but forsake thy own will, viz that which thou callest “I” or “thyself ” By which means all thy evil properties will grow weak, faint and ready to die, and then thou wilt sink down again mto that one thing, from which thou art originally sprung ' Discourse between Two Souls

Introduction 129

in the world, to all appearance, like ordinary mortals They wear no special signs. Only their activities are centred in the highest being and are completely under their control, which is not so for those who live in the world of samsara. They are tolerant, sympathetic and respectful to the urihberated who are struggling with, unsatisfied minds to dimmish the evil and imperfection 111 the world. These are helped by the seers who accept the conventions with the idea of refining them. They live and suffer and rejoice and die as other mortals do, but they have no doubt m their minds, no fear in their hearts. For the liberated soul, samsara and moksa or nirvana as the Buddhists call it, time and eternity, the phenomenal and the real, are one. Though the liberated soul lives in the world of becoming, he lives with his consciousness centred in the Divine ground of all being As a matter of fact, his consciousness, because it is centred in God, is intensified, and so his life in the world is more vital Holy calm, supreme self-mastery and righteous action charac- terise the lives of saints They become a light, a power of the Truth to which they have struggled and attained, and help the development of others » They will be engaged in the work of the world,* sustained by their rare vision, until the struggle with evil and imperfection is altogether overcome and the world is restored to spirit.

Whether after liberation one takes an active interest in the world or renounces it is a matter of temperament. Ya.pavalk.ya gooses to retire to the forest, while Janaka rules a state. Whatever they do, they help those like us who are lost in the world of sorrow and suffering Though embodiment or dis- embodiment makes no difference to the liberated souls, as they »e filed with compassion, they take up the burden of the «Md _ According to Viveka-cudamani, “Themselves having ™>®£a over, they remain out of compassion for men and in

who h2f lieva ' m ^ Cttto-viiuddhi-prakaram says that the great souls aave won the fierce battle of life attempt to save others- mahSrsattvo maho-p&yak sthira-buddhir atantntah , -p l ltvS dusfora-samgramarh iarayed apar&n apt *oos°b, k w J? e ^ samt 18 one ' wno reqwreth thee not to close the ftee in fe» fte brea <k. aad to renounce the world . -who teacheth 0 ” stllJ a »u<lst all thme activities '

130

TJie Principal Upanisads

order to help them also to make the crossing ' r Until all people are redeemed, the liberated work m the world assuming indi- vidual forms which are the vestures of spiritual life Spirit and material existence, mania and anna, are the highest and lowest rungs of a continuous series There is a link between the two Even as the eternal Divine is able to hold the whole universe within itself while remaining pure spirit, the soul that is one with the Eternal possesses the same poise, with reference to the indi- vidual setting It is no more ignorantly immersed m the mutable creation It exists consciously m rts true being while using the psycho-physical apparatus, which it does not any more mistake for its true being While the liberated retain the con- sciousness of the transcending, self-existent, timeless, they identify their bemg with the Infinite God in whom all existences dwell

Again and again, the Upanisads stress that we should see all existences in the Self and the Self in all existences Even as the Supreme is all these existences, we also should acquire the right relation to the world Perfect fulfilment of our indi- viduality means the perfect fulfilment of our relations with the world and the other individuals We are called upon to over- come not only our separate egoistic existence but also our life in a paradise of self-absorbed bliss The perfected soul cannot look with indifference on the sufferings of the imperfect, for they are also his own self He would work to lift them into freedom It is not now a function of altruism but is the life divine, the integral way He will work until all beings in the manifested world are fulfilled The liberated individuals are released from their individuality at the close of creation

Brakma-loka is the widest possible integration of cosmic experience, the farthest limit of manifested being Brahma is the soul that ensouls this great dwelling He is the true life of every being He endures during the whole period of the cosmos Beyond it there is nothing in the manifested world It is not

» According to VySsa's Yoga Bhasya (i 24), God is permanently associated with iuddhanlah-karana. If God who is the eternally free can have an inner organ, the freed men can also have it

Cp Chuang Tzu 'The sages of old first got Tao for themselves, then got it for others '

Infroduclion

the eternal beyond the empirical It is the farthest limit of manifestation When the world receives its consummation, when it is delivered from time to eternity, then there is the flight of the alone to the Alone The plan of God for the world, which was before creation is earned out, for He is the beginning and the end of the world 1 The Cosmic Lord has his exteriorised existence and his interior life When he turns outward the cosmos is evolved, when he turns his attention inward, the cosmos retreats into latency and the manifested world ter- minates When the world is redeemed, the Supreme Lord becomes the Absolute One, alone, and knows nothing else

In the brahma-loka the liberated individuals present to each other as one They are manifold in the cosmic process Their consciousness of the Supreme which is lodged m the buddhi is one and not divided among the bodily forms. This identical consciousness is associated with different bodies This mani- foldness does not take away from the unity of the divine being Until the final return of the whole universe into the Abso- lute, until the purpose of God before the creation is earned out, the individuals, freed from bondage to matter, will retain their distinctiveness without being sundered by boundaries When the two poles of being are reconciled, when all individuals nse above the plane of quality, with its ego sense, struggling aspiration and imperfect love, the world lapses into the Absolute 2

XIX RELIGION

The Upanisads use the inhented forms of religious worship as means for the realisation of the Supreme The Vedic mantras are addressed to vanous powers, symbolic of important aspects, we Supreme Reality They teach the religion of iraddhd, &e Om Th6 l £ osnuc Christ speaking through Jesus, 'I am the Alpha and last is thffe ' fiKt ^ ^ laSt ' for what was ^ st °° mes at last aBd ^

In

Possibility a mulLe possiDiuty xnis world 01 ours is not tne oniy w °rked Ztf m r P 0851 ^ 168 ^11 unfold themselves when this is 1 An Idealist View of Life, Fourth Impression, 1951, p. 343.

132

The Principal Upanisads

faith and updsana, worship The Brahmanas deal with rites, and by their performance we are said to gain our ends Both these methods are taken up by the Upanisads and reinterpreted

While the Upanisads recognise that deliverance is the supreme end of life, they are aware that many are not ready for the supreme sacrifice, the dying to their ego They need some preparation for it They ask for emotional satisfactions, and for their sake devotional and ritualistic practices are tolerated They are not useless, for they lead us on by the upward path by directing our minds and hearts to the reality of the Eternal Being and gradually take us out of ourselves into the true religion of the spirit 1 Till the goal is reached, the law of Karma works, and we get the rewards for our worship and piety according to the intensity of our faith and devotion

The different forms of sraddha or faith, updsana or worship, and practices of yoga are treated as means to the supreme end of self-knowledge or atma-dariana, which is at once a union with the one transcendent Being beyond all the worlds and a union with all bemgs m the world

Again and again the Upanisads speak of the God who is hidden, mhitam guhdydm God is not easily comprehended There is a certain element of reserve in God as distinct from His revelation The reserve is there because man has to put forth effort to know the Divine God does not wish to relieve us of our responsibility As His purpose is the development of free human personalities, He does not disclose himself to us easily and openly He remains shrouded m mystery, and yields only when our total self yearns for God 1

1 A second century Christian apologist said 'Among us you will find uneducated persons and artisans and old women, who, if they are unable in words to prove the benefit of our doctrine, yet by their deeds exhibit the benefit arising from their persuasion of its truth , they do not rehearse ^ speeches but exhibit good works, when struck they do not strike again, t when robbed they do not go to law, they give to those that ask of them, and love then- neighbours as themselves ' Quoted in Cambridge Review February 14, 1948, p 348

1 'O Rama, the Supreme is pleased with him who is ever endowed with non-violence, truthfulness, compassion and kindness to all . creatures '

ahmsa satya-vacanam daya bkiitesv amtgrahah, yasyailani sada rama, iasya lusyah keiavah '

Vtsnu-dharmottara I 58

Intro/faction

133

Three stages are mentioned as preparatory to God-vision {brahma-saksatkara), iravana or hearing, manana or reflection, and mdidhydsana or contemplation The first step is to learn what has been thought and said about the subject from teachers We should listen to them with Sraddha or faith 1 Faith is an act of will, a yearning of the heart rather than an intellectual disposi- tion It is faith in the existence of the beyond, astikya-buii-hi as Samkara calls it » We should have faith in the integrity of the seers whose selflessness has enabled them to know the nature of Ultimate Reality by direct acquaintance. The propositions they have formulated from out of their personal experience give us knowledge by description, as we do not yet have direct vision of the truth. Yet the knowledge we acquire by hearsay or Teport is not unvenfiable The truth of the Vedic propositions can be verified by us, if we are prepared to fulfil the necessary conditions

In the second stage of manana or reflection we attempt to form clear ideas by the logical processes of inf erence, analogy, etc So long as faith is firm, the need for philosophy is not felt. With the decline of faith, the spirit of inquiry increases. Un- questioning belief in the inherent power of knowledge underlies the whole intellectual fabric of the Upam§ads. The truth of the Vedic propositions can, however, be inferred by us by logical processes Hearing of the scriptures is not devoid of intellectual content He who hears understands up to a point. f« when he reflects on what he hears, he adds to faith a Knowledge which increases faith There is great insistence on the need for logical inquiry 3 Without it faith will degenerate into Without the material supplied by faith, logical

man may b ecome mere S p ecu ] atl0n while the scriptures

a ^untent 6 trUth by enunciation > P M osophy establishes it by Samkara says, 'When the two, scripture and reasoning,

i%^iom Sm “ VSkyemmhSsah * § onKathal 1 2

“ottmiJj can ? ot be attained by any means other than inquiry Vaastha ™ V* Snam vicaren5.nyas5dhanaih. S *«*Pted Aiti I word even of a cblld < * A 1S reasonable, should be « ld be re > ecte <* even if it be said by the Creator ' yitRti-yuktam apsdeyam vacamm balakad api unyai imam %va tyajyam apy uktam padma-janmana

134

The Principal Upanisads

demonstrate the unity of the self it is seen clearly as a bael fruit in the palm of one's hand ' r There are many for whom the Supreme is not an immediately experienced fact, nor are they willing to accept its validity on the authority of the scriptures For them logical arguments are necessary

The distinction between &uh, what is heard, and smrtt, what is remembered, between direct experience and traditional interpretation, is based on the distinction between sravana and manana The deposit of experience is not the same as the conclusions of theology The primary data are the &ut they are experiential, the formulated conclusions are secondary interpretations The one represents the evidence, the other records a doctrine When there is a dispute between the two we get back to the evidence It is always open to review the evi- dence afresh The doctrinal statements are conditioned by the historical situations in which they are produced We must be able to get behind the propositions to the events they describe, stand in the tension between the data and the interpretations, if we are to understand the significance of the doctrines The defect of all scholasticism, Indian or European, is that it tends to regard itself as a cold, bloodless logic which moves from one position to another with a remorseless rigour Life is the master of thought and not thought of life.

Logical knowledge acquired by a study of the scriptures and reflection on their teaching is only indirect knowledge It is not a direct grasp of reality Thought must pass into realisa- tion The ideas of the Upanisads should be imaginatively and inwardly apprehended They should be allowed to smk deep and simmer before they are re-created m life Ntdtdhyasana is the process by which intellectual consciousness is transformed into a vital one We give up the pnde of learning and concentrate on the truth * Faith becomes

1 agamopapattl hyalmaikatva-praka&anaya pravrtle iaknutah haratala- gata-bilvam iva dariayitum S on B U III I I.

= vihaya sarva-sasiram yat satyam tad updsyatam Uttara Gtta , Even if we study the Vedic texts and all the scriptures we cannot know the truth of reality if we are the victims of intellectual pnde * adhitya caluro vedan sarva-saslrany anekaiah brahma-taitvam na jananii darpopahata-cetasah.

Mukltka V II 65

Introduction

135

reality m us by the steady concentration of mind on the real 1

NtMhyasana or contemplation is different from upasana or worship Worship is an aid to contemplation, though it is not itself contemplation. In worship there is the distinction between the worshipping self and the worshipped object, but m con- templation this distinction is held in suspense There is a still- ness, a calm, in which the soul lays itself open to the Divine Intellect, becomes like a calm sea without a ripple on its surface

Meditation is not argument It is just holding oneself steadily m front of the truth * The whole energy of the mrnd is centred on the object to the exclusion of all else. We let the full flavour of the idea meditated on expand in the mind Even upasana is defined as the continued flow of an identical current of thought 3 It is also of the nature of meditation 4 We can practise meditation in any direction, place or time in which we can concentrate our mind 5 Here the process of abstraction, isolating the self from the objective, is employed Concentration b the condition of prayer More than condition it is itself prayer In prayer we must dismiss all distracting ideas, disturbing influ- ences and retire within oneself. We are asked to retire to a field or a forest where the world and its noise are out of sight and far away, where the sun and the sky, the earth and the water all speak the same language, reminding the seeker that he is here to develop like the things that grow all around him

in all the three stages, a teacher may be found useful Only

? pSktwasam yatha 4> also Bunyan

Seest thou a man wise m his own eyes,

» - ere 1S more tope of a fool than of him

, ^”yasanam sad-ekartha-wtti-pravSlmm temulahn 01 Greek thou g ht . theory meant not hypothesis but con- wsidt of act not of a s P ecv »k*°r but of a spectator It is not the kboldinst^ 6 ^ 1011 that of * he process of investigating, the

absation T*T r

attenrotpri ek tlsa8e out that »° realisation can be

3 m«TL * ? ut an ade quate theoretical preparation

5 X ^2 SB IV r 8 SB IV “j ij ksle vS sadhahasya ekSgrata bhavaH tatra eva upasita

136 The Principal Upamsads

those who act in the right way axe the acaryas 1 3amkarananda distinguishes three kinds of disciples He who understands what is taught along with the proof, Avhen he hears only once, is the good pupil, he who understands it only after hearing many times and after giving himself and his teacher much trouble is the bad pupil He who understands what the teacher says but cannot control his own mind, he is the middling The last are to be led to firm conviction by various means a

The truth can be taught only up to a point. It has to be assimilated by personal effort, by self-discipline Yoga is a term that signifies the method of concentrations by which we attain to unity with the Eternal 4 The practice of yoga is mentioned in the Upamsads In the Katha we are asked to suppress speech and mind, merge the latter in the knowledge self, that in the great self, that in the tranquil self, the Absolute The highest stage is attained when the five senses, mind and intellect are at rest 5 The Svetahatara Upamsad gives detailed directions on

1 svayam acarate yas iu ScSryas so'bhidhiyaie Cp Chaucer's poor parson of a town

This noble ensample to his sheep he yaf That first he wroghte, and afterwards he taughte The Bhagavata says* 'The seeker of the highest truth and supreme good should seek guidance from a teacher who has mastered the Vedic texts and realised the self.

iasmad gtirum prapadyeta jijiiasuh ireya vttamam iabde pare ca msnatam brahmany upaiamairayam

XI 3 21

* yah sakrd-ttktam sopapatlikam grhnati sa utlamah, yas iu anekaia ucyamanam BtmSnam gurvm ca samkleiya grhnaii sa mandah, yas iu guruktam grhnan sva-ciltam mroddhum a-iaktah sa madhyamah, sa tu gumnoktasya vanyasya va 11-padese.na citta-dhairyam vividhair vaidikair upayatr netavyah On K U II 1

3 jiianam yogatmakam viddht Know that knowledge has yoga for its essence

< aihyam jtvatmanor ahur yogam yoga-vtiaradah Devi Bhagavata

s Cp with this the Confucian fasting of the heart 'May I ask,' said Yen Hm, 'in what consists the fasting of the heart

'Cultivate unity,' replied Confucius 'You do .your hearing, not with your ears, but with your mind , not with your mind, but with your very soul But let the hearing stop with the ears Let the working of the mind stop with itself Then the soul will be a negative existence, passively response e to e-cternals In such a negative existence, only Tao can abide And that negab% e state is the fasting of the heart '

'Then,' said Yen Hui, 'the reason I could not get the use of this method is my own individuality If I could get the use of it, my individuality

Introduction 137

the practice of yoga 1 When the awakening takes place scripture ceases to be authoritative/ 2 srttter apy abhavali prabodfie.s

In the Vedas we have vivid belief in powerful gods who are not mere abstractions Adoration of personal gods, along with a sense of dependence on and trust in them, which is a marked tendency in the religion of the Veda, becomes prominent in the Katha and the Svetaivatara Upanisads The Katha Upamsad makes out that saving knowledge is not a matter of learning but is revealed to the fortunate man by the highest Reality itself. Even the doctrine of predestination is suggested.

Unfortunately different aspects have been exclusively emphasised so as to give rise to the impression that the Upani- sads do not give us any single coherent view. It is suggested that in the Upanisads the true doctrine is that the Real, the thing-in- ltself, is empty of content and all positive views are deviations from it caused by the inability of man to remain at the high level of abstract thought, postulated by the distinction between the thing-in-itself and the appearance and the natural tendency to apply empirical categories to the thing-in-itself. The absolu- tists and theistic views of the Upamsads are not exclusive of each other Sarhkara and Ramanuja emphasise different aspects of the teaching of the Upanisads.

Updsam or worship is the basis of the doctrine of bhakti or devotion As Brahman is not described in the early Upanisads in sufficiently personal terms, the later ones like the Katha and. the Svetdhiatara look upon the Supreme as personal God who bestows grace Devotion to the personal God is recommended as a means for attaining spiritual enlightenment 4

•F«ii have , gone Is ^ wtat you mean by the negative state?' ™yso,' replied the Master

asks nc^f 3380 UsAA VI 18-27. Appaya Diksita in his Yoga Barf ana ••ska to ^ co . ncen * rate on ^ self-shining self between the two brows, m,.^. “ie text 'That art thou,' conceive oneself as absorbed in it and Jocose meditation

pratyag atmanam alokya bhruvor tnadhye svayam-prabham snttvS tat-tvam-asity atkyam matvasmlh tad abkyasel

<S U ^ 1 3 3 § on BU. VI. 1.

nestodevotK} 311 2

ijS Hit I'nuofittl Ufninrmh

'Ihc Vnm<w^ give tis different modes of devotional ivr- ciMs, h which u» ,nc trained to ft our rntnrl' on .1 'ingle object Gradualh we gel pn pared for the ront< mplntiun of absolute truth 1

The prevalent tlieistu creed*, wen as' imihted to tin ti lrhing of the I'panisads The lat*r Miiiiun rpmi'.ids id'ntifv th* Supreme with Vi^rm, Siva or £»lti, uhirh are nrard'd as different phasrs of the One Ke.dttv. lit'* Supn in* ts cone> ivid as a person in relation to ptpoijs, and symbol*; t.ihn from social life, loid, father, judee .ire emplovi d Sonv times dvnamtc sjmboN like the pmur of lif< , th< spirit of truth, th' clowmi: fire that penetrates and p-'n.idts an us<d

Sunbols belong to an ord»r of nalm difitrent from that of the Reality which they symbolize The) are tis'd to male ill” truth intelligible, to mal'e the unh'.irabh .uidibh 'll>v are meant to be used as tangtbh supports for contemplation Th r y help us to reach awareness of the symbols' d reihty Some of these s mbols cmploj ed by n hgums are common Tire and light arc usually adopted to signify the ntinnte Ktahty h nvans that the minds of people are formed similarly and evjwiences of people do not difier much from one pirt of the world to another Even conceptions about the origin and nature of the world often agree, though they arise quite mdepcnd<nth The. images are all framed to mediate l>etveui the Supri me Absolute and the finite intelligence 1 he individual is free to select for worship any form of the Supreme Tins freedom of choice i^ta-dcvaldradhana means that the different forms are all

ma our speech be engaged in recounting our qualities, otir e-irs in hearing j our stones, our hands m doing <!i n ice for oh, otir mind in the remembrance of >o«r feet, our head m bowing to thr world which is jour dwelling-place and our eves in gazing at the 'aints who are jour living images on earth

vBnt gunumiKathane iraianau hatiSyllm hastau ca harmasu tnanas tax a piidayor nak smytyam iiras lava nn<u<a-)agat-pranfin't rfrj/1/1 saltim dariane' stu bha at-lamlniim

X 10 38

' Rfibi'a, a woman mvstic of the 8th ccnturv. sajs 'Oh mj Lord, if I worship Thee from fear of Hell, burn mc in hell, and if I worship Thcc from hope of paradise, cselude mc thence, but if I worship Thee for Thine own sake, then withhold not from mc Thine eternal beauty '

Introduction 139

included m the Supreme The acceptance of one form does not mean the rejection of others

The Supreme is to be comprehended only by a supreme effort of consciousness This knowledge cannot be expressed at the level of thought except through symbols The symbols ate not entirely subjective The relativity of the symbols does not destroy either our capacity to discover the truth or our faith in the existence of objective reality. It is true that different objects appear differently from different points of view, but the validity of the different points of view need not be denied. Statements about reality are definitions of the relationship between those making them and the reality which they are describing. Symbols have a meaning, and this meaning is objective and shared The bearers of the meaning may be psychological states, separate existences, not even identical in then: qualita- tive content, but meanings can be studied and understood.

The Upanisads do not speak to us of limited dogmas. The life of spirit is wider than any particular religious formulation Religion deals with man's seeking for the eternal, the sources of truth and joy, and particular formulations are but approxima- tions to the Unutterable. Our mmds are not detached from the circumstances of tune and place. Full truth can be known only by a nund of transcendent rationality. The conception and expression by men of the reality which is universal, can only be partial according to the diversities of race and character As the Upanisads lay stress on spiritual experience and psychological discipline, they do not insist on any one set of dogmas, rites or codes They are also aware that we may touch different aspects of the spiritual experience when we attempt to define it We ™ a y use any symbols and methods which help to bring about a Mange of consciousness, a new birth * 'Th 6 ° ne ^P 16 ™ wno dwells in us is conceived externally. e VD % a f look for their gods in water, men of wider know-

'pubhcay

tivara alia tere nama

mawhra masdtja tere dhatna 0 God Uva j sabko san-mali de bhagavan P'Mes'of =k3 an 5 are Thy names, temples and mosques are Thy a°°ae Grant to all right understanding (of this).

140 The Principal Upamsads

ledge in celestial bodies, the ignorant m (images made of) wood

or stone but the wise see the Supreme m their own self '» 'The

yogins see the Supreme in the self, not m the images The

images are conceived for the sake of contemplation by the

ignorant '» The soul of man is the home of God God is in every

one of us ready to help us though we generally ignore Hun 3

Whatever be the form we start with, we grow to the worship of

the one Universal Spirit immanent m all * The worship of the

determinate form is recommended as a preparation for the

apprehension of non-determined Reality 5 Narada Bhakti Siiira

1 apsu devS manusyanam, divi devB mamsinam

balanam hSsfka-losthesu buddkesv almam devaia * iivam atmam pa&yanii pratimdsu fta yoginah ajnanSm bhavanarthaya praiimah panhalpiiah

Darianopamsad, see also Siva-dharmottara TbsBhagavatasays that'fire is the god of the twicebom.the (innermost) heart is the god of the -wise, the image of the ignorant, for the wise God is everywhere

agnirdevo dwjatinam, hrdt deva manisinam pratimasv alpa-buddhin&tn, jnamnam sarvaio hanh

3 'Though really companion and co-dweller, man does not understand the friendship of Him who dwells within the same body '

na yasya sakhyam purufo'vaiti sakhyuh sakka vasan samvasatah pure'smm.

Bhagavata

Pingala, the public woman, got disgusted with her life and said, 'Casting aside this eternal lover who is near (in my own heart), is my beloved, gives me joy, gives me wealth, I foolishly seek another (from outside), who does not fulfil my desires, who gives me only sorrow, fear and blind infatuation and is petty '

sanlam samipe ramanam rati-pradam vitta-pradam nUyam imam vihaya

a-kamadam duhkha-bhayadhi-ioka-moha-pradam luccham aham bhaje'jria

BhagavaiaXI 8 31

She resolved

'He is the friend, most beloved Lord and one's own self to all embodied beings I shall earn Hun by off enng myself to Him and play with Him as Goddess Laksnri does

suhrl preslhalamo natha, alm& cayam tartrtnSm tarn vtkriyatmanaivaham rame'nena-yatha ram&

Bhagavata XI 8 35

4 yasmm sarvam, yaiah sarvam, yah sarvam, sarvaiai ca yah

In vhom is everything, from whom is everything, who is everything, who is everywhere

5 Cp Kalpalaru I 1 20

mr-viiesam param brahma saksat karlttm aniivarSh ye manias te'mtkampyante sa-viiesa-mrupanath

Introduction 141

tells us that the true devotee becomes a fulfilled being, im- mortal and content 1 Even the released perform image worship by way of sport. 1 There is a danger that the emotions of awe and reverence are likely to be treated as ends in themselves. They prepare for spirituality 3 Devotion ultimately leads to the knowledge of one's essential nature 4 For Ramanuja bhakti is a type of knowledge 5

Spiritual training begins with the external, with word and gesture in order to produce the answering spiritual content, but we should not stop at any stage short of life m God 6 There are those who regard the forms they worship as final, though the Upamsads make out that the Real has aspects of both

Commenting on Brahma Sutra III 3 59, 3 argues that each one is at liberty to choose the form of worship according to his liking and perform it The direct union with the object of meditation is the result of each of these meditations

* yal labdhva pitman stddho bhavaP., amrto bhavati, trpto bhavatt

1 mukta apt fflaya vigrahadikam krlva bhajante $

s Gopikas become one with the Supreme by fixing their minds on Him, by singing His songs, by doing His deeds tawnanaskah tad-Slapsh lad-vtcestah tad.-n.lm.ihah. At - ^ B utter a bandonment to God or prapatli paii-snlanvaya bh, ab-bandhavdn att mlamghya te'nly acyutagatah.

lie glory of meditation on the name of God is mentioned after the wnole Bhagavala is related to Pariksit

patitah skhahtah artah ksutvavavivaso bruvan haraye nama ity uccair mucyate sarva-patakat. hsl m ~ j !? a ~ rii P Smtsa 'nMZnam bhakttr ity dbhidhiyate Sltna-tattvanusand- bhaklir My aparejaguh In Bhahh-martanda, bhakti is defined as ofl bem l0VC m wluch when tte lovers are together they are afraid toaging^fOTra' 8 * 6 ^ w ^ en are not together they have a painful

a-drste darianotkanlha, drste viilesa-bhmitd nadrslena na drstena bhavata labhyate sukham 5 Mrtmamtsmrti.

6 vttamo brahma-sad-bhavo, dhyana-bhavas tu madhyamah stuhrjapo'dhamo bhSvo, bahih-puja adhamadhamah The hipli c+ t Mahanirvana, Tanira XTV 122.

ft e medifeh 0Tm 0i worslu P 15 the realisation of the Supreme in all. Praises ofh 0f , ^ Su P r eme is the middling state, prayers to and external -,!. v ™ 1 *b e silent repetition of his name is the lowest and * won *iP is the lowest of all Again.

bUa-kridanaval sarvam rupa-namadt-halpanam

Alltheim^ a tbtd XIV - “7-

“nagined names and forms are as playthings for the children.

142

The Principal Upanisads

tranquil transcendence and cosmic universality The advocates of bhakti look upon the worship of the personal God as the highest bliss, 1 though those who regard the Absolute as super- personal declare that it is somewhat lower than the highest, that those who do not get beyond the stage of the worship of the Personal God, enter, on death, into a heavenly state of existence This survival in the worlds of the blessed belongs to the process of tune or samsara It is not emancipation from time or timeless union with reality

Any form of worship which falls short of complete self- naughtmg will not take us to the umtive life Faith, devotion, surrender are the means to it Each individual has to achieve insight by his own effort after long and persistent practice 1 When the veil of intellectual knowledge, of avidya, is swept aside, a flood of light breaks upon the awakened soul and a vision of the Universal Self is achieved This self is present, real and concrete even as a physical object is present to the physical eye The Supreme is not so much an immanent God as an experi- enced God, felt as an inward principle of power and new being m life When we rise in contemplation, when there is the vision of the Supreme which is entirely beyond the power of the soul to prepare for or bring about, we feel that it is wholly the opera-

1 Cp Vedattta Dehka

O Lord, if Thou art gracious, if I am (always) by Thy side, if there is in me pure devotion to Thee, if I am in the company of those who are Thy servants, then this samsara is itself salvation tvam cet prasidasi tavasmi samipatas cet tvayy ash bhaktir anagha kan-iaila-natha samsrjyate yadi ca dasajanas tuadiyah samsara esa bhagavan apavarga eva 1 Cp St Paul 'Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling, for it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure ' Epistle to the Phihppians II 12-13

The seventeeth-century Platonist, Norns, writes 'The solitary and contemplative man sits as safe in his retirement as one of Homer's heroes in a cloud, and has this only trouble from the follies and extrava- gances of men, that he pities them I think it advisable for every man that has sense and thoughts enough to be his own companion (for certainly there is more required to qualify a man for his own company than for other men's), to be as frequent in his retirements as he can, and to communicate as little with the world as is consistent with the duty , of domg good, and the discharge of the common offices of humanity '

Introduction 143

tion of God working on the soul by extraordinary grace In a sense all life is from God, all prayer is made by the help of God's grace, but the heights of contemplation which are scaled by few are attributed in a special degree to divine grace. After the vision the light may fade, darkness may afflict the soul, but the soul can never lose altogether what it has once seen Our effort thereafter shall be to renew the experience, make it the constant centre of all our activities until the completely real is completely known

There are references to visions and auditions which sometimes accompany the soul's ascent to God They are really an em- barrassment to the aspiring soul They distract its attention and sometimes tempt it to remain on the wayside without pressing forward to the goal These visions and auditions are not an essential part of the religious intuition These are symbols on the natural and historical plane of the mysteries of spintual life All objects in the natural world are reflections of the happenings in the spintual world The events of the life of spirit are reflected symbolically in the world of space, time and matter

The paradoxes of mystical language are resolved when they are taken over into vital consciousness The mystery-filled figures of the Upamsads are abstractions to those who look upon them from outside The Upamsads speak to us of different forms of genuine religious experience Whether it is contempla- tion of the Absolute, or meditation on the Supreme Person or worship of the Cosmic Spirit, or absorption in the world of na ture, they are all genuine forms, as they aim at the same ultimate conclusion of self-transcendence Man must be sur- Hr J 6 are dlfferent regions in the realm of spirit m

men the consciousness of man freed from the fimtude of self

e ” otIier rell gions, too, we have these varieties of mystic

Plet/ 6 j d stnctlv a person, and live a life in ever com- rnost *♦ mth the dlvme Wl11 ^ at lon S iast reach the

go bev A ^ 11111011 mth 00,1 111616 are others who Wlsh t0 above vT Xmi ° n to Wlt y> a state of consciousness which is subject-object relationship. Naturally the Upamsads do

144 The Principal Upanisads

not adopt an attitude of dogmatism 1 This attitude of accept- ance of all forms of worship has been a persistent character of India's religious life 1 The word of God is not bound by lan- guages m which it is spoken 3 It is the one voice that is heard in all religions

We are heirs of a richer heritage than most of us are aware of The life of the people of spirit, from the beginning until now, has a great deal to offer us If we cut ourselves away from the rich treasury of wisdom about man's aspirations on this earth which is available to us from our own past, or if we are satisfied

1 St Paul's remarkable words that all nations 'seek the Lord if haply they might feel after him and find him, though he be not far from everyone of us' (Acts of the Apostles XVII 27) indicate the right attitude

Eckhart 'He who seeks God under settled forms lays hold of the form, while missing the good concealed in it '

1 'The Supreme is pleased with him who listens to all discourses on dharmas, who worships all gods, who is free from jealousy and has subdued anger '

Srnute sarva-dkarmami ca sarvan devan namasyah anasuyur pta-krodkai tasya Ittsyati keiavah

Visnu-dharmollara I 58

Cp the popular verse

At heart a Sakta, outwardly a Saiva

and in gatherings a Vaisnava anlah iakto bahih iawo, sabha-madhye ca vatsnavah As we use these symbols, we find that some are more adequate than others

Uddhava said [PBndava Gila 17)

vasttdevam -pantyajya yo'nyam devam upasale trstto jahnavl-tire kupam vanchatt durbhagah

That unfortunate one, who, rejecting Vasudeva, worships another god is like a thirsty person searching for a well on the bank of the Ganges.

Bardosa writes of Knsnnadeva Raya of Vijayanagar empire 'The King allows such freedom that any man may come and go and live according to his own creed without suffering any annoyance and without enquiring whether he is a Christian, Jew, Moor or Hindu ' An Advanced History of India by R C Majumdar, H C Ray^Chaudhunand K Datta (1946), P 379

3 Cp Virgil's passionate outburst 'Blessed is he who has won to the heart of the universe, he is beyond good and evil But that is too much for ordinary humanity to attain, it is a very good second best to know the gods of the country, to live the life of the country ' Georgics II 49° ^

'If any bom in barbarous nations, do what heth in him, God will reveal to him that which is necessary to salvation either by inspiration or by sending him a teacher ' St. Thomas Aqumas 2 Sent Dist 28 q, 1, a4, ad 4

Introduction

145

with our own inadequate tradition and fail to seek for ourselves the gifts of other traditions, we will gravely misconceive tbe spint of religion Loyalty to our particular tradition means not only concord with the past but also freedom from the past. The living past should serve as a great inspiration and support for the future. Tradition is not a rigid, hidebound framework which cripples the life of spirit and requires us to revert to a period that is now past and beyond recall It is not a memory of the past but a constant abiding of the living Spirit. It is a living stream of spiritual life

BRHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISAD

The Brhad-araiyaka-Upanisad which is generally recognised to be the most important of the Upamsads forms part of the Satapatha Brdhmana It consists of three Kandas or sections, the Madhu Kanda which expounds the teaching of the basic identity of the individual and the Universal Self, the Yapiavalkya or the Muni Kanda which provides a philosophical justification of the teaching and the KMla Kanda, which deals with certain modes of worship and meditation, upasana, answering roughly to the three stages of religious life, sravana, hearing the upade&a or the teaching, manana, logical reflection, upapattt and ntdidhyasana or contemplative meditation Of the two rescensions of the Satapatha Brahmaqa, the Kanva and the Mddhyandina, Samkara follows the former, and the text adopted here is the same

1. 1 1

Brhad-dranyaka Upam§ad

CHAPTER I

Ftrsl Brahmana

THE WORLD AS A SACRIFICIAL HORSE

i mm «sa va asvasya medhyasya snah, suryas caksuh, vatah praqah, vydttam agmr vatsvdnarah, samvatsara dtmdsvasya medhyasya, dyauh pr$lham, antariksam tidaram, prthvol fajasyam, disah pdrsve, avdntaradisah pdriavah, rtav&ngdm, masds cardltamasds ca parvdm, ahordtrdm pratisthah, naksa- •trany asthmi, nabho mdtiisdm; uvadhymn sikaidh, stndhavo gudah.yakrc ca Uomcwas ca farvaiah, osadhaytd ca vanaspatayas ca lomam udyan piirvdrdhah, mmlocaii jaghandrdhah, yad mjrmbhaU tad mdyotate, yad vtdhunute tat stanayah, yan mehati tad varsatt, vag evdsya vdk

i Aum, the dawn, venly, is the head of the sacrificial horse, tie sun the eye, the wind the breath, the open mouth the Vmbianara fire; the year is the body of the sacrificial horse, the sky is the back, the atmosphere is the belly, the earth the hoof, the quarters the sides, the intermediate quarters the ribs, the seasons the limbs, the months and the half-months the joints, %s and nights the feet, the stars the bones, the clouds the nesn; the food in the stomach is the sand, the rivers are the blood-vessels, the liver and the lungs are the mountains, the nerbs and the trees are the hair. The rising (sun) is the forepart, 2f st * tm g ( su &) the hind part, when he yawns then it lightens, wen he shakes himself, it thunders, when he urinates then it rams; voice, indeed, is his voice.

Aranyaiir ° f ^ U P amsad is the third cha P ter of ^

wamedha In this sacrifice a horse is let loose and a guard of dZ^^ foUows ^ t 1 * 1 * If any °™ hinders the horses' tie guard will have to fight When the horse completes a

« a S* Cmt A the earth mi returns t0 the ^P 1 ^' he 155 ofiered title nf~T Ce the who performs the sacrifice assumes the

The h ^ ^P™ 01 (XIII r°T sacnfice described at length m Satapatlia Brahmana VcWp J IJ 5 smn here a cosmic interpretation It is used as a

The d hfilonstrut h to the'pw* sa JF? ce 35 a means to account for creation goes back Sukta of the RV (X. 90 129), where from each

150 The Principal Upam?ads 1. 1. 2

of the members of the primeval person, Purusa, some part of the world is made

asvasya mcdhyasya of the sacrificial horse, medhdrhasya S vydttam open mouth, vivrtam mukham S alma body, sariram catma S

pdjasyam hoof , pddasyam, padasana-slhanam § See MU II 1 4 The earth is his footing The supra-physical can be reached only when we have a firm hold of the physical The thinkers of the Upanisads reach their conclusions by a study of the sensible fact, of the concrete realities of the physical world parvdnt joints, sandhayah S nabhah clouds, nabhasthd mcghah

Hvadhyatn half-digested food m the stomach, udarastham ardha-

firnam aianam S

gttddh blood-vessels, nadyah S

vijrmbkatc yawns gdlram vinamayah, vikstpa li § vijrmbhanam mukha-viddranam

vtdhunute shakes, gdlrdm kampayati & mehah urinates, miiiram karoh §

2 ahar va aivam pmastan malmna nvajdyala tasya pttrvc samudre yomh, ratnr cnampaicdn mahimd nvajdyata, tasyaparc samudre yomh, etau vd asvam mahimdndv abhtah sambabhilvatith hayo bhutvd devdn avahat, vdjl gandharvan, arvdsurdn, aivo manusydn, samudra evasya bandhuh, samudro yomh

2 The day, venly, arose for the horse as the vessel called maJnman appeared in front (of the horse) Its source is in the eastern sea The night, venly, arose for the horse as the vessel called mahiman appeared behind (the horse) Its source is in the western sea These two vessels, venly, arose on the two sides of the horse as the two sacrificial vessels Becoming a steed he earned the gods, as a stallion the Gandharvas, as a runner the demons, as a horse men The sea, indeed, is- his relative, the sea is his source

At the horse saenfice, asva-medha, two vessels are placed one in iront of and the other behind the horse, made of gold and silver, to hold the sacrificial hbations They are here interpreted cosmically as the eastern (Bay of Bengal) and the western (the Arabian sea) mahimd greatness, mahattvam S

The two vessels are made of gold and sdver The gold vessel is the day because both are bright, dlph-sdmdnydt, the silver vessel is the night, both the words rdjata and rain begin with the same syllable rd Silver and night may have a common nature if the night is a moonlit one, candnkd-dhavalatva-sdmydt

I 2. 2 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 151

The sea is taken by S as the Supreme Self paramatmd, samutpadya bhStani dravanty asmmn iti vyutpattya parama-gambhlrasy eivarasya sanudra-iabdatdm aha See A

Second Brahmana

CREATION OF THE WORLD

1 naiveha kimcanagra asit mrtyunatvedam avrtam asit, aianayayd, asandya hi mrtyuh, tan mano'kuruta, dtmanvi sydm ttt so'rcann acarat, tasydrcata dpo'jdyanta arcate vat me kam abhud tit, tad evarkasya arkatvam; kam ha vd asmai bhavali, ya evam elai arkasya arkatvam veda.

1 There was nothing whatsoever here in the beginning By death indeed was this covered, or by hunger, for hunger is death He created the mind, thinking 'let me have a self (mind) Then he moved about, worshipping From him, thus worshipping, water was produced 'Verily,' he thought, 'while I was worshipping water appeared, therefore water is called arka (fire) Water surely comes to one who thus knows the reason why water is called arka (fire).'

M this was non-being covered by death who is Hiranya-garbha

By his thought the universe is produced Death is Hiranya-garbha It is the matter with which he interacts

” istamas or darkness which is represented as his body cp Sulfite U yasyiivyakiam iarlram yasydksaram sariram, yasya mrtyuh sariram

sana

atrmya-garbha is tamai Sariraka-paramatma, the Supreme Self

wtti the body of darkness He thought, 'let me have a self/ i e let me develop a world of

conscious and unconscious objects-

,^^ m i^apanca-Sarirakas-sydmtti samkalpa manahkrtavdn R. m ^ter or happiness kam udakam sukham vd S”

brth a ^°lt ar ^ a ^ ^ yd apdm iara dsit, tat samahanyata, sd P fl«y abkavat, tasyam asrdmyat tasya srdntasya taptasya teio nsoniravartatagmh.

wa^P^*' venl y' 1S arka That whlch was ^ fr 0 * 11 of the Fmm J eCam ^ solidlfied ; that became the earth On it he rested. tenhA if 11 s rested 311(1 ne ated (from the practice of aus- i y) ins essence of brightness came forth (as) fire.

152 The Principal Upamsads I 2 5

After the production of the earth Prajd-pah rested sarvo At lokah kdryam krtva Sramyah, prajapatei ca tan mahat kdryam yat prthtvi- sargah §

tejo-rasah essence of brightness, iejas-sdm-bhulah R.

3 sa trcdhatmdnam vyakuntta, ddityam tytiyam, vdyum trtiyam, sa esa prams trcdhd vihitah. tasya prdci dtk itrah, asaucdsau cairmau, atha asya pralici dik puccham, asaucdsau ca sakthyau, dakstnd codtci ca par&vc, dyauh prsUiam, antanksam udaram, tyam urah, sa eso'psu praiisfhitah, yatra kva cath tad eva pralitisfiiaty evam vidvan

3 He divided himself threefold (fire is one-third), the sun one-third and the air one-third He also is life divided threefold, the eastern direction is his head and his arms are that and that (the left and the right sides) Likewise the western direction is his tail and his two hip-bones are that and that The southern and the northern directions are his sides The sky is the back, the atmosphere the belly This (earth) is the chest. Thus he stands firm in the waters He who knows this stands firm wherever he goes

pratittsfhali stands firm, or obtains a resting-place, stlnttm labkatc £

4 so'kamayata, dvitiyo ma alma jayctett, sa manasa vacam mithunam samabhavad aianaya mrlyuh, tad yad rela asit, sa samvatsaro 'bliavat, na ha para tatah samvatsam asa tarn etavantam kalam abhibhah yavan samvatsarah, tarn etavatah, kalasya parastad asrjata, tarn jatam abhivyadadat sa bhdn akarot saiva vdg dbJiavat

4 He desired, let a second self (body or form) be born of me He, hunger or death, brought about the union of speech by mind What was the seed there became the year Previous to that there was no year He reared him for as long as a year and after that time he sent him forth When he was born he (Death) opened his mouth (to devour him) He (the babe) cried, bhdn That, indeed, became speech

Life is the result of previous knowledge and conduct reto bijam jnana-karma-rupam janmantara-krtam £

5 sa atksata yad% va imam abhimamsye, kaniyo'nnam karisya ih sa toy a vied tendtmanedam sarvam asrjata yad tdam ktm ca, rco yajumsi samdm chanddmst yajndn prajdh pasun sa yad yad evdsrjala, tat tad attum adhnyata, sarvam vd attih tad

I_ 2 7 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 153

flitter tufotffoam, sarvasyattasydttd bhavatt, sarvam asydnnam bhavait,ya evam etad aditer adihtvam veda

5 He thought, 'If I kill him I shall make very little food ' With that speech, with that self he brought forth all this whatsoever exists here, (the hymns of) the Jig Veda, (the formulas of) the Yajur Veda and (the chants of) the Soma Veda, the metres, the sacrifices, men and cattle. Whatever he brought forth that he resolved to eat. Verily, because he eats every- thing, therefore the «<to-nature of Adth (1 e Adth is so called) He who knows thus the <ftfofo-nature of Adth becomes an eater of everything here, and everything becomes food for him.

atksatd. thought, acmt-ayai R

In the previous passage, it is said that Death brought forth, by the union of speech and mmd, year &c, here it is said that he again brought forth Vedas &c § explains that while the previous union was of an unmanifested character, avyakta, the present one is manifested, bahya

§ quotes RV (I 59 10) 'Adtti is the sky, A dih is the atmosphere, Adth is the mother, she is the father.'

6 so'hamayaia, bkiiyasa yapiena bhiiyo yajeyeh; so'irdmyat, sa tapo'tapyata tasya srdntasya taptasya yaio viryam ud- nkramat prdnd vat yaso viryam, tat prdnesutkrdntesu sanram svayiium adhnyata, tasya sarira eva mana dsit

6 He desired 'let me sacrifice again with a greater sacrifice ' He rested himself, he practised austerity. While he was thus rested and heated, fame and vigour went forth The vital breaths, verily, are fame and vigour So when the vital breaths departed, his body began to swell, but the mmd was set on the

Wah' again, punar api S“ explains that Prajd-palt had performed imnd ^ 6 m hlS P revl0US Ilfe and those thoughts were in his

st iapo'tapyaia- He practised austerity tapas is literally 'burning ' Thm,,^ ! caused bv the concentration of mental energy, and TIT V s K 311 creatl °n effected The ardour of mmd, restrained itise^P !l j d ' has P° wer over thlXi SS (See R.V X 190 ) Slowly wire™*! ? cover the Practice of austerities To make ourselves Miew uril %VG * t0 ^ugh fierce fires We cannot be made wen n «lr!^ e ^ De «>me ashes God strips us of everything that we Possess that we may draw near to him

so kaviayata, medhyam ma idam sydl, dimanvy anena sydm

15— 1 he Principal Upanisads I. 3. 1.

izi; iaio'svah samabha-at, yad asvai, ian medhyam dbkud iti iai cviisra-w-edhasyasva-ij.edJiKTai};; esa ha va asva-tnedkam vcia, ya exam exam veda. iarr, anavaradJnaivdinanyaia; tarn sathca- isarasya parastad t&mana dhbhaia- pasiin deuaiabhyah pratyau- haf. iasmai sarza-dizalyam prohsitam prajapatyam dlabhanie; esa ha va asva-ihcdho ya esa iapati: iasya samvatsara e&ma, ay am agr.ir arhah, iasysmc loka aimanah; tav elav arkasvamedhau. so p:war ekaiva dsvaid bharaii, mriystr eva; apa puxar-mriyum jayaxi, nainam v:riy:trm dptiGii, tnriy.tr asyStma bhavati, efasam devaidndffi eko bhavaii.

7. He desired, lei this (body) of mine be fit for sacrifice and let me have a self (body) through this. Thereupon it became a horse, because it swelled, it has become fit for sacrifice (he thought). Therefore the horse-sacrifice came to be known as asva-medha. He vi ho knows it thus, verily, knows the asva-midha. Letting it remain free, he reflected; and at the end of a year he offered it to himself (sacrificed him for himself). He gave up the (other) ppiipals to the divinities. Therefore (men, priests) offer to Praja-pais the sanctified (horse) dedicated to all the gods. Verily, that (sun) which, gives forth, heat is the horse- sacrifice. EEs body is the year. This (earthly) Sre is the arka and these worlds are his bodies. So these are two, the sacrificial fire {arka) and the horse-sacrifice. Yet again they are one divinity, even death. He (who knows this) overcomes repeated death, death cannot get hold of him, death becomes his body, and he becomes one with these divinities.

<zfjM?:r;.- becomes embodied, c&mazon, safsrazan. S. aldbhaia: offered, sacrificed it to himself, alarnbkam priavan. proksliam: sanctified, rnarATa-samshiair.. A.

He overcomes death, assumes the body of death. He becomes superior to rime.

Third Brahnana

THE SUPERIORITY OF BREATH -A3IOXG THE BODILY FUNCTIONS

1. dray a la prajapaiyah, devas cdsurds ca. ttdah kanTyasa eva devah, jy ay asa as'trah, ia estt Jokesv aspardhai.ia, te ha deva ucuh, har.iasitrdr. yajna udgTihendlyayameti.

1. There were two classes of the descendants of Praja-paii,

1. 3 2 Brhad-drcmyaka Upanisad 155

the gods and the demons Of these, the gods weie the younger and the demons the elder ones They were struggling with each other for (the mastery of) these worlds The gods said, come, let us overcome the demons at the sacrifice through the itdgiiha

dvayah two classes, dvt-pmkarah.

The gods and the demons refer to the organs, speech and the rest They are inclined to sacred or worldly objects, to good or evil, then become divine or demoniac, sdstra-jamta-jndna-karma-bhamtah dyotanat deva bhavantt, ta eva svdbhavika-pralyaksdnumdna-jamta- drsta-prayojana-karma-jiidna-bhdvitd asurah § They become gods when they shine under the influence of thoughts and actions as taught by the scnptures These very organs become demons when they are influenced by then - natural thoughts and actions based (only) on perception and inference and directed to visible (secular) ends It is a distinction of life, not of beings S also says that the gods were less numerous and less strong than the demons aspardfumta struggled with each other, vied with each other faraspara-mpgisam krtavanlah

Cp Plato's Sophist, where a stranger from southern Italy who has studied the Eleatic logic of Parmemdes likens the philosophy of his own and earlier times to the mythical battle of the gods and the giants 'What we shall see is something like a battle of gods and giants going on between them over their quarrel about reality One Party is trying to drag everything down to earth, out of heaven and the unseen, literally grasping rocks and trees in their hands, wr they lay hold upon every stock and stone and strenuously affirm tnat real existence belongs only to that which can be handled and °™* resistance to the touch They define reality as the same thing

am*!! y ' ^ 33 soon 93 one of the opposite party asserts that ™ytning without a body is real, they are utterly contemptuous and vero en to anotner wor d Accordingly their adversaries are ery wary m defending their position somewhere m the heights of we unseen, maintaining with all their force that true reality consists thev Vw* lglble 311(1 bo( iiless forms In the clash of argument an/ww ?t. and P^ense those bodies which then: opponents wield,

heme h f 0therS aUege t0 be true reaM y the y cal1 ' not real tttermmaM 1? rt i° f movm g process of becoming On this issue an Elwsirr 1S alwa ys going on between the two camps' The df«f ♦ , Cornf °rd See his Plato's Theory of Knowledge (1935).

SaCtfviII 7-IJ 31 ideahsts ^ matenallsts is stul us

rtazava? tvam na «^g«y« taihetl iebh y° vd S

s y«t yo van bJiogas tarn devebhya agdyat, yat kalydnam

156 The Principal Upanisads I 3 5

vadati tad dtmane, te vidur, anena vat na udgdtrdtyesya ntitt tam abhidmtya pdpmandvidhyan, sa yah sa papmd yad evedam aprattrupam vadati sa eva sa papmd

2 They said to speech, chant (the udgitlia) for us, 'So be it,' said speech and chanted for them Whatever enjoyment there is m speech, it secured for the gods by chanting that it spoke well was for itself The demons knew, verily, by this chanter, they will overcome us They rushed upon it and pierced it with evil That evil which consists m speaking what is improper, that is that evil

3 atha ha pranam ucuh, tvam na udgdya ttt, tathett tebhyah prdna udagdyat yah prane bhogas tam devebhya dgdyat, yat kalydnam jighrah tad dtmane, te vidur anena vat naudgdtr dtye- syantttt tam abhidmtya pdpmandvidhyan, sa yah sa papmd yad evedam aprattrupam pghrati sa eva sa papmd.

3 Then they said to the life-breath, chant (the udgttha) for us 'So be it,' said the life-breath and chanted for them What- ever enjoyment there is in the life-breath, it secured for the gods by chanting, that it smelt well was for itself The demons knew, 'verily, by this chanter, they will overcome us ' They rushed upon it and pierced it with evil That evil which consists in smelling what is improper, that is that evil

pranam life-breath, here used for ghrdnam, the organ of smelling, the nose

4 atha ha caksur ucuh, tvam na udgdya tti, tathett tebhyai caksur udagdyat yaS caksust bhogas tam devebhya dgdyat, yat kalydnam paiyatt tad dtmane, te vidur anena vai na udgatratye- syantitt tam abhidmtya pdpmandvidhyan, sa yah sa papmd yad evedam aprattrupam paiyatt, sa eva sa papmd

4 Then they said to the eye Chant (the udgttha) for us 'So be it,' said the eye and chanted for them Whatever enjoy- ment there is m the eye it secured for the gods by chanting, that it saw well was for itself The demons knew, 'verily, by this chanter they will overcome us ' They rushed upon it and pierced it with evil. That evil which consists in seeing what is improper, that is that evil

5 atha ha irotram ucuh, tvam na udgdya tit, tathett tebhyah &rotram udagdyat yah irotre bhogas tam devebhya dgdyat, yat kalydnam sWnott tad dtmane, te vidur anena vat na udgdtrdtye-

1. 3. 7. Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 157

syantiti tarn abhidruiya pdpmandvidhyan; sa yah sa papma yai evedam apratiriipam srnoti, sa eva sa papma.

5 Then they said to the ear' Chant (tie tidgitha) for us. 'So he it,' said the ear and chanted for them Whatever enjoy- ment there is in the ear, it secured for the gods by chanting; that it heard well was for itself The demons knew, 'verily, by this chanter, they will overcome us ' They rushed upon it and pierced it with evil. That evil which consists in hearing what is im- proper, that is that evil.

6 atha ha mana iicuh, tvam na udgdya iti, tatheti: tebhyo mana udagdyat ya manasi bhogas tarn devebhya agdyat, yat halydnam samkalpayatt tad' dtmane; te vidur anena vai na udgatrdtye- syaniiti. torn abhidnitya pdpmandvidhyan; sa yah sa papma yai evedam apratiriipam samkalpayatt, sa eva sa papma; evam u khalv eta devatah pdpmabhir updsrjan, evam enak pdpmand- vidhyan

6. Then they said to the mind- Chant (the tidgitha) for us. 'So he it/ said the mind and chanted for them. Whatever enjoyment there is in the mind, it secured for the gods by chant- ing, that it thought well was for itself. The demons knew, 'verily, by this chanter, they will overcome us ' They rushed upon it and pierced it with evil. That evil which consists in thinking what is improper, that is that evil. Likewise they also affected these (other) divinities with evil, they pierced them with evil.

All these organs were found to be incapable of chanting the udgiiha as they had contracted evil on account of their attachment to douig well (seeing well, hearing well or thinking well), for them- selves Myatui-visaya^es&ma-sambandha-sanga-Jietoh. S.

7 a tha hemam dsanyam pranam iicuh, tvam na udgaya iti, tatheti- tebhya esa prdna tidagayat; te vidur anena vai na xidgd- tralyesyantitt tarn abhidnitya papmandvitsan; sa yathd ahndnam rtya losto mdhvamseta, evam haiva vidhvamsamdnd visvafico vrnetuh tato deva abhavan, pardsurdh; bhavaty atmand pardsva avisan bhrairvyo bhavatt ya evam veda.

7. Then they said to the vital breath in the mouth: 'Chant

W, I?” 5 ,5? ' <So be iV said breatJl Wanted for tfiem They (the demons) knew, 'verily, by this chanter, they

hun with > e*L But as a clod of earth would be scattered S stnfang against a rock, even so they were scattered in aU

158 The Principal Upanisads 1. 3 13

directions and perished Therefore the gods became (increased) and the demons were crushed He who knows this becomes his true self and the enemy who hates him is crushed

avttsan- desired to pierce him, ve&hanam karlum tstavantdh £ pardh: crushed, parabMdS.li, vinatah.

8 U hocuh, kva mi so'bhfid yo na tttham asakteti, ayam dsye'ntar tti, so'ydsya dngtrasah, angdndm hi rasah

8 Then they said, what, pray, has become of him wha struck to us then? Here he is within the mouth He (the vital breath) is called Aydsya Angirasa (rasa) for he is the essence, of the limbs (anga, members of the body)

9 sa vd esa devoid dm nama, diiram hy asyd mrtyuh, duram ha vd asmdn mrtyvr bhavati ya evam veda

9 That divinity, venly, is dm by name, because death is far {diira) from it From him who knows this, death is far off

10. sa vd esa devataiidsdm devatanam papmdnam mriyxvm apa- hatya, yairasdm disam aniah, tad gamaydmcakara, tad dsdm pdpmano vmyadadhdt, iasmdn na janam tydt, ndntam lyat, net papmdnam mrtyttm anvavdyamti

10 That divinity, venly, after having struck off the evil of these divinities, even death, made this go to where the end of the quarters is There he set down their evils Therefore one should not go to people (of that region), one should not go to the end (of the quarters), lest he meet there with evil, with death

11. sa va esa devataiidsdm devatanam papmdnam mrtyum apahatya athaind mrtyum atyavahat.

11. That divinity, venly, having struck off the evil, the death, of those divinities, next earned them beyond death

aiha: next, tad-anantaram

12 sa vat vdcam eva pratliamam atyavahat, sa yada mrtyum atyamucyata, so'gmr abhavat, so'yam agmh pare?ja mrtyum atihrdnto dipyate

12 Venly, it earned speech across first When that (speech) vas freed from death it became fire This fire, when it crosses beyond death, shines forth

13 atha prdnam atyavahat, sa yada mrtyum atyamucyata, sa vdyur abhavat so'yam vayuh parena mrtyum attkrdntah pavate

I 3 18 Brhad-dranyaka Upantsad 159

13 Then it earned across (the organ of) smell “When that was freed from death, it became air. This air, when it crosses beyond death, blows

-pratfo ghrayah. §

14. atha cak?ur atyavahat, tad yada mrtyum atyamucyata, sa adityo'bhavat, so'sdv ddiiyah parena mrtyum ahkrantas tapati.

14 Then it carried across the eye. “When that was freed from death, it became the sun. This sun, when it crosses beyond death, glows

15. atha iroiram atyavahat, tad yada mrtyum atyamucyata, id dtso'bhavan, id mid disah pareqa mrtyum atikrantah

15 Then it carried across the ear. “When that was freed from death, it became the quarters These quarters have crossed beyond death.

16 atha mano'tyavahat, tad yada mrtyum atyamucyata, sa candramd abhavat, so'sau candrah Parana mrtyum ahkrdnto bhdti, evam ha va enam esd devoid mrtyum ativahah, ya evam veda,

16. Then it carried across the mind When that was freed from death, it became the moon That moon, when it crosses beyond death, shines Thus, verily, that divinity carries beyond death him who knows this

Cp SatapathaBrahmana X 5 2 20. One becomeswhat one meditates on tamyathdyathopasale, tad eva bhavah

17 athdimane'nnddyam dgdyai, yadd hi him cdrwutm adyate, anmavoa tad adyate, tha pratthsthah.

X l J 1 at ^ e breath ) chanted food for itself (obtained food by chanting). For whatever food is eaten is eaten by him alone. In it (breath) is established.

adyam- eatable, adanarham, bhaksandrliam. R.

mourn* by him alone, by the vital breath alone. S refers to the

S233s W ° rd ^ Vltal breath ' ana tU frWtsytehya

18 te dead, abmvan, etavad va tdam sarvath yad annam tad atmana Sgdsih, ami no'snwm anna abhajasveti, te. vai' ma' mmmtsateti; iatheti. tarn sammtam pannyaviianta, tasmad yad adanenamiam aUi, temitds trpyanU; evam ha vd enam svd abhsamviianU, blmrtd svdmm ireslhah, pura eta bhavZy

160 The Principal Upamsads I 3 21

annddo' dhvpatih, ya evam veda, ya u haivamvidam svesu prah- pratir bubhftsah, na haivalam bhdryebhyo bhavati, atha ya evaitam antibhavati, yo vattam anu bhdrydn bubhursati, sa haivalam bhdryebhyo bhavati

18 These divinities said, 'Venly, just this much is whatever food there is and that you have obtained for yourself by chanting Now let us have a share m this food ' He said, 'then sit around, facing me (or enter into me) 'So be it ' They sat around (entered into) him on all sides Therefore, whatever food one eats by this breath, they are satisfied by it So do his relations come to him who knows this, he becomes the supporter of his people, their chief, their foremost leader, an eater of food and their lord Whoever among his people desires to be the equal of him who has this knowledge, he is not able to support his own dependents But whoever follows him and whoever, following him, desires to support his dependents, he, indeed, will be able to support his dependents

desires to be the equal or rival pratikuh bubhusati, prattspardhi bhavitum iccltatt &

desires to support bubhursati, bhartum icchati £

19 so'ydsya angirasah, anganam hi rasah, piano va anganam rasah, prano hi va anganam rasah, tasmad yasmdt kasmac cdngat prana utkrdmati, tad cva tat susyati, esa hi vd anganam rasah

19 He is (called) Ayasya Angirasa for he is the essence of the limbs Venly, life-breath is the essence of the limbs, yes, life-breath is the essence of the limbs Therefore, from whatever limb life-breath departs, that, indeed, dries up, for, it is, venly, the essence of the limbs

20 esa u eva brhaspatih, vdg vai brhatl tasyd esa patih, tasmad u brhaspatih

zo And this is also Brliaspati The brhati is speech and this is its lord Therefore this is Brhaspati

brhall The metre with 36 syllables used in the R V Here it is used for the RV itself

21 esa « eva brahmanas-pahh, vdg vai brahma, tasyd esapatxh, tasmad 11 brahmanas-pahh

21 And this is also Brahmanas-pali Speech is Brahman, and this is its lord Therefore, this is Brahmanas-pati

Brahman refers to the Yajur Veda

j 3 25 Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad 16*

A EULOGY OF THE CHANT ON BREATH 22 esa u eva sama, vag vat soma, esa sa camaiceh tat samnab sdmatvam; yad veva samah piusmd, samo ma4akena samo naeena, sama ebhis tnbhir lokath, samo'nena sarvena tasmad veva sama, ainute samnahsayujyam salokaidm.ya evam etat sama

chant It is sd (she) and am. (he). That is why saman is called saman or because he is equal to a white ant, equal to a mosquito equal to an elephant, equal to these three worlds, nay, equal to this universe, therefore indeed is it the Sama Veda He who knows this Sama Veda to be such, attains union with it or lives in the same world with it

See C U V 2 6 sa is speech, and ama is vital breath.

23. esa « va itdglthah, pra.no vd ut, prdnena hidam sarvam uttabdham, vag eva gttha, uc ca githa cett, sa udgtthah

23 And this is also the udgitha The vital breath, verily, is td, for by vital breath is this whole (world) upheld. Song, verily, is speech This is udgitha, for it is ut and gttha.

24. taddhapx brahmadattas caikitdneyo rajdnarh bhaksayann uvdca, ayam tyasya raja murdhanam vipdtayatdt, yad ito'ydsya dngtraso'nyenodagdyad ttt, vdca ca hy eva sa prayena codagayad th

24 As to this also, Brahmadatta Caikitaneya, while drinking King {Soma) said Let this King strike off this man's (my) head (if I say) that Ayasya Angirasa chanted the udgttha with any other means than this (vital breath and speech) , for, said he, only with speech and with vital breath did he chant the udgitha.

Caikitaneya the great grandson of Cikitana rajanam yajne somam S

25 tasya hattasya samno yah svatii veda, bhavatt hasya svam; tasya vat svara eva svam, tasmad artvtjyam kansyan vdct svaram icchela, iaya vdca svara-sampannaydrtvtjyam kuryat; tasmad yajfie svaravantam dtdrksanta eva, atho yasya svam bhavatt; bhavatt hasya svam, ya evam etat samnah, svam veda.

25 He who knows the wealth of that Saman has that

l62

The Principal Upamsads

I 3 28

wealth Its wealth, indeed, is tone Therefore, one who is about to perform the duties of a Rivtj priest desires to have a rich tone m his voice Being possessed of such a voice, he performs the duties of a Rtvij pnest Therefore, people desire to see at a sacrifice a priest with a good voice, as one who has wealth He who knows the wealth of Soman to be such attains wealth 26 tasya hailasya samno yah suvamam veda, bhavah hasya suvamam, tasya vat svara eva suvamam, bhavah hasya suvamam, ya evam etat samnah suvamam veda

26 He who knows what is the gold (correct sound) of this Soman obtains gold The tone, venly, is its gold He who thus knows the gold of that Soman obtains gold

suvarna- correct sound or gold su, varna

27. tasya hattasya samno yah pratisthdm veda, prati ha tisthati, tasya vai vdg eva pratisthd, vdci hi khalv esa etat pranah pra- tisthito gTyate anna ity u haika ahuh

27 He who knows the support of this Sdman is, indeed, supported Speech, venly, is its support, for, when supported on such, the vital breath chants But some say it is (supported) on food (body)

28 athdtah pavamananam evdbhydrohah, sa vai khaln prastotd sdma prastatth, sa yatra prastuydt, tad etdm japet 'asato ma sad gamaya, tamaso ma jyotir gamaya, mrtyor mdmrtam gamaya' tti, sayad aha, asato ma sad gamaya iti, mrtyur va asat, sad amrtam, mrtyor mdmrtam gamaya, amrtam ma kttrv ity evaitad aha, tamaso ma jyottr gamaya iti, mrtyur vai tamdh, jyotir amrtam, mrtyor via amrtam gamaya, amrtam kurv ity evaitad aha, mrtyor mdmrtam gamaya tti, ndtra ttrohttam wdsti. atha yanitardnt stolrdm, tesv dtmane' middy am dgdyel; tasmdd u tesu varam vrntta, yam kdmam kdmayeta, tarn, sa esa evam-vtd udgdtdtmane va yajamdnaya vd yam kdmam kdmayate, tarn agayaii; taddhaxtal loka-pd eva, 11a haivd lokyatdyd didsti, ya evam etat sdma veda

28 Now next the repetition only of the purificatory hymns, venly, the Prastotr pnest recites the chant and while he recites it, let the saenficer recite these (three yajus verses) 'from the unreal lead me to the real, from darkness lead me to light, from death lead me to immortality ' When he says 'from the unreal lead me to the real,' the unreal, venly, is death, the real is immortality 'From death lead me to immortality', 'make me immortal,' that is what he says 'From darkness lead

1. 4 2 Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad 163

me to light' , darkness, verily, is death, the light is immortality. From death lead me to immortality, make me immortal, that is what he says 'From death lead me to immortality,' there is nothing here that is hidden (or obscure and so requires explana- tion) Now whatever other verses (there are) in the hymns of praise, in them one should secure food by chantmg And therefore in them he should choose a boon whatever desire he may desire That udgdtr pnest who knows this, whatever desire he desires, either for himself or for the sacnficer, that he obtains by chanting This, mdeed is (called) world-conquenng He who thus knows this chant, for him there is no fear of his being without a world.

abhyarolia ascension It is so called because the performer reaches the divinity he worships

Fourth Brdhmana THE CREATION OF THE WORLD FROM THE SELF

1 dtmavoedam agra asit purusavtdhah, so'nuvTksya ndnyad dimano'pasyat, so'ham asmity agre vydharat, tato'ham ndmd- bltavat, tasmad apy etarhy dmantntah; aham ayam ity evdgra uhtva, athdnyan ndmaprabruteyad asyabhavati sayat purvo' smdt scuvasmat sarvdn pdpmana ausat, tasmat pumsah, osah ha vat sa tam, yo'smdt purvo bubhusatt, ya evam veda.

1 In the beginning this (world) was only the self, in the shape of a person Looking around he saw nothmg else than the self He first said, 'I am ' Therefore arose the name of I There- fore, even to this day when one is addressed he says first 'This is I' and then speaks whatever other name he may have Because before all this, he burnt all evils, therefore he is a person He who knows this, verily, burns up him who wishes to be before him

o/ww derived from the root as 'to be' means the existence of I anuvlksya the person who sees and creates himself [srstva), in the very act of seeing enters into the creation (anuprawsat), mto all things, beings and selves

2 so'bibhct, tasmad ekdki bibheti, sa hay am iksam cakre, yan mad anyan nosh, kasman mi bibhmmti, lata evdsya bhayam viydya fiasmad hy abhesyat, dviiiydd vai bhayam bhavati.

r*

164 The Principal Upamsads I 4 4

2 He was afraid Therefore one who is alone is afraid This one then thought to himself, 'since there is nothing else than myself, of what am I afraid?' Thereupon his fear, verily, passed away, for, of what should he have been afraid? Assuredly it is from a second that fear arises

3 sa vai naiva reme, tasmad ekdhi na ramate, sa dvttiyam aicchat, sa haitdvati dsa yathd strv-pumdmsau sampansvaklati, sa imam evaimanam dvedMpdtayat, tatahpahs ca patni cabhavatam, tasmat idam ardlia-brgalam tva svah, ih ha smdlta ydjnavalkyah, tasmad ayam akasah stnyd piiryaia eva tarn samabhavat, tato manusya ajayanta

3 He, venly, had no delight Therefore he who is alone has no delight He desired a second He became as large as a woman and a man m close embrace He caused that self to fall into two parts From that arose husband and wife There- fore, as Yapavalkya used to say, this (body) is one half of oneself, like one of the two halves of a split pea Therefore this space is filled by a wife He became united with her From that human beings were produced

samabhavat became united, maithunam upagatavdn S

Htranya-garbha or Prajd-pati divided himself into two Both are his elements The two are not separate and the theory is not one of final dualism Cp Vtsnu Purdna

sata-rtipam ca tarn ndrim tapo-ntrdkuta-kalmasam svdyambhuvo manur devah palnilve jagrhe prabhuh

Because the woman was born of Vira], she is said to be his daughter also prajdpattr manvakhyai iata-rupdkhydm dtmano duhitaram pat- nitvena kalpitdm &

The original being, atman or self looks around and sees nothing else but himself When he realises his loneliness, he has two feelings, one of fear and the other of a desire for companionship His fear is dispelled when he realises that there is nothing else of which he has to be afraid His desire for companionship is satisfied by his dividing himself into two parts which are then called husband and wife

Compare this with Plato's myth of the androgynous man m Symposium 189c

From the union of the two, the race of human beings is produced A series of transformations of the original human pair into animal forms is mentioned in the next passage

4 sa heyam iksdm cakre, katham nu mdtmdna eva janaytivd sambhavati, hanta tiro'sdmh, sa gaitr abhavat, rsabha tiaras tarn sam evabhavat, tato gdvo' jayanta, vadavetardbhavat, aiva-vrsa

I 4 6 Brhad-aranyaka Vpanisad 165

tiarah, gardhabhUard gardabha ttarah, tarn sam evabhavat, iota eha-iapMm ajayata, ajetarabhavat, vasta itarah, avir tiara, mesa ifarah, tarn sam evabhavat, tato'javayo' jayanta; evam eva yad idam kirn ca tnithurtam, a-ptpikkabhyah iat sarvam asrjata

4 She thought, 'How can he unite with me after having produced me from himself Well, let me hide myself She became a cow, the other became a bull and was united with her and from that cows were born. The one became a mare, the other a stallion The one became a she-ass, the other a he-ass and was united with her; and from that one-hoofed animals were born, The one became a she-goat, the other a he-goat, the one became a ewe, the other became a ram and was united with her and from that goats and sheep were born Thus, indeed, he produced everything whatever exists in pairs, down to the ants

5 so'vet, altam vdva srshr asmi, aham hidam sarvam asrksiti; tatah srsfvr abhavat, srstyam hdsyaitasydm bJuivatiya evam veda.

5 He knew, I indeed am this creation for I produced all this. Therefore he became the creation. He who knows this as such comes to be in that creation of his

He who knows this becomes himself a creator like Praja-pati' ewnnnjagatt sa prajapaltvat srasia bhavaii

In the next verse we have the creation of the gods, Agni, Fire, «na Soma, Moon.

6. atliely abhyamanlhat, sa mukhdc ca yoner hastSbhydm asrjata, tasmad etad ubhayam alomakam antaratah, awnaka hi ym i r antaratah, tad yad tdam ahur ammn yaja, mtim yajjly ekatkam devam, etasyaiva sa visrstih, esa u hy eva torve aevaJ}. athayat hm cedam drdram, tad retaso asrjata, tad u rtwad va tdam sarvam annam cavaannddai ca, soma wmiam, agmr annadah saisa brahmano'tisrshh, yac chreyaso ah an ffi aia atha ym maft y ah sann amrtan asrjata, tasmad fi tt! ahmi y &m h&syaitasyam bhavahya evam veda 0 inen he rubbed back and forth and produced fire from

thf> i irr, luwue J.ui me suurce is namess on

S Wh en ^ ( the P e °P le ) sa y 'sacrifice to him,' £p t0 ^i othe r ™e/ all this is his creation mdeed and he dii<wi * the gods ^ now whatever is moist, that he pro-

food Semen ' 804 aat * $° m * “H” 9 whole faorld) is just ° Q the ea ter of food Soma is food and fire is the eater of

166 Tlie Principal Upanisads I 4 7

food This is the highest creation of Brahma, namely, that he created the gods who are superior to him He, although mortal himself, created the immortals Therefore it is the highest creation Verily, he who knows this becomes (a creator) m this highest creation

soma moon, the lord of medicinal plants osadhipah Cp Deuteronomy XXXIII 14 'The precious fruits brought forth by the sun and the precious things put forth by the moon '

S refers to two views of Hiranya-garbha, that he is the trans- cendent Brahman and that he is the transmigrating 'self,' para eva hiranya-garbha tty eke, samsdrtty apare § accounts for it by the difference of the presence and absence of limitations, upadhi-vasat samsarilvam, paramartltatas svato'samsary eva

7 taddhedam tarhy avyakrtam asit, tan nama-rupabhyam eva vyakriyata, asau nama, ayam tdam rupa tit, tad idam apy etarhi nama-rupabhyam eva vyakriyate, asau nama, ayam idam rupa th sa esa tha pravvsta anakhdgrebhyah yathd, ksurah ksuradhane' vahitah syat, visvam-bharo vd visvam-bhara-kuldye, tarn na paiyanti a-krtsno hi sah, prdnann eva prdno nama bhavah, vadan vak, pasyams caksuh, srnvan srotram, manvdno manah, tany asyaitam karma-namany eva sayo'ta ekaikam updste, na sa veda, akrtsno hy eso'ta ekatkena bhavati, atmety evopdsita, atra hi ete sarva ekam bhavanti tad etat padaniyam asya sarvasya yad ayam atmd, anena hy etat sarvam veda yathd ha vat padendnu- vindet evam kirtim slokam vmdateya evam veda

7 At that time this (universe) was undifferentiated It became differentiated by name and form (so that it is said) he has such a name, such a shape Therefore even today this (universe) is differentiated by name and shape (so that it is said) he has such a name, such a shape He (the self) entered in here even to the tips of the nails, as a razor is (hidden) in the razor-case, or as fire in the fire-source Him they see not for (as seen) he is incomplete, when breathing he is called the vital force, when speaking voice, when seeing the eye, when hearing the ear, when thinking the mind These are merely the names of his acts He who meditates on one or another of them (aspects) he does not know for he is incomplete, with one or another of these (characteristics) The self is to be meditated upon for m it all these become one This self is the foot-trace of all this,

I 4 8 Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad 167

for by it one knows all this, just as one can find again by foot- prints (what was lost) He who knows this finds fame and praise

nama-r&pa name and shape which together make the individual. The mtna is not the name but the idea, the archetype, the essential character, and the rupa is the existential context, the visible em- bodiment of the idea In every object there are these two elements, the principle which is grasped by the intellect and the envelope which is apprehended by the senses While noma is the inner power, ritpa is its sensible manifestation If we take the world as a whole, we have the one nama or all-consciousness informing the one rupa, the concrete universe The different nama-r&pas are the differentiated conditions of the one nama, the world consciousness While the world form is mitrta, its soul is a-mfirta The former is shaped corporeal, sa-iartram, the latter is incorporeal a-iariram BU II 3, CU VIII 12 1 InBU III 2 12, the part that does not leave the individual soul at death is noma, which is not accessible to the senses Akasajs nama, and m the human individual the space m the heart hrdy-akasa, is the domain of nama, the principle of consciousness as a razor m a razorcase He is hidden m all things as a razor m its case or as fire m wood The ignorant do not know him who is hidden behind all names and forms See R V 1. 164. 5 mham-bhara He who sustains the world Vathanara visvamhbharti wtsvaitaragm-rupendi viham-bharah. R

mrma-namam names of his acts These are functional names which conceal his undivided nature We must realise the self not in its * aspects but as these are unified in the self

incomplete, a-purna-svariipak R Sense or intellectual Knowledge which does not involve the functioning of the whole self is ^complete knowledge Wholeness is integral insight

we trace out lost cattle by following their footsteps, so will we tod everything if we know the Self

8 tad etat preyah putrat, preyo vtitat, preyo' nyasmat sarvasmdt, ttarataram, yad ayam alma sa yo'nyam aimanah pnyam mvanam brftydt, pnyam rotsyaUU, Uvaro ha tatliaiva syat jmanam eva pnyam upasita, saya atmanam eva pnyam upaste 8 T^f ^ nyam P r(mS -y u ^ bhavati

Mm Self IS dearer than a son, is dearer than wealth, is carer than everything else and is mnermostWf one were to J™, 1 P^ s ? n who speaks of anythinreTse^han the Self as so A will lose what he holds dear, he would very likely do vne should meditate on the Self alone as dear. He who

168 The Principal Upamsads L 4 10.

meditates on the self alone as dear, what he holds dear, venly, will not perish

isvarah able, capable, samarihah S pramdyukam perishable, pramaranasitam S

9 tad ahuh, yad brahma-vidyaya sarvam bhavisyanto manusyd manyanie, kim u tad brahmavet, yasmat tat sarvam abhavad %h

9 They say, since men think that, by the knowledge of Brahman, they become all, what, pray, was it that Brahman knew by which he became all'

10 brahma va idam agra as.it, tad aimanam evavct, aham brahmasmiti tasmal tat sarvam abhavat, tad yo yo devanam pratyabudhyata, sa eva tad abhavat, tathd rsinam, tathd mamt- sydndm taddhaitatpasyan rsirvdma-devahpratipede,ahammanur abhavam suryas ceh, tad idam apt etarhi ya evam veda, aham brahmasmiti sa idam sarvam bhavah, tasya ha na devds ca nabhittyd Hate, atma hy esam sa bhavah atha yo anydm devatdm upaste, anyo'sau anyo' ham asmiti, na sa veda, yatha paiur, evam sa devanam, yatha ha vat bahavah paiavo manusyam bhunjyuh, evam ekaikah puruso devdn bhunakh, ekasmmn eva paiav adiyamane'pnyam bhavah, kim u bahusu? tasmad esam tan na priyam yad etan manusya vidyuh

10 Brahman, indeed, was this m the beginning It knew itself only as 'I am Brahman ' Therefore it became all Whoever among the gods became awakened to this, he, indeed, became that It is the same in the case of seers, same in the case of men Seemg this, mdeed, the seer Vama-deva knew, 'I was Manu and the Sun too ' This is so even now Whoever knows thus, 'I am Brahman,' becomes this all Even the gods cannot prevent his becommg thus, for he becomes their self So whoever worships another divinity (than his self) thinking that he is one and (Brahman) another, he knows not He is like an animal to the gods As many animals serve a man so does each man serve the gods Even if one animal is taken away, it causes displeasure, what should one say of many (animals)? Therefore it is not pleasing to those (gods) that men should know this

See R V IV 26 1 Vama-deva is the seer of the fourth book of the R V Being is self-knowledge

pratyabudhyata became awakened Cp Buddhist bodhi sambodht, Kena 12

The gods are not pleased that men should know the ultimate

1. 4. 12 Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 169

truth, for then they would know the subordinate place the gods hold and give up making them off enngs

11 brahma va idam agra aslt, ekam eva; tad eham san na vyabhavat tac chreyo rufiam atyasrjaia ksatram, yany etdm devatrd ksatram, xnS.ro varunah somo rudrah parjanyo yamo mrlyur liana th tasmdt ksatrdt param nasti, tasmdt brdhmanah k$atriyam adhastdd updste rajasuye, ksatra eva tad yaio dadhdti, $ai$d ksatrasya yonir yad brahma tasmdd yady apt, raja paramatdm gacchati, brahmaivdntata upanisrayah svam yonim ya. u etuim htnastt, svam sa yonim rccJtatt, sa pdpTyan bhavah, yatha heyamsam himsttvd

11 Verily, in the beginning this (world) was Brahman, one only -That, being one, did not flourish. He created further an excellent form, the Ksatra power, even those who are Ksatras (rulers) among the gods, Indra, Varuna, Soma (Moon), Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, Mrtyu (Death), Isana Therefore there is nothing higher than Ksatra Therefore at the Rajasuya sacrifice the Brahmana sits below the Ksatnya On Ksatrahood alone does he confer this honour But the Brahmana is nevertheless the source of the Ksatra Therefore, even if the king attains supremacy at the end of it, he resorts to the Brahmana as his source Therefore he who injures the Brahmana strikes at his own source He becomes more evil as he injures one who is supenor

ekam eva one only

At the begmning there was only one caste or class, the Brahmana . owerentiations were not, naslt-ksatradt-bhedah. 5. m^taryd Wer ° r doimnion ' used to ^S 11 ^ 6 ^ princely or the raja-stlya- the ceremonial anointing of a King.

12. sa nawa vyabhavat sa viiam asrjata, yany etdm, deva- jfr flWt & ana * a fthhydyante, vasavo rudra ddityd visvedevd maruta

man 'uf u e dld not flourlsn - He created the vis (the com- thp v e classes 01 g°ds who are designated in groups.

Vasus . Rudras, Adityas, Visvedevas and Maruts

Power $l 5hmana represents knowledge, the Ksatnya temporal duct,™. 5 m not en ough We require a class for increasing pro- auction and acquiring wealth

170 The Principal IJpanisads I 4 15

13 sa navoa vyabhavat, sa saudram varnam asrjata pusanam, tyam vai pilsd, tyam Mdam sarvam pusyatiyad idam kim ca

13 He did not still flourish He created the Sudra order, as Pusan Venly, this (earth) is Pusan (the nounsher), for she nourishes everything that is

Society requires, in addition to wisdom, power, and wealth, service and work Wisdom conceives the order, power sanctions and enforces it, wealth and production provide the means for carrying out the order, and work carries out These are the different functions essential for a normal well-ordered society These distinctions are found among both gods and men

14 sa naiva vyabhavat tac chreyo-rupam atyasrjata dharmam tad etat ksatrasya ksatram yad dJiarmah, taspiad dharmad param nasti atho abaliydn baliyamsam dsamsate dhannena, yathd rapid evam yo vai sa dharmah satyam vai tat tasmat satyam vadantam ahuh, dharmam vadatiti, dharmam va vadantam, satyam vadatiti elad hy evaitad ubhayam bhavati

14 Yet he did not flourish He created further an excellent form, justice This is the power of the Ksatnya class, viz justice Therefore there is nothing higher than justice So a weak man hopes (to defeat) a strong man by means of justice as one does through a king Venly, that which is justice is truth Therefore they say of a man who speaks the truth, he speaks justice or of a man who speaks justice that he speaks the truth Venly, both these are the same

dharma law or justice is that which constrains the unruly wills and affections of people

Even kings are subordinate to dharma, to the rule of law Law or justice is not arbitrary It is the embodiment of truth 'That which is known and that which is practised are justice ' jndyamanam anusthiyamdnam ca tad dharma eva bhavati £ hopes to defeat jetum dsamsate R

From early times kings are said to act out the truth, satyam kpivdnah RV X log 6, or take hold of the truth satyam grhndnali Atharva Veda V 17 10, satya and dharma, truth and justice are organically related

15 tad etad brahma ksatram vit siidrah tad agmnaiva devesu brahvidbhavat, bidhmano manusyesu, ksatriyena ksatnyah, vaiiyena vaisyah, siidrena siidrah, tasmdd agndv eva devesu lokam icchanle, brdhmaiie manusyesu, etdbhydm hi riipdbhydm brahmdbhavat atha yo ha vd asmdl lokdt svam lokam adrslvd

I 4. 16 Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad 171

praih, sa enam avidito na bhunakii, yathd vedo vditanfiktah anyad va karmakrtam yad tha va apy anevamvid mahat-punyam karma karoh, taddhdsydntatah ksiyata eva, atmanam eva lokam updsita, saya atmanam eva lokam upaste, 11a hasya karma ksiyate, asmddd hy eva atmano yad yat kdmayate tat tat srjate.

15 So these (four orders were created) the Brahmana, the Ksatnya, the Vaisya and the Siidra Among the gods that Brahma existed as Fire, among men as Brahmana, as a Ksatnya by means of the (divine) Ksatnya, as a Vaisya by means of the (divine) Vaisya, as a Sudra by means of the (divine) Sudra Therefore people desire a place among the gods through fire only, and among men as the Brahmana, for by these two forms (pre-eminently) Brahma existed If anyone, however, departs from this world without seeing (knowing) his own world, it being unknown, does not protect mm, as the Vedas unrecited or as a deed not done do not (protect him) Even if one performs a great and holy work, but without knowing this, that work of his is exhausted m the end One should meditate only on the Self as his (true) world. The work of him who meditates on the Self alone as his world is not exhausted for, out of that very Self he creates whatsoever he desires.

SeeCU VIII 2

S quotes Manu II 87 that a Brahmana is one who is friendly to all, to justify the aspiration of human beings to attain to the order of An^ all0od sarvesuht ^esuabhaya-pradah A A Brahmana grants freedom from fear to all beings of ti K a comm011 saying in mediaeval wnters that society consists ™ ™° se w bo work, those who guard, and those who pray It is th« v 6 to note m P 355111 ^ tfl at these wnters mean by the workers fflf 1 v WOrk 011 the land ' ^ that ^ classification omits m^m Y . merch ant and the dweller in the towns ” Legacy of tlie Ages, 1926, p ii, c. G. Crump.

¥ at ^° a yamva dtma sarvesdm bhutanam lokah sayajjuhoti ath ^f^t^dmdnam lokah; atJiayad anubrute, tena rsindm; van y $ ltrih y° m pmati yat prajdm icchate, tena pitrndm; atha sydn- (lmS l S ' n v&sa y. ate > y ad ebhyo'sanam daddti, tena manu- yad asv j? ^ i >a ^ u ^y as trnodakam vindati, tena pasunam, tyatn foh 1 SSU * v '*P a d'i v&ydmsy apip^hkdbhya upafivanti, tena wie ( y ai ^ h* 1 vai - svdya lokdydristim icchet, evam haivam tn&fJu - ) sarvdnt bhutdny anshm icchanti. tad va etad

Now this self, verily, is the world of all beings. In so far

172

The Principal Upantsads

I 4 17.

as he makes offerings and sacrifices, he becomes the world of the gods In so far as he learns (the Vedas), he becomes the world of the seers In so far as he offers libations to the fathers and desires offspring, he becomes the world of the fathers In so far as he gives shelter and food to men, he becomes the world of men In so far as he gives grass and water to the animals, he becomes the world of animals In so far as beasts and birds, even to the ants find a living in his houses he becomes their world Venly, as one wishes non-injury for his own world, so all beings wish non-injury for him who has this knowledge This, indeed, is known and well investigated

lokah world, object or enjoyment, loko hi noma prdm-bhoga- sthana-visesah R

anubriite learns the Vedas, svadhyayam adhite §

The interdependence of man and the world including deities, seers, fathers, animals, is brought out The same idea is elaborated m the theory of the five great sacrifices, paiica-mahdyapiah, bhuta-yajiia, manusya-yapia, pitf-yajna, deva-yajiia and brahma- yajna for animals, men, manes, gods and seers investigated vtcdntam §

arisfam non-injury risfam ndiah, anstam, anasam R

17 dtmawedam agra dstt, eka eva, so'kdmayata, jdya me sydt atha prajdyeya, atha vittam me syad, atha karma kurvlyeh etavdn vai kdmah necchami ca na ato bhuyo vtndet tasmdd apy etarhy ekdki kdmayate, jdya me sydt, atha prajdyeya, atha vittam me syad atha karma kuroiyeti sa ydvad apy etesdm ekaikavi na prdpnott, a-krtsna eva tdvan manyate tasyo krtsnatd mana evdsya dtmd, vdg jdya, prdnah prajd, caksur mdnusam vittam, caksusa hi tad vindate, irotram daivam, irotrena hi tac chrnot dtmavodsya karma, dtmand hi karma karoti sa esapanktoyajnah, pdnktahpaiuh, pdnktahpurusah, panktam tdam sarvamyad idam kim ca tad tdam sarvam apnoti, ya evam veda

17 In the beginning this (world) was just the self, one only He desired, 'would that I had a wife, then I may have offspring Would that I had wealth, then I would perform rites ' This much indeed is the (range of) desire Even if one wishes, one cannot get more than this Therefore, to this day, a man who is single desires, 'would that I had a wife, then I may have offspring. Would that I had wealth, then I would perform rites ' So long as he does not obtain each one of these, he thinks himself to be incomplete Now his completeness (is as follows),

Brkad-dranyaka Upanisad

mind truly is his self, speech his wife, breath is his offspring, the eye is his human wealth, for he finds it with the eye, the ear his divine wealth, for he hears it with his ear The body, indeed, is his work, for with his body he performs work So this sacrifice is fivefold, fivefold is the animal, fivefold is the person, fivefold is all this world, whatever there is He who knows this as such obtains all this

The ignorant man thinks that he is incomplete without wife, children and possessions a-krtsnah incomplete, a-sampHrnah. £.

Fifth Brahmana

PRAJA-PATI'S PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD AS FOOD FOR HIMSELF

i yat saptanmni medhayd tapasd janayat pita, ekam asya sadhdranant, dve devan abhdjayat; triny atmane' kuruta, pasubhya ekam prdyacchat. tasmtn sarvam prattsthitam, yac ca prdmh yac ca 11a kastnat tarn na ksiyante adyamdndni saroaddl yo vaitam aksitim veda, so'nnam atti pratikena; sa devan apigacchati, sa uriam upafivati.

1 When the Father (of creation) produced by knowledge «w austerity seven kinds of food, one of his (foods) was

aa?T 1° 331 bemgs * two he assi e ned t0 tne g ods ' th”^ he aae for himself, one he gave to the animals In it everything

tW w ! ia J tsoever breathes and what does not Why then do

who£ ^ when ^ are hem S eaten 311 the time? He He .rT ^ “aperahableness, he eats food with his mouth, goes to the gods, he lives on strength Thus the verses.

J^by knowledge, prajnayd

fortune Z a V s * en ty or the performance of rules, karmana, plana- M »”*t hi medha-tapai-Lbda-vacye S

iapasim^ mn - a ! ll ! n ^^y d ^P asd 3 ana y” t P itd ' * tl medhaya hi to sadkd ^ ' e kani asya sddhdranam' ih, idam evdsya s « i>ai»K^ anam annam ' y ad idam adyate, sa ya etad ttpdste na

174

7 he Principal Upanisads

I 5 2

hutam caprahutam ca, tasmdd devebhyo juhvah capra ca juhvah, atho dhuh, darsapumamdsdv tti, tasmdn nesti-ydjukah sydt. 'pasubhya ekam prdyacchat' ih tat fiayah, payo hy evdgre manusyds“ ca pasavas copajwanh tasmdt kumdram jdtam ghrtam vai vdgre pratilehayantt, stanam vdnudhdpayanti atha vatsamjdtam dhuh, 'airndda' ih, 'tasmm sarvam prahsthttam yac ca prdnitt yac ca na' tti, payast hidam sarvam pratisthitam, yac ca prdniti yac ca na tad yad tdam dhuh samvatsaram payasd juhvad apa punarmrtyum jayatUi, na tatha vidydt yad akar eva juhoh, tad ahah punarmrtyum apajayaty evam vidvdn, 'sarvam hi devebhyo 'nnddyam prayacchati 'kasmdt tarn na ksiyante adyamdndm sarvadd 'ih, purttso vd aksttih, sa hidam annam punah punar janayate 'yo vai tarn aksitim veda 'iti, puruso vd aksitih, sa hidam annam dhiya dhiyd janayate karmabhih, yaddhaitan na kuryat ksiyeta ha 'so'nnam atti pratikena' tti, mukham pratikam, muhhenety etat sa devdn apigacchatt, sa urjam upajivati 'ihprasamsa

2 'When the Father produced by knowledge and austerity seven kinds of food' means that the Father produced them by knowledge and austerity 'One of his foods was common to all beings' means that the food of his which is eaten is that which is common to all He who worships (eats) that (common food) is not freed from evil for, verily, that (food) is mixed 'Two he assigned to the gods' means they are the fire sacrifice (huta) and the offering Therefore one sacrifices and offers to the gods But they also say that they are the new-moon and the full- moon sacrifices Therefore one should not offer sacrifice for material ends 'One who gave to the animals' 'that is milk' for, at first, men and animals live on milk alone Therefore they make a newborn babe first lick clarified butter or put it to the breast, likewise they speak of a newborn calf as one that does not eat grass 'In it everything rests whatsoever breathes and what does not' means that on milk everything rests what- soever breathes and what does not This is said that by making offerings with milk for a year one conquers further death. One should not think so For he who knows this conquers further death the very day he makes the offering, for he offers all his food to the gods 'Why then do they not decline when they are being eaten all the time,' means verily, the person is imperishable, for he produces this food again and again 'He who knows this impenshableness' means that the Person is imperishable, for he produces this food as his work by his con-

I £ 3 Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 175

{jnuous meditation. Should he not do this, his food would be exhausted. 'He eats food with his mouth.' The praffka is the mouth, he eats it with his mouth.' He goes to the gods; he lives on strength; this is praise.

§ makes out that desire is possible only when we are ignorant of the truth of things. When vre realise the truth, there can be no desire- brahma-vidyd-visaye ca sarcaikatvdt kdmdmipapattek.

The eater is the subject which is constant, imperishable: the food eaten is the object, it is changing.

mtikham mouth, pre-eminence, mukkyatvam, pradhanyam S

E makes out that the Supreme Person produces food for the needs of creatures paramafma praty ahamannani ptir.ak piinak prar,i~kar- manusar&na janayati.

3. 'tnny dltnane' humta' Hi, mono vacant prdnavi, tony a(mar.e 'kuruta': anyaira mana abhiivam nddariam, ar.yaira mana abhuvam ndsrausam' iti, manasa hy eva pasyaii, manasa irnoU, kdmah samkalpo vicikitsd, sraddhd 'sraddhd, dhrtir adhrtir krzr dhTr bktr ity etat sarvant mana eva. tasmdd apiprsthata upasprslo manasa vijdndti; yah ka£ ca sabdo, vag eva sd; esa hi anfam dyatta, esa hi na prdno 'pdno vydna uddnah samdno'na ity dot sarvam prdna eva danmayo vd ayam dimd, van-mayah, mano-mayah, ■prdna-mayah.

3 'Three 'he made for himself/ Mind, speech, breath, these he made for himself '(They say) my mind was elsewhere, I did not see it, my mind was elsewhere, I did not hear.' It is with the mind, truly, that one sees. It is with the mind that one hears. Desire, determination, doubt, faith, lack of faith, steadfastness, lack of steadfastness, shame, intellection, fear, all this is truly mind Therefore even if one is touched on his back, he discerns it with the mind. Whatever sound there is, it is just speech. Verily, it serves to determine an end (object), but is not itself (determined or revealed). The in-breath, the out-breath, the diffused breath, the up-breath, the middle-breath, all that breathes is breath only. Verily, the self consists of speech, mind and breath

See Matlrt VI. 30.

Mere presentation is not enough for perception. Mind must be attentive. We often say that we did not'see it or hear it because we were absent-minded It is through the mind that we see and hear. smftalpa ■ determination, detenniningthe nature of a thing presented to ns, whether it is white or blue, etc. fratylipasihita-visaya-

176 The Principal Upam?ads 1-5 9

vikalpanam iukla-nllddibhedena £ According to Amara, it is a mental act, vianasam karma

Prdna is the general term for breath, m or out

Apdna is the downward breath, Vyana is the bond of union of the two It is the breath which sustains life when there is neither expiration nor inspiration. Samana is common to both expiration and inspiration Udana leads the soul in deep sleep to the central Reality or conducts the soul from the body on death

Speech reveals things but is not revealed by others of the same class

4 trayo lokd da eva, vag evayam lokah, mano'ntariksa lokah, prano' sau lokah

4 These same are the three worlds Speech is this world (the earth), Mind is the atmospheric world (the sky), Breath is that world (heaven)

5 trayo vedd eta eva, vag eva rg vedah, mano yaptr vedah, pranah sdma vedah

5 These same are the three Vedas Speech, venly, is the Rg Veda Mind is the Yajur Veda Breath is the Sdma Veda

6 devdh pitaro manu$yd eta eva, vag eva devdh, manah pitarah, prano manusydh

6 These same are the gods, manes and men Speech, venly, is the gods Mmd is the manes Breath is the men

7 pita mdtd prajd eta eva, mana eva pita, van mala, pranah prajd

7 These same are father, mother and offspring, Mmd, venly, is the father Speech is the mother Breath is the offspring

8 vijndtam vipjMsyam avipiatam eta eva, yat kim ca vijiiaiam, vacas tad riipam, vdgg hi vijndta, vag enam tad bhiitvavatt

8 These same are what is known, what is to be known and what is unknown Whatever is known is a form of speech, for speech is the knower For speech by becoming that (which is known) protects him (the knower)

9 yat him ca vijijndsyam, manasas tad riipam, mano hi vtjUdsyam, mana enam tad bhuivavatt

9 Whatever is to be known is a form of mmd for mmd is to be known For mmd by becoming that protects him

The mind protects him by becoming that which is to be known

I 5 14 Brhad-aranyaka Ypanisad 177

10 yat kim cdvijndtam, prdnasya tad rupam, prdno hy aw- pidtah, prana evam tad bhutvavaU

10. Whatever is unknown is a form of breath for breath is what is unknown For breath by becoming that protects him.

11 tasyai vdcah prthvoT ianram, jyott-riipam ayam agmh tad ydvaty eva vdk, tdvati prthvut, tdvan ayam agnih

11. Of this speech, the earth is the body Its light-form is this (terrestrial) fire As far as speech extends, so far extends the earth, so far (extends) this fire

12. athaitasya manaso dyauhiariram, jyoti-rupam asdv ddttyah, tad ydvad eva manas, tdvati dyauh, tdvan asdv ddttyah tau mithunam samaitdm iatah prdno ajdyata sa indrah, sa eso'sapa- inah dvitiyo vat sapatnah nasya sapatno bhavah, ya evam veda.

12 Now of this mind, heaven is the body and its light-form is that sun As far as the mind extends, so far extends the heaven, so far (extends) that sun These two (the fire and the sun) entered into union and from that was born breath He is Indra (the supreme lord) He is without a rival Verily, a second person is a rival He who knows this has no rival

Indra the supreme lord, paratneivarah §

13 athaitasyaprdnasydpah sanram, jyoti-rupam asau candrah, tad ydvan eva prdnah, tavatya dpah, tdvan asau candrah, ta ete sarva eva samdh, sarve'nantdh sa yo haitdn antavata updste antavantam sa lokam jayati atha yo hattdn anantdn updste, anantam sa lokam jayatt

. 13 Next, of this breath, water is the body. Its light-form is that moon As far as the breath extends so far extends water aaa so far (extends) that moon These are all alike, all endless. Verily, he who meditates on them as finite, wins a finite world. *>at he who meditates on them as infinite wins an infinite world.

SELF IDENTIFIED WITH THE SIXTEENFOLD PRAJA-PATI

14 sa esa samvatsarahprajd-patih, sodaia-kalah; tasya rdtraya c * P? ma d<iS'a-kalah, dhruvavodsya sodaii kald sa ratribhir eva

pwyafe, apa ca ksiyate, so'mdvdsydm rdtrtm etaya sodasyd tam-a Sa 7- m% ldam P r W ao}i rd anupravisya, tatah prdtar ydyate. hrknf- m r&inm prana-bhrtah prdnam na vicchindyad api m sas y a - etasyd eva devatdya apacitya%

178 1 lie Principal Upamsads I 5 16

14 That Prajd-pak is the year and has sixteen parts His nights, indeed, have fifteen parts, the fixed point his sixteenth part He is increased and diminished by his nights alone Having on the new-moon night entered with that sixteenth part into everything here that has breath, he is bom thence m the (following) morning Therefore on that night let no one cut off the breath of any breathing things, not even of a lizard, in honour of that divinity

apaatyai m honour of, pujarlliam S

15 yo vai sa samvatsaiah prajdpatih sodasa-kalah, ayam eva sa yo'yam evam-vit purusah tasya vittam em pancadasa-kalah, atmaivdsya soda&i kola, sa vittenaiva ca puryate apa cakslyate. tad etan nabhyam yad ayam alma, pradhir vittam tasmad yady apt sarvajyanim jiyate, atmana cej jivah, ptadhmdgdd ily evahuh

15 Verily, the person here who knows this is himself that Prajd-pah with the sixteen parts who is the year His wealth is the fifteen parts, the sixteenth part is his self In wealth alone is one increased and diminished That which ib the self is a hub, Wealth a felly Therefore even if one loses everything but he himself lives, people say that he has lost only his felly (which can be restored again)

Wealth is compared to the spokes of a wheel It is something external If one loses wealth he loses only his outer trappings He can regain wealth It is the distinction between being and having, to use Gabriel Marcel's words

The superscription at Delphi, 'Know thyself is, according to Plutarch, an injunction addressed by God to all who approach him Morcdia 384 D f In Alctbiades I 130 E f Socrates says that he who orders 'Know thyself bids us 'Know the soul,' and he who knows only what is of the body 'knows the things that are his but not himself '

THE THREE WORLDS AND THE MEANS OF WINNING

THEM

16 atlia Uayo vdva lokah, manusya-lokah, pttr-lokah deva-loka iti so'yam manusya-lokah putrenatva jayyah, nanyena kannana karmand pitr~lokah, vidyaya deva-lokah, deva-loko vat lokanatn sresthah tasmad vidyam prasamsantt

16 Now, there are, verily, three worlds, the world of men, the world of the fathers, and the world of the gods This world

I g Brhad-aranyaka Vpamsad 179

of men is to be obtained through, the son alone, not by any other work, the world of the fathers by works (rites), the world of the gods by knowledge The world of gods is, verily, the best of worlds Therefore they praise knowledge

m&ya knowledge, mdyMabdasya brahma-vidya-paralvam R.

FATHER'S BENEDICTION AND TRANSMISSION OF CHARGE

17 atlidtah samfraUik yada ■praisyan manyate, atha putram aha, tvam brahna tvam yapiah, tvam loka iU. sa pidrah praty alia, aham brahma, aham yayfiah, aham loka iti yad vai km caniifefam, tasya saroasya brahmety ehata ye vai ke ca ytynafy, tesam sarvesdmyajfia tty ekata;ye vai ke ca lokah, tesam sanesam loka ity ehata, etdvad va idam sarvam, etamna sarvam sami ayam ito'bhunajad iti, tasmat puiram anuhsiam lokyam ahuh tasmad enam anusasah, sa yadaivam md asmal lokat praiti. aihatbhr eva pranaih saha puiram aviiati sa yady anena kim ad aksnaya kriam bhavati, tasmad etiam sarvasmat putro muncati. iamdt putro noma sa putrenatvasmiml lake pratiiisihah, aOmnam ete daivah prana amrta mis'anti.

17 Now therefore the transmission When a man thinks that he is about to depart, he says to his son, 'you are Brahman, you are the sacrifice and you are the world ' The son answers, T am Brahman, I am the sacrifice, I am the world ' Verily, whatever has been learnt, all that taken as one is knowledge (Brahman) Venly, whatever sacrifices have been made, all those, taken as one are the world All this is indeed, this much. Being thus the all, let him (the son) preserve me from (the ties of) this world, thus, (the father thinks). Therefore they call a son who is instructed ' world-procuring' and therefore they

be enters into his son together with his breaths Whatever ™mg has been done by him, his son frees him from it all, werefore he is called a son By his son a father stands firm in

B worI d Then into him enter those divine immortal breaths.

SeeKTJ.II 15

wt^JL tmsmis su>n. It is so called because the father in this S flT? ei jtonsmrts his own duties to his son . ptttre hi svatma-vyapara-

npwamm karoty anena prakarena pita S r ™ trom fur, 'to 61/ and fro 'to deliver/ a deliverer who fills the

180 The Principal Upanisads I 5 20.

holes left by the father yah pitus chidram purayilva trayati £ Others derive it from put 'a hell,' and tra, 'to save ' See Manu IX 138

In the R V a son is called rnacyula, one who removes debts See Taitttriya Samhita VI 3 10 5

18 prthivyai cavnam agues ca daivi vag avisati, sa vat datvi vag, yayayadyad eva vadati, tad tad bhavati.

18 From the earth and from the fire the divine speech enters him Verily, that is the divine speech by which whatever one says comes to be (is fulfilled)

His speech becomes infallible and irresistible amogha prahbaddhd asya vag bhavah £.

19 divas cainam dditydc ca davoam mana aviiah, tad vat daivam mano yendnandy eva bhavati, atho na socati

19 From the heaven and the sun the divine mind enters him Verily, that is the divine mind by which one becomes only joyful and sorrows not

He sorrows not because he is not connected with the sources of grief iokadi-nimitt&samyogdt &

20 adbhyas cavnam candramasas ca dawah prima avisati sa vai daivah prdiio, yah samcarams cdsamcarami ca na vyathate, atho na risyah sa evam-vit sarvesdm bhutdnam dtma bhavati yathaisa devoid, evam sah yathattdm devatam sarvani bMtdny avatth, evam haivam-vidam sarvdm bhiltany avanh yad ti ktm cemah prajah Socanii, amavoasam tad bhavati, punyam evdmum gacchah na ha vai devdn papam gacchati

20 From water and the moon the divine breath enters him. Verily, that is the divine breath, whether moving or not moving, is not perturbed nor injured He who knows this becomes the self of all beings As is this divinity [Hiranya-garbha), so is he. As all beings regard that divinity, so do all beings regard him who knows this Whatever sufferings creatures may undergo, these remain with them But only merit goes to him No evil ever goes to the gods

Individuals suffer because one causes suffering to another, but in the Universal Spirit where all individuals are one, the sufferings of the individuals do not affect the whole

1. 5 21 Brkad-dranyaka Upanisad 181

THE UNFAILING BREATH

21, athdio vrata-mitndmsd. prajd-pahr ha karmdni sasrje, lam srstdnt anyo'nyendspardhanta. vadisydmy evdham tit vdg dadhre, draksydmy dliam %h caksuh; srosydmy akam ih irotram; eoam anydm kartndni yathd karma, tarn mriyuh sramo bhutvd ftpayeme, tdny dpnot; tdny dptvd mrtyur avdnindha; tasmdt kdmyaty eva vdk, srdmyah caksufi, srdmyah srotram. atkemam eva ndpnot yo'yam madhyamaJi prdnah. tarn jndtum dadhnre. ayam vat nah srestho yah samcarams cdsamcarams ca na vyathate, atho na nsyaU, hantdsyawa sarve rupam asdmefi: ta etasyaiva sans rupam abhavan, tasmdd eta etaindkhydyante prdnd tti. tena ha vdva tat hdam dcaksate, yasmm kule hhavah ya evath veda ya « haivam vidd spardhate, anusiisyati, amtsusya hcavantaio mnyate, ih adhydtmam.

21 Now next a consideration of the observances Praja-pati produced the active senses. They, when they were produced, quarrelled with one another. Speech resolved 'I will go on speaking' The eye 'I will go on seeing.' The ear *I will go on Jearuig' And thus the other organs, each according to its mnction Death, having become weariness, laid hold of them. a 7 0k Possession of them; having taken possession of them, aeatn held them back from their work Therefore speech Becomes weary (gets tired), the eye becomes weary, the ear Becomes weary But death did not take possession of him who

2 /“SS 6 breath ^ ( the senses ) st) ugkt to know him *™ said, This is, verily, the greatest among us, since (it) mer movmg or not moving, is not perturbed, is not injured, '«usaUassume his form'- of him indeed they became a form.

ey 3×6 caBed after breath.' In whatever «uy tnere is a man who knows this they call that family shZaU d whoeve r strives with one who knows this SSeT tne^elf after SlmvelluiS m ^ end ” T^/with

■ ^SSST ents of actlvity -

l82

The Principal Upamsads I 5 23

THE UNFAILING AIR

22 athddhidawatam jvalisydmy evaham ity agntr dadhre, tapsydmy aham tiy ddityah, bhdsydmy aham ih candramdh, evam anya devata yatha-devatam, sa yathmsam prandndm madhyamah prdnah, evam etdsdm devatdndm vayuh nimlocanti hy anya devatdh, 11a vayuh saisdnastamttd devata yad vayuh

22 Now with reference to the gods Fire resolved 'I will go on burning ' The sun 'I will go on warming ' The moon 'I will go on shining' So said the other gods each according to his divine function As breath holds the central position among the vital breaths, so does air among these divinities, for other divinities have their decline but not air Air is the divinity that never sets (never goes to rest)

23 athaisa sloko bhavati

yatas codeh suryah astamyatra ca gacchah ill prdndd vd esa udeh, prdne'stam eh, tarn devds cakrire dharmam sa evadya sa u svah

ih yad vd eie'murhy adhrtyanta tad evdpy adya kurvanh tasmdd ekam eva vratam caret, prdnydc caiva, apdnydc ca, nen ma paptnd mrtyur apnuvad ttt, yady tt caret samdpxpayvset teno etasyai dcvatdyai sdyujyam salokatdm jayatt

23 On this there is this verse 'From whom the sun rises and m whom it sets, in truth from breath it rises and in breath it sets Him the divinities made the law, he only is today and he tomorrow also (Whatever the divinities observed then they observe till today.)' Venly, what those (functions) undertook of old, even that they accomplish today Therefore let a man perform one observance only He should breathe in and breathe out wishing, 'Let not the evil of death get me ' And when he performs it, let him try to complete it Thereby he wins com- plete union with that divinity and residence m the same world with him.

j 6 3 Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad 183

Sixth Brdhmana

THREE-FOLD CHARACTER OF THE WORLD

1 trayam va tdam, ndma riipam karma, tesdm ndmndm vag ily dad esdm uktham, ato hi sarvdm ndmdny uttisthanti, dad esdm sdma, etadd hi sarvair ndmabhih samam, etad esam brahma, etadd hi sarvdm ndmani bibharti.

1 Venly, this (world) is a triad of name, shape and work Of these as regards names, speech is the source, for from it all names arise It is their common feature for it is common to all names It is their Brahman, for it sustains all names

§ distinguishes the world of name, shape, work as non-self from Brahman the self ndtmdyat sdksdd aparoksdd brahma. vak speech, sound in general, sabda-sdmdnyam §. sama common samatvat sdma sdmdnyam §

2 atha rupdndm caksur ity etad esam uktham, ato hi sarvdm rupdny uttisthanh, etad esdm sdma, etadd hi sarvai rupaih samam, etad esdm brahma, etadd hi sarvdm rupdni bibharti

2 Now, of shapes eye is the source, for from it all shapes anse It is their common feature for it is common to all shapes It is their Braliman, for it sustains all shapes.

3 atha karmandm dtmety etad esdm uktham, ato hi sarvdm karmany uttisthanh, etad esdm sdma, etadd hi sarvaih karmabhih samam, etad esam brahma, etadd hi sarvdm kartndm bibharti tad etad trayam sad ekam ayam dtmd, alma ekah sawn etat trayam. “M etadamrtam satyena channam, prdno vd amrtam, ndma-rilpe wyam, tdbhydm ayam pranai channah

3. Now of works, the body is the source for from it all vorks arise It is their common feature for it is common to all works It is then: Brahman, for it sustams all works. These three T°h i. are one ' thls self • the self > though, one, is this triad im Vr lmmortal veiled by the real Breath, venly, is the

vend namC aDd Shape are the real By them breath K

184

The Principal Upanisads

II. I 2

CHAPTER II

First Brdhmana

PROGRESSIVE DEFINITION OF BRAHMAN

I. drpia-bdl&kir haniica.no gargya asa, sa hovaca ajdlasatrum kasyam, brahma te bravdnih, sa hovaca ajalasatruh, sahasram etasyam vaci dadmah janakah, janaka iti vat jand dhdvantitx.

1. There lived formerly Drpta-balaki of the Gargya clan, who was an expositor He said to Ajatasatru of Kasi, 'I will tell you about Bralvman ' Ajatasatru said, 'I give you a thousand (cows) for this proposal ' People, indeed, rush, saying Janaka, janaka,

SeeKU.IV

In this dialogue Drpta-balaki, though aBrahmana, represents the imperfect knowledge of Brahman, while Ajatasatru, though a Ksatnya, represents advanced knowledge of Brahman While Drpta-balaki worships Brahman as the sun, the moon, etc, as limited, Ajatasatru knows Brahman as the self. dfptah' proud, garvitah S

Kasi Kasi is one of the seven sacred places reputed to confer final emancipation

ayodhyd mathtira mdyd kasi kdiici avanttkd piiri avaravali catva saplaita mohsa-ddyikah. anOcanah expositor, anuvacana-samaiiliah, vakta S Being ex- ceedingly vain, Gargya accosted Ajatasatru with boastful speech In accepting his land proposal Ajatasatru offers a reward of a thousand cows

Janaka was a well-known learned king Ajatasatru feels that he has also some of his qualities.

2. sa hovaca gdrgyah, ya cvasav adttyc purusah, clam cvdham brahmopdsa tit sa hovaca ajdtasatruh, ma maifasmm samva- dtsthah ahslhal} sarvcsdih bhiildndm miirdhd rdjch vd aham dam tipdsa Hi, saya clam upaslc, ahsfhdh sarvcsdm bhiildndm murdha raja bhavatt.

2 Gargya said. 'The person who is yonder in the sun, on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' Aj'atasatru said, 'Please do not talk to me about him. I meditate on him as all-surpassing, as the head and king of all beings He who meditates on him as such becomes all-surpassing, the head and king of all beings *

II i 5 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 185

ahs(kah- all-surpassing, atUya sarvfini bhutdni tisihati. S. raja hag, resplendent; diph-gunopetatvat S

The results of meditation correspond to the forms meditated upon according to the view, tarn yathd yathopdsate tad eva bhavati. Satapatha Brdhmana X. V. 2. 20.

3. sa hovaca gdrgyah; ya evdsau candre purusah, etam evdham brahmopasa iti. sa hovaca ajdtahtruh, ma maitasmin samva- disthdh. brhan pandara-vasah somo rdjeti vd aham etam updsa iti. sa ya etam evam upaste, dhar ahar ha sutah prasuto bhavati, nasydnnam ksiyate.

3. Gargya said - 'The person who is yonder in the moon, on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman.' Ajatasatru said: 'Please do not talk to me about him. I meditate on him as the great white-robed king Soma. He who meditates on him as such, for him soma is poured out (in the principal) and poured forth (in the subsidiary sacrifices) every day. His food does not get short.'

Soma is the name for the moon and the juice from the creeper which is used in the sacrifices, yajna-sadhana-bhiita-somaraja-s'abdita- lata-mksa R

pandara-vasah white-robed The white rays of the moon flood the earth R quotes Vyasarya, pdndarair amiubhir jagac-chadakatvat pandara-vasastvam

4 sa hovaca gdrgyah; ya evasau vidyuti purusah, etam evdham brahmopasa iti. sa hovaca ajataiatruh, ma maitasmm samva- dtsthah, tejasvih vd aham etam updsa tit. saya etam evam upaste, tqasvi ha bhavati, tejasvmi hdsya praja bhavati.

4 Gargya said. “The person who is yonder in lightning, on jum. indeed, do I meditate as Brahman.' Ajatasatru said: rlease do not talk to me about him I meditate on him, verily, as the radiant He who meditates on him as such becomes radiant, and his offspring, too, become radiant.'

5. sa hovaca gdrgyah, ya evdyam dkdie purusah, etam evdham Afir$ liS - sa h°vdca ajdtaiatruh, ma maitasmin samva- aisthah, purnam apravartiti vd aham etam updsa iti, sa ya etam dva”rtate &Ste ' ^ ryate f* a 3 a y & P^ubhih nasyasmal lokat prajo-

5_l ( f x P A satd> 'The person who is here in the ether, on him doTt meditate as Brahman.' Ajatasatru said: 'Please not s P eak to me about him. I meditate on him, venly, as the

i86

The Principal Upamsads

It I 9

full and the unmovmg He who meditates on him as such is filled with offspring and cattle, and his offspring does not depart from this world '

The continuity of his line is preserved in this world

6 sa hovaca gargyah, ya evayam vdyau purusah, etam evaham brahmopasa til sa hovaca ajdtasatruh, ma maiiasmin samva- disthdh, tndro vaikuntkoparapta seneii va aham etam upasa iti, sa ya etam evam upaste, jisnur haparajisnur bhavaty anyata- stya-jayl.

6 Gargya said 'The person who is here in an-, on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' Ajatasatru said 'Please do not talk to me about him, I meditate on him, verily, as the lord, as the irresistible and as the unvanquished army He who meditates on him as such becomes, indeed, victorious, uncon- querable, and a conqueror of enemies '

7. sa hovaca gargyah, ya evayam agnau purusah, etam evaham brahmopasa ih sa hovaca ajdtasatruh, ma maitasmm samva- disthah, visasahir iti va aham etam upasa iti, sa ya etam evam upaste visasahir ha bhavati, visasahir hdsya praja bhavati

7 Gargya said 'The person who is here in fire, on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' Ajatasatru said 'Please do not talk to me about him I meditate on him, venly, as the forbearing He who meditates on him as such becomes, indeed, forbearing and his offspring, too, becomes forbearing '

vtsdsahih forbearing, marsaytta paresam S

8 sa hovaca gargyah, ya evayam apsu purusah, etam evakam brahmopasa tti sa hovaca ajataiatruh, ma maitasmm samva- disthdh, pratirupa th va aham etam upasa tti, sa ya etam evam upaste, prattrupam kaivatnam upagacchatt, napratiriipam, atlio prahrupo'smdj jdyaie

8 Gargya said 'The person, who is here m water, on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' AjataSatru said 'Please do not talk to me about him I meditate on him, venly, as the likeness He who meditates on him as such, to him comes what is like (him), not what is unlike (him), also from him is born what is like (him) '

prahriipah likeness, reflection, praltbtmbah

9. sa hovaca gargyah, ya evayam adarie purusah, etam evaham brahmopasa tit sa hovaca ajdiaiatruh, ma maitasmm samva-

II. i 12 Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 187

disthah rocisnur iti vd aham etam upasa iti. sa ya etam evam upaste rocisnur ha bhavah, rocisnur hdsya praja bhavati, atho yaih sammgacchati, sarvams tan attrocate

9 Gargya said. The person who is here in a mirror, on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman.' Ajatasatru said 'Please do not talk to me about him. I meditate on htm, venly, as the shining one He who meditates on him as such becomes shining indeed His offspring, too, becomes shining. He also outshines all those with whom he comes in contact.'

roasnuh shining, diph-svabhdvah §

10. sa hovaca gargyah, ya evayam yantam pascat idbdo'niideh; etam evaham brahmopdsa lit. sa hovaca ajdtasatruh; ma maitasmm samvadisthah, asur iti vd aham etam upasa iti, sa ya etam evam upaste, sarvam haivdsmiml loka dyur ett, namarn purd kalat prdno jahdti.

10 Gargya said. 'The sound here which follows one as he walks, on that, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' Ajatasatru said 'Please do not talk to me about that I meditate on him, venly, as life. He who meditates on him as such attains a full term of life m this world Breath does not depart from him before (the completion of) his time.”

11 sa hovaca gargyah, ya evayam dtksu purusah, etam evaham brahmopdsa iti sa hovaca ajataiatruh, ma maitasmm samva- disthah, dvitiyo'napaga iti vd aham etam upasa tit, sa ya etam evam upaste, dvitiyavdn ha bhavati, nasmdd ganai chidyate

11 Gargya said. “The person who is here in the quarters {of heaven) on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' Ajatasatru said 'Please do not talk to me about him I meditate on him, venly, as the second who never leaves us He who meditates on him as such becomes possessed of a second His company is not cut off from him.'

His fnends do not desert him He is never lonely

I?, sa lwvaca gargyah, ya evayam chdydmayah purusah, etam evaltam brahmopdsa iti. sa hovaca ajataiatruh, via maltasmin samvadisthah, mrtyur Hi vd aham etam updsa iti, sa ya etam evam

mrfyur ^ fe &yUY eU ' mwam t urd Ml&n

JfhJ?^? 3 ^' person here who insists of shadow on htm, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' Ajatasatru said!

The Principal Upanisads

II 1. 16

'Please do not talk to me about him. I meditate on him, verily, as death He who meditates on him as such attains a full term of life m this world Death does not come to him before (the completion of) his time '

13 sa hovaca gargyah, ya evdyam atmam purusah, etam evaham brahmopdsa ik sa hovaca ajatasatruh, ma mattasmm samvadisthdh, dimanvUi va aham etam upasa ttt, sa ya etam evam updste, atmanvi ha bhavati atmanvmi hasya praj'a bhavati sa ha tusnim asa gargyah

13 Gargya said 'The person here who is in the self, on him, indeed, do I meditate as Brahman ' Ajatasatru said 'Please do not talk to me about him I meditate on him, verily, as self-possessed He who meditates on him as such he becomes self-possessed His offspring becomes self-possessed ' Gargya became silent

Self-possession is the quality of those who are cultivated atma- vattvam vasyatmakatvam A

14 sa hovaca ajatasatruh, etavan wo iti, etdvad-dhiti, naitavata vtditam bhavatUi, sa hovaca gargyah upa tvayaniti

14 Ajatasatru said 'Is that all?' 'That is all' (said Gargya). (Ajatasatru said) 'With that much only it is not known ' Gargya said, 'Let me come to you as a pupil '

15 sa hovaca ajatasatruh, pratilomam cat tad yad brdhmanah ksatnyam upeyat, brahma me vaksyatiti, vy eva tvajfiapayisya- miti; tarn panav ddayottasthau tau ha purusam suptam ajagma- tuh, tarn etair namabhir dmantraydm cakre, brhati pandara-vasah soma rajann iti sa nottasthau, tarn pdmna pesam bodhayam cakara, sa hottasthau

15 Ajatasatru said 'Verily, it is contrary to usual practice that a Brahmana should approach a Ksatnya, thinking that he will teach me Brahman However, I shall make you know him clearly ' Taking him by the hand he rose The two together came to a person who was asleep They addressed him with these names Great, White-robed, Radiant, Soma The man did not get up He woke him by rubbing him with his hand He then got up

prattlomam contrary to usual practice, mparitam S

16 sa hovaca ajatasatruh, yatraisa etat supto'bhut, ya esa vtjnanamayah purusah, kvaisa tadabhut, kuta etad agdd iti tad uhana mene gargyah.

II. i 19 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 189

16. Ajataiatru said 'When this person who consists of in- telligence fell asleep thus, where was it and whence did it come back ' And this also Gaxgya did not know.

The fact that a man recovers his consciousness after deep sleep means that it was present even in sleep, though we are not conscious of it. In deep sleep the delf perceives nothing whatever and is of the nature of inactive consciousness.

17 sa hovdca ajdtaiatruh, yatratsa etat supto'bhut esa vtptdna- mayah purusaJi, tad esam prdnanam mpianma vijndnam adaya ya eso'ntar-hrdaya akdsah tasmifi. chete, tarn yada grhndU atha haitat purusah svapitt noma tad grhita eva prano bhavati, grhita vdk, grhitam caksuh, grMtam srotram, grhitam manah

17 Ajatasatru said 'When this being fell asleep thus, then the person who consists of intelligence, having by his intelli- gence taken to himself the intelligence of these breaths (sense organs) rests m the space within the heart When the person takes in these (senses), he is said to be asleep. When the breath is restrained, speech is restrained, the eye is restrained, the ear is restrained, the mind is restrained

akaia- space § identifies it with the Supreme Self dkaia-iabdena para eva sva atmocyate

prana breath S means by it nose, prana itt ghranendnyam.

When the organs are restrained, the self rests m its own self: tasntad ttpasamhrtesu vdgadisu knyd-karaka-phalatmatabhavat svat- mastha evatma bhavatity avagamyate S” karanavastha svaiariraka paramatmany aptta tti svapiti iabdartho'bhipretah R

18. sa yatraitaya svapndydcarati, te hasya hkah: tad uta iva maharajo bhavati, uta voa mahd-brdhmanah, uta voa uccdvacam ntgaccJiah; sa yada maharajo, jdnapaddn grhitvd sve janapade yatha-kamam panvarteta, evam evaisa etat pranan grhitvd sve same yatha-kamam panvartate

18 'When he moves about in dream these are his worlds Znen he becomes as it were a great king, a great Br&hmana as it were He enters, as it were, states, high and low. Even as a great Jong, taking his people, moves about in his country as he pleases, so also here, this one, taking his breaths (senses), moves about in his own body as he pleases. ;

19. «t]ia yada susupto bhavati, yada na kasya cam veda oblnprattsthante, tdbhify pratyavasrpya pnntah iel,say%M

190 The Principal Upamsads II 2 1

kttmdro vd mahdrajo vd mahfi-brfihmano vattghnftn dnandasya gatva iayita, cvam cvatsa ctac chctc,

19 'Again, when one falls sound asleep, when he knows nothing whatsoever, having come through the seventy-two thousand channels called htia which extend from the heart to the pericardium, he rests in the pericardium Venly, as a youth or a great king or a great Brahmana might rest when he has reached the summit of bliss, so does he then rest.'

Round the heart are the veins 72,000 in number These are of five colours uniting with the rays of the sun similarly coloured The sun and the heart are said to be connected with each other In deep sleep the soul glides into the veins and through them it becomes one with the heart At death the soul is said to pass out by the veins and the rays of the sun which the wise find open to them while they are closed to the ignorant See also IV 2 3, IV 3 20 CU VIII 6 i.MU I 2 11 There is another suggestion that only one vein leads to the sun out of 101, the vein in question leading to the head This refers to the suture, the brahma-randhra (A U I 3 12) through which in the process of creation Brahman is said to enter the body as spirit The two versions of 72,000 and 101 are mixed up in later accounts

malia-brahtnanah great Brahmana, amvarata-brahmananda-paro- brahma-vit R

20 sa yathornanabhti tantwtoccarct, yathdgneh ksudrd vispht- Itngd vynccaranh, cvam cvdsmdd dtmanah sarve prandh, sarve lokdh, sarve devdh sarvdm bhuldm vyuccaranh iasyopamsal, saiyasya satyam tti prdnd vat satyam, tesam csa satyam

20 'As a spider moves along the thread, as small sparks come forth from the fire, even so from this Self come forth all breaths, all worlds, all divinities, all beings Its secret meaning is the truth of truth Vital breaths are the truth and their truth is It (Self) '

See Mattrl Up VI 32 saiyasya satyam the truth of truth The w orld is not to be repudiated as false It is true, but it is true only derivatively It is sustained by the Ultimate Truth

Second Brahmana BREATH EMBODIED IN A PERSON

1 yo ha vat itium sa-ddhdnam sa-praiy-ddhdnam sasthiinam sa-ddmam veda, sapta ha dvtsato bhrdtrvydn avarunaddht ayam

II 2 3 Brhad-araityaka Upanisad 191

vdva hsur yo'yam madhyamah pranah, iasyatdam evddhdnam, tiam pratyddhanam, pranah sthund, annam ddma.

1 Venly, he who knows the new-bom babe with his abode, his covering, his post and his rope keeps off his seven hostile kinsmen Venly, this babe is breath in the middle. His abode is this (body). His covering is this (head). His post is breath, His rope is food

The babe is the subtle body [hngdtman) which has entered the body in five ways.

madhyamah in the middle, safira-madhy-avartl ay am, panca-vrttiryah pranah R

Seven hostile kinsmen are said to be the seven organs, the eyes, ears, nostrils and mouth They are said to be hostile, because they hinder the perception of the inner self. See Kai ha. IV. t. By these man becomes attached to the world iama tops, pasa

Even as a calf is bound by the rope, the subtle body is supported by food, yatha vatsah pdiena baddha'vaiistkatt, evam annena pdiena baddho hi prano'vatislhate. Food binds the subtle to the gross body, sthitla-iarira

2 tarn etak saptdksitaya upatistkante. tad yd vma ak§an hhmyo rdjayah, tabhr enam rudro'nvdyattah; atha yd aksann dpas tabhh parjanyah, yd kamnakd, iayd adityah; yal hr§nam, Una agmk, yat iuhlam, tena indrah, adharayainam varianyd prtktvy anmyaitd, dyaur uttarayd; ndsydnnath ksiyate ya evam

2. The seven imperishable ones stand near him (to serve). Thus, there axe these red streaks m the eye and by them Rudra b united with him. Then there is the water in the eye, by it Pananya (is united with him). There is the pupil of the eye, by it Aditya (the sun is united with him) By the black (of the eye), fire (is united with him), by the white (of the eye), Indra Us united with him), by the lower eyelash earth is united with him. by the upper eyelash the heaven (is united with him) We who knows this, his food does not diminish i,f« imperishable ones are so called because they produce mipenshableness by supplying food for the subtle body.

3 tad esa tloko bhavati-

arvdg-bilas camasa urdhva-budhnah, tasmin yaio mhtam vitva-rupam: tasydsaia r$aydh sapta-tire, vdg astami brahtna^d zamvidana Hi.

192 The Principal Upanisads II 3 1

'arvdg-bilai camasa iirdhva-budhnah' ttidam tac chtrah, esa hy arvdgbilas camasa urdhva-budhnah tasmtn yaio nthitam viiva- rupam' tti,prdnd vaiyaio mhitam viiva-rupam, prdndn etad aha 'tasydsata rsayah sapta-tire' tit, prand vd rsayah prdndn etad aha 'vdg astami brahmand samviddnd' tit, vdg asiami brahmand samvitte

3 On this there is the following verse 'There is a bowl with its mouth below and bottom up In it is placed the glory of manifold forms On its nm sit seven seers, and speech as the eighth communicates with Brahman' What is called 'the bowl with its mouth below and bottom up” is the head, for it is the bowl with its mouth below and bottom up 'In it is placed the glory of manifold forms', breaths, verily, are where the glory of manifold forms is placed thus he says breaths 'On its rim sit seven seers/ venly, the breaths are the seers, thus he says breaths 'Speech as the eighth communicates with Brahman,' for speech as an eighth communicates with Brahman

visva-rupam' manifold forms, ndnd-rapam. £

4 imdv eva gotama-bharadvdjau, ayam eva gotamah, ayam bharadvdjah, vmdv eva visvamitra-jamadagni, ayam eva visvdmi- trah, ayam jamadagmh, tmav eva vasistha-kasyapan, ayam eva vasistliah, ayam kaiyapah, vdg evdtnh, vdcd hy annam adyate, attir ha vat ndmaitad yad atnr iti, sarvasydttd bhavati, sarvam asy annam bhavati, ya evam veda

4 These two (ears) here are Gotama and Bharadva]a This is Gotama, and this is Bharadvaja These two (eyes) here are Visvamitra and Jamadagm This is Visvamitra, this is Jama- dagm These two (nostrils) here are Vasistha and Kasyapa This is Vasistha, this is Kasyapa The tongue is Atn, for by the tongue food is eaten Venly, eating is the same as the name Atn He who knows this becomes the eater of everything everything becomes his food.

Third Brdhmana THE TWO FORMS OF REALITY

1 dve vdva brdhmano rupe, miirtam cawamurtam ca, martyam cdmrtam ca, sthttam ca, yac ca, sac ca; tyac ca. 1 Venly, there are two forms of Brahman, the formed and

II 3 6. Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 193

the formless, the mortal and the immortal, the unmoving and the moving, the actual (existent) and the true (being).

See Matin VI 3

2. tad etan murtam yad anyad vdyoi cantanksac ca, etan martyam, etat sthttam, etat sat, tasyaitasya murtasya, etasya martyasya etasya sthttasya, etasya sata esa raso ya esa tapah, safe hy esa rasah

2. This is the formed Brahman, whatever is different from the air and the atmosphere This is mortal This is unmoving, this is actual The essence of this formed, this mortal, this unmoving, this actual is the yonder sun which gives forth warmth, for that is the essence of the actual

3. athamurtam vayus cantanksam ca, etad amrtam etad yat, etat tyat, tasyattasyamurtasya, etasydmrtasya, etasya yatah etasya tasyatsa raso ya esa etasmin mandate purusah, tasya hy esa rasa!}, ity-adhxdavoatam

3 Now the formless is the air and the atmosphere This is immortal, this is the moving and this is the true. The essence of this unformed, this immortal, this moving, this true is this person who is in the region of the sun for he is the essence (of true) This, with reference to the divinities.

4 athaihyatmam idam eva murtam yad anyat prdnac ca yai cayam antaratmann akasah, etan martyam, etat sthitam, etat sat, tasyattasya murtasya, etasya martyasya, etasya sthitasya, etasya sata esa rasoyac caksuh, sato hy esa rasah.

4 Now with reference to the self; ]ust this is the formed, what is different from the breath and from the space which is within the self This is mortal, this is unmovmg, this is actual (existent) The essence of this formed, this mortal, this un- moving, this actual is the eye, for it is the essence of the actual.

5 athamurtam pranas ca yas cayam antar-atmanli akdSah; etad amrtam, etad yat, etat tyam, tasyattasyamurtasya, etasya- mrtasya etasya yatah, etasya tyasyaisa raso yo' yam dateline' ksan purusah, iyasya hy esa rasah ' '

,JL- N( T ^ fomiless B breath and the space which is jntom the self This is immortal, this is moving, this is the true ine essence of this unformed, immortal, moving, true is ttos person who is in the nght eye, for he is the essence of the

6. tasya haitasya pumsasya rupamyatha mahdrajanam vdsah,

194 The Principal Upamsads II 3 6

yatha pdndv-dvikam, yathendragopah, yathdgnyarcth, yatha pundarikam, yatha sakrd-vidyutlam, sakrd-vidyutteva ha va asya irlr bhavati, ya evam veda athdta ddesah na ih na %t%, na hy etasmdd ttt, na ity anyat param ash, atha ndma-dheyam satyasya satyam iti prdnd vat satyam, tesdm esa satyam

6 The form of this person is like a saffron-coloured robe, like white wool, like the Jndragopa insect, like a flame of fire, like a white lotus, like a sudden flash of lightning He who knows it thus attains splendour like a sudden flash of lightning Now therefore there is the teaching, not this, not this for there is nothing higher than this, that he is not this Now the designa- tion for him is the truth of truth Verily, the vital breath is truth, and He is the truth of that

See also III 9 26, IV 2 4, IV 4 22, IV 5 15

like a sudden flash of lightning enlightenment is said to be instantaneous Truth flashes suddenly like lightning not this, not this

Matrceta speaks of the Buddha thus 'Only you yourself can know yourself who are beyond measure, beyond number, beyond thought, beyond comparison '

aprameyam asamkhyeyam acmtyam amiar&anam svayam evatmanatmdnam tvam evapidlum arhasi 151 D R Shackleton Bailey's ed (1951), pp 148, 180

In the Republic, there is the impersonal form of the good and m the Ttmaeus there is' the self-moving spirit fit to receive the name of God This section of the Upamsad suggests that the two cannot be left unreconciled but are to be treated as two forms of one Reality

The Fourth Gospel insists that God 'works' in the world, but he works through the Logos who is himself God though not the God- head Plotmus though he believes m heaven as the rich intelligible or spiritual world in which our individuality is preserved, affirms that on certain rare occasions the human soul may transcend even the realm of spirit, and enter mto communion with the one, 'beyond existence,' of whom nothing positive can be affirmed While there is a realm which consists m the duality of subject and object, which is perceived by the intelligence to be coextensive and reciprocally necessary, there is an absolute unity from which all dualities proceed, which is itself above duality The pseudo-Dionysius called God 'The absolute No-thing which is above all existence' and declares that 'no monad or triad can express the all-transcending hiddenness of the all-transcending superessentially superexistmg superdeity ' Scotus Engena says 'God because of his excellence may rightly be called Nothing ' Hooker says wisely 'Dangerous it were for the feeble brain of man to wade far mto the domgs of the Most

II 4 3 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 195

High, -whom although to know be life and ]oy to make mention of his name, yet our soundest knowledge is to know that we know him not as indeed he is our safest eloquence concerning him is our silence' Many systems of thought distinguish between the absolutely transcendent Godhead 'who dwelleth m the light which no man can approach unto' and the Creator God. In this famous passage, the Upanisad speaks to us of the Absolute transcendent non-empmcal Godhead. This is S's view.

Ramanuja, however, thinks that since there can be no object without qualities, this passage negates only some attributes and not all of them For Ramanuja, knowledge is possible only of a determined or qualified object He argues that the passage does not mean that Brahman has no qualities at all,but only that there are no evil qualities in Brahman

Fourth Brdhma^a

THE CONVERSATION OF YAJNAVALKYA AND MAITKEYl ON THE ABSOLUTE SELF

1 maitreyi, iti hovdca ydjnavalkyah, ud ydsyan vd are 'Iiam asmdt sthandd asmi; hanta, te 'nayd kdtydyanydntam karavdmh.

1 'Maitreyi,' said Yajfiavalkya, 'verily, I am about to go forth from this state (of householder) Look, let me make a final settlement between you and that Ka.tya.yam '

See IV 5

sthandd from the state le the stage in his life Yajfiavalkya wishes to renounce the stage of the householder, grhastfia and enter that of the anchorite, vanaprastha

2. sa hovdca maitreyi, yan nu ma tyam, bhagoh, sarvd prthvol vittena puma sydt, katham tendmrtd sydm ih na, th hovdca ydjnavalkyah yathaivopakaranavatdm jivitam, tathaiva te jivitam sydd amrtatvasya tu ndidsh mUeneti.

2. Then said Maitreyi 'If, indeed, Venerable Sir, this whole earth filled with wealth were mine, would I be immortal through that>' 'No,' said Yajnavalkya- 'Like the life of the rich even so would your life be Of immortality, however, there is no hope through wealth 1

3 sa Jiovdca maitreyi, yendham ndmrtd sydm, kim dham iena kurydm, yad eva bltagavdn veda tad eva me bruhtti. 3 Then Maitreyi said “What should I do with that by which o*

196 The Principal Upamsads II 4 5

I do not become immortal? Tell me that, indeed, Venerable Sir, of what you know (of the way to immortality) '

Venerable Sir Bharata says that gods, sages, monks and saints

are to be called bhagavan

devds ca munayai caiva hngmah sadhavas cayc bhagavann iti tc vdcydh sarvaih sln-pum-napiimsakaih

the way to immortality kcvalam amytatva-sadhanam §

4 sa hovaca yajiiavalkyah, pnyd bata are nah sail priyam bhdsasc, eht, dssva, vydkhyasyami te, vydcaksdnasya tti me mdidhydsasva tti

4 Then Yajnavalkya said 'Ah, dear, you have been dear (even before), and you (now) speak dear words Come, sit down, I will explam to you Even as I am ^explaining reflect (on what I say) ' ^

pnyd dear You are dear because you wish to learn of that truth

which is nearest my heart

bata baiely anukampydJia It shows tenderness

reflect vdkydny arihalo mscayena dhydtum tccheh S

Those who recite the Vedas without understanding their meaning are compared by Sayana to lifeless pillars which bear the weight of the roof

sthdnur ayatn bhara-harahkildbhud,adhitya vedamnavtjdnahyo'rtham Cp what Krsna says to Arjuna m the Uttara-gitd ya ha kharas ccaidana-bhara-vahl bhdrasya velta 11a lu saurabhasya talha hi viprah sndi-sdstra-purnaJi, jiidnena hinahpasubhihsamdnah Just as a donkey bearing the weight of sandal-wood knows its weight but not its fragrance, so also is a Brahmana who knows the texts of the Vedas and scriptures but not their significance

There is another version of this verse. yathd kharas candana-bhdra-vahi bhdrasya vettd na tu candatiasya, tathaiva sastram baliuny adhUya, sir am najdnan kkaravad valtet sah It is said that some people are clever only at expounding, while others have the ability to practise what they learn The hand carries the food to the mouth but only the tongue knows the flavours vyakhydtum eva kecit kusatdh, sastram prayoktum alam anye upandmayah karo'nnam rasdms tu jilwavoa jandh

5 sa hovaca na vd are patyuh kdmaya pahh pnyo bliavati, dtmanas tu kdmaya pahh pnyo bliavati, na vd arejdydyai kdmdya jdyd priyd bhavatt, dtmanas tu kdmaya jdyd pnyd bhavati, na vd are putrdndm kdmdya putrah pnyd bkavanh, dtmanas tu kdmaya putrah pnyd bhavanti, na vd are vittasya kdmaya vittam priyam bhavati, dtmanas tu kdmdya vittam pnyam bhavati, na vd are brahmanah kdmdya brahma priyam bhavati, dtmanas tu

II 4 5 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 197

kamaya brahma pnyam bhuvaU, na va are ksatrasya kamaya ksatram pnyam bhavati aimanas tu kamaya ksatram pnyam bhavatt, na va are lokdndm kamaya lokah pnya bhavanti, atmanastu kamaya. lokah pnya bhavanh; na va are devanam kamaya devdh pnya bhavanh, aimanas tu kamaya devdh priyd bhavanti, na va are bhutdndm kamaya bhutdni priydni bhavanti, aimanas in kamaya bhutdni priydni bhavanti; na va are sarvasya kamaya sarvam pnyam bhavatt, aimanas tu kamaya sarvam pnyam bhavatt; dtmd va are drastavyah srotavyo mantavyo mdidhydsitavyak' maitreyi dtmano vd are darsanena iravanena matyd vijiidnenedam sarvam vxditam.

5 Then he said. 'Venly, not for the sake of the husband is the husband dear but a husband is dear for the sake of the* Self Venly, not for the sake of the wife is the wife dear but a wife is dear for the sake of the Self Venly, not for the sake of the sons are the sons dear but the sons are dear for the sake of the Self Venly, not for the sake of wealth is wealth dear but wealth is dear for the sake of the Self. Venly, not for the sake of Brahminhood is brahminhood dear but brahminhood is dear for the sake of the Self Venly, not for the sake of ksatnya- hood is ksatriyahood dear but ksatriyahood is dear for the sake of the Self Venly, not for the sake of the worlds are the worlds dear but the worlds are dear for the sake of the Self Verily, not for the sake of the gods are the gods dear but the gods are dear for the sake of the Self. Venly, not for the sake of the beings are the beings dear but the beings are dear for the sake of the Self Venly, not for the sake of all is all dear but all is dear for the sake of the Self Venly, O Maitreyi, it is the Self that should be seen, heard of, reflected on and medi- tated upon Venly, by the seeing of, by the hearing of, by the thinking of, by the understanding of the Self, all this is known.

AH objects of the world, earthly possessions, romantic delights* provide opportunities for the realisation of the Self m SelfsJiould be seen, heard of, reflected on and meditated upon- sWotavyah snitt-vakyebhyah, mantavyas copapattiblnh malvd ca satatam dhyeya, tie darsana-hetavah Vivarana- prameya-samgraha The Sruti, the text, is the basis for intellectual development, jj? a ltls * means subordinate and necessary to true knowledge; forbt^ra” 8 ° PP ° Slte ° f ti 1011 ^ 633 &ite*on It prepares

Contemplation is not mere philosophic thought It is a higher

198

The Principal Upamsads

II 4 8

stage of spiritual consciousness It secures the direct conviction of the reality While a teacher can help, personal effort alone can take us to the goal of realisation

The Jama and the Buddhist systems also recognise the three stages of religious development The three jewels of the Jamas, raina-lraya, arc right belief, right knowledge and right conduct Matrceta says in Salapaficaiatka (90)

agamasyarlha-ctntaya bhdvanopasanasya ca

kdla-traya-vtbhdgo'sh ndnyatra lava idsannl Nowhere except in your teaching is there the threefold division of time into hearing the Scriptures, reflection on their meaning and the practise of meditation

■ 6 brahma tarn paradad yo' nyatratmano brahma veda ksatram tarn paradad yo 'nyatratmanah ksatram veda lokas tarn paradur yo 'nyatratmano lokan veda devas tarn paradur yo' nyatratmano devdn veda bhuidm tarn paradur yo' nyatratmano bhutdm veda sarvam tarn paradad yo' nyatratmano sarvam veda xdam brahma, tdam ksatram, imc lokah, tine devah, imam bhiitam, xdam sarvam, yad ayam alma

6. 'The Brahmana ignores one who knows him as different from the Self The Ksatnya ignores one who knows him as different from the Self The worlds ignore one who knows them as different from the Self The gods ignore one who knows them as different from the Self The beings ignore one who knows them as different from the Self All ignores one who knows it as different from the Self This Brahmana, this Ksatriya, these worlds, these gods, these beings and this all are this Self

The various particular notes are not heard apart from the whole, but they are heard in the total sound

7 sa yatka dundubher hanyamdnasya na bdhydn iabdan iaknuyad grahanaya, dundnbhes tu grahanena dundubhy-dgM- tasya vd sabdo grhtiah

7 'As when a drum is beaten, one is not able to grasp the external sounds, but by grasping the drum or the beater of the drum the sound is grasped

aghatasya vd or the beater of the drum tadahanlr-fnmtsasya nirodhena vd R

8. sa yathd sankhasya dhmdyamdnasya na bdhydn iabdan

II 4 ii- Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 199

iaknuyad grdhandya, iankhasya tu grahaenan iankha-dhmasya va iabdo grhitah

8 'As -when a conch is blown, one is not able to .grasp its external sounds, but by grasping the conch or the blower of the conch the sound is grasped.

9 sa yathd vindyai vddyamdndyai na bdhyan sabddn saknuydd grahandya, vindyai tu grahanena mnd-vddasya vd iabdo grhitah.

9 'As when a vina (lute) is played, one is not able to grasp its external sounds, but by grasping the vina or the player of the vina the sound is grasped.

10 sa yathdrdra-edhdgner abhydhidt prthag dhumd vinii- caranh, evam vd are'sya mahato bhiitasya nihsvasitam, dad yad rgvedo yajurvedah sdmavedo'tharJdngirasa itihdsah purdnam wdya upamsadah slokdh sutrdny anuvydkhydndm vydkhydndni: asyaivaiiam sarvam nihsvasitam.

10 'As from a lighted fire laid with damp fuel, various (clouds of) smoke issue forth, even so, my dear, the Rg Veda, the Yapir Veda, the Sdma Veda, Atharvdngirasa, history, ancient lore, sciences, Upanisads, verses, aphorisms, explanations and commentaries From this, indeed, are all these breathed forth.

SesMaitriVl 32

AH knowledge and all wisdom are the breath of the eternal Brahman. mahad bh&tam the great reality. It is great because it is greater than everything else and is the source of all else. breathing: As a man breathes without effort, so all these come out o£ the Supreme without effort: yathd aprayatnenawa pimisa-wiSvdso bhavati S

anuvyakhyanant explanations, bhdsya-vydhhydndni vyakhyandnr commentaries, bhdsya-v&pdni.

H sa yathd sarvdsdm apdm samudra ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm spaHdndm tvag ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm gandhdndm n&sike ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm rasdndm jihvd ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm rupdndm caksur ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm sabddndm boiram ekdyanam, evam saroesdm samkalpdndm mana ekdyanam, Mam sarvdsdm vidydndm hrdayam ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm mrmandtn hastdv ekdyanam, evam saroesdm dnanddndm upastha ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm visargdndm pdyur ekdyanam, ewm sanesdth adhvandm pddav ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm vedandm vdg ekdyanam

J v ocean is the one goal (uniting place) of all waters,

200 The Principal Upamsads II 4 13.

are the one goal of all smells, as the tongue is the one goal of all tastes, as the eye is the one goal of all forms, as the ear is the one goal of all sounds, as the mind is the one goal of all determinations, as the heart is the one goal of all forms of knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all acts, as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, as the excretory organ is the one goal of all evacuations, as the feet are the one goal of all movements, as speech is the one goal of all Vedas

12. sa yaihd samdhava-khlya udake prdsta udakam evdnuvi- Ivyeta, na Msya ndgiahandyeva sydt, yato yatas tv ddadita lavanam eva, evam vd ara idam maliad bhiitam <anantam apdram vijndna-ghana eva; etebhyo bhittebhyah samutthaya, tony evanu- vmasyati, na pretya samjnasti, ih are bravtmi, ih hovdca ydjnavalkyah

12 'As a lump of salt thrown in water becomes dissolved in water and there would not be any of it to seize forth as it were, but wherever one may take it is salty indeed, so, verily, this great being, infinite, limitless, consists of nothing but knowledge Arising from out of these elements one vanishes away into them When he has departed there is no more know- ledge This is what I say, my dear' • so said Yajnavalkya

saindltava salt, auditor vtkarah samdliavah, smdhu sdbdenodakam abhtdhtyate, syandandt stnilmr udakam §. samjiia' detailed knowledge, viiesa-samjiid §

13 sa hovdca maiireyi, atraiva ma bhagavdn amumuhat, 11a pretya sampidslih sa hovdca, na va are'ham moham bravtmi, alam vd ara idam vijiidndya.

13 Then said Maitreyi - 'In this, indeed, you have bewil- dered me, Venerable Sir, by saying that, “when he has departed there is no more knowledge ”' Then Yajnavalkya said 'Cer- tainly I am not saying anything bewildering This is enough for knowledge (or understanding) '

The confusion is due to the seeming contradiction that the Self is pure intelligence, and, again, when one has departed there is no more knowledge The same fire cannot be both hot and cold S points out that Brahman, the pure intelligence, remains unchanged, that it does not pass out with the destruction of the elements, but the individual existence due to avtdya is overcome, katham vijnana-ghana eva, hattiam vd na pretya samjnastth, na 'hy usnas sttas cdgnir evaiko bhavali . . sa alma- sarvasya jagalah paramartliato bltuta-ndsdn na vindsi, vtndsi tv avidyd-kfta-khtlyabhavah S

II. 5 *• Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad zoi

The goal seems to be like the state of dreamless sleep a state of utter annihilation Maitreyl protests against such a bewildering prospect.

14, yaira hi dvaitam vaa bhavati, tad itara itaram pghratt, tad itara itaram paiyah, tad itara itaram irnott, tad itara itaram abhvadah, tad ttara ttaram manute, tad ttara itaram mjanah yaira tv asya sarvam atmaivabhut, tat kena ham pgkret, tat kena kam pasyet, tat kena ham irnuyat, tat kena kam abhtvadet, tat kena kam manvita, tat kena kam vijaniyaP yenedam sarvam vijanah, tam kena mjamydt, vijnataram are kena vijamyad tit.

14 'For where there is duality as it were, there one smells another, there one sees another, there one hears another, there one speaks to another, there one thinks of another, there one understands another. Where, verily, everything has become the Self, then by what and whom should one smell, then by what and whom should one see, then by what and whom should one hear, then by what and to whom should one speak, then by what and on whom should one think, then by what and whom should one understand? By what should one know that by which all this is known? By what, my dear, should one know the knower?'

SeeCU VII 24 1 The reference here is to the Absolute Brahman. Whatever is known is an object As the Self is the subject, it cannot he known.

This section indicates that the later subjection of women and their exclusion from Vedic studies do not have the support of the Upanisads

Fifth Brahmana THE COSMIC AND THE INDIVIDUAL

1 tyam prthm sarvesam bhiitanam madhu, asyaz prthivyai sarvam bhutant madhu; yai cayam asydm prthivydm tejomayo' Wavuiyah purusah, yas cayam adhyatmam ianras tejomayo' imamayaJi. purusah, ayam eva sa yo'yam atmd, tdam amrtam. ifem brahma, tdam sarvam.

J“' P 11 ^ earth is (like) honey for all creatures, and all creatures re t|ike) honey for this earth. This shining, immortal person ™° *? tb -is earth and Vnth reference to oneself, this shining,

m M “^mortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

202

The Principal Upanisads II. 5 5

The earth and all living beings are mutually dependent, even as bees and honey are The bees make the honey and the honey supports the bees parasparam upakaryopakaraka-bkave phalitam aha A

Brahman is the self m each, in the earth and m the individual

2 una apah sarvesam bhutanam madhu, asdm apam sarvam bhutam madhu, yas cayam asv apsu tejomayo' mrtamayah purusah, yas cayam adhyatmam raitasas tejomayo' mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sayo' yam atma, tdam amrtam, tdam brahma, tdam sarvam

2 This water is (like) honey for all beings, and all beings are (like) honey for this water This shining, immortal person who is in this water and with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal person existing as the seed (m the body), he is, indeed, just this self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all

In the body it exists, specially in the seed adhyatmam retasy apam viSesato 'vasihdnam S retaso jala-mkaratvat R

3 ayam agmh, sarvesam bhutanam madhu, asydgneh sarvam bhutam madhu, yas cayam asmmn agnau tejomayo 'mrtamayah purusah, yas cayam adhyatmam vdn-mayas tejomayo 'mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sayo' yam atma, tdam amrtam, tdam brahma, tdam sarvam.

3 This fire is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey for this fire This shining, immortal person who is in this fire and with reference to oneself, this shining, im- mortal person who is made of speech, he is just this self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all

4 ayam vdyuh sarvesam bhutanam madhu, asya vayoh sarvam bhutam madhu, yas cayam asmvn vayau tejomayo 'mrtamayah purusah, yas cayam adhyatmam pranas tejomayo 'mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo'yam atma, idam amrtam, tdam brahma, tdam sarvam.

4 This air is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey for this air. This shining, immortal person who is in this air and with reference to oneself this shining, immortal person who is breath (m the body), he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all

Seel 5 11

5 ayam ddttyah sarvesam bhutanam madhu, asyadttyasya sarvam bhutam madhu, yas cayam asmmn aditye tejomayo' mrtamayah purusah, yas cayam adhyatmam caksusas tejomayo'

II. 5 8. Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 203

mriamayah purttsah, ayam eva sa yo' yam dtmd, tdam amrtam, tdam brahma, tdam sarvam.

5. This sun is (like) honey for all beings and all beings, are (like) honey for this sun This shining, immortal person who is in this sun and with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal person who is m the eye, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

6. vmd disah sarvesam bhutdndm madhit; dsdm dtsdm sarvdnt bkutam madhu; yai cdyam dsu diksu tejomayo 'mriamayah ptmtsah, yas cdyam adhydtmam irotrah prdttirutkas tejomayo' mttamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo' yam dtmd, tdam amrtam, tdam brahma, idam sarvam.

6. These quarters are (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey for these quarters This shining, immortal person who is in these quarters and with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal person who is in the ear and the time of hearing, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

tme 0/ hearing. sabda-pratt-iravana-veldydm sanwhtto bhavatili pratiirutkah S. '

7 ayam candrah sarvesam bhutdndm madhu, asya candrasya sarvam bhutdnt madhu; yai cdyam asmims candre tejomayo' mriamayah purusah, yai cdyam adhydtmam manasas tejomayo' mriamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo' yam dtmd, tdam amrtam, mm brahma, tdam sarvam

fl Ivt^ m00n 1S llke ( hone y) to ali beings, and all beings are « «,° ne ^ f ° r ^ moon - skiing, immortal person who is in this moon and with reference to one self, this shining, immortal person who is in the mind, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

saro~ tya w - l .y ut sar ^dm bhuidndm madhu, asyai vidyutah mrta™ wzdhu, yai cdyam asydth vtdyutt tejomayo'

nirk”* 1 £ uru?afl > cdyam adhydtmam tatjasas tejomayo' tLJ^T ^ MrM ? a ^, ayam eva sa yb'yam dtmd, tdam amrtam, ihnhahma, tdam sarvam

are' fl l ? ^ttang is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings txW„ i ney for thl s lightning. This shining, immortal this sS, 1S m this lightning and with reference to this self, Self lmmort al person who is m the light, he is just this “•••i tnis is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

204

The Principal Upantsads

II 5 ii

9 ayam stanayitnuh sarvesam bhutanam madhu, asya stanayttnoh sarvam bhutam madhu, yai cayam asmm stanayilnau tejomayo 'mrtamayah purusah, yai cayam adhyatmam §abdah sauvaras tejomayo' mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sayo'yam atma, tdam amrtam, idam brahma, idam sarvam

9 This cloud is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey for this cloud This shining, immortal person who is m this cloud and with reference to one self, this shining, immortal person who is in the sound and m tone, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all

stanayttnu cloud, parjanya or thunder megha-garjanam R

sound iabd'e bhavah iabdah £

tone svare visesato bhavatiti sauvarah S

10 ayam dkasah sarvesam bhutanam madhu; asyaha§asya sarvant bhutam madhu, yas cayam asmmn ahaie tejomayo' mrtamayah, purusah, yai cayam adhyatmam hrdyakaiah tejo- mayo' mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo'yam atma, tdam amrtam, idam brahma, tdam sarvam

10 This space is (like) honey for all beings and all beings are (like) honey for this space This shining, immortal person who is m this space and with reference to one self, this shining, immortal person who is in the space in the heart, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

XI. ayam dharmah sarvesam bhutanam madhu, asya dhar- masya sarvam bhutam madhu, yai cayam asmm dharme tejo- mayo 'mrtamayah purusah, yas” cayam adhyatmam dharmas tejomayo 'mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo'yam atma, tdam amrtam, tdam brahma, tdam sarvam

11 This law is (like) honey for all beings and all bemgs are (like) honey for this law This shining, immortal person who is in this law and with reference to one self, this shining, immortal person who exists as lawabidingness, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all

this law though law is not directly perceived, it is described by the word 'this,' as though it were directly perceived, because the ! effects produced by it are directly perceived ayam tty apratydkso'pi dharmah karyena tat-prayuktena pratyaksena, vyapadiSyate, ayam . dharma tti pratyaksavat S The self and dJtarma or righteousness ; are regarded as equivalent Cp 'Live you (wharafha) having self as . ( light and refuge and none other, having dharma as light and refuge > and none other * Dlgha Ntkaya II ioo The end of the way is to

II. 5- *5- Brfiad-aranyaka Upamsad zo$

become what we are, to become Brahman or the Buddha The arhats are said to become one with Brahman, brahma-bhiUa

12 tdam satyam sarvesam bhutdndm madhu; asya satyasya sarvdni bhutam madhu; yas cayam asmin satye tejomayo^ mrtamayah purusah, yas cayam adhyatmam sdtyas tejomayo mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo'yam atma, tdam amrtam, idam brahma, tdam sarvam

12. This truth, is (like) honey for all beings, and all beings are (like) honey for this truth. This shining, irnmortal person who is in this truth and with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal person who exists as truthfulness, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

13 tdam mdnusam sarvesam bhutdndm madhu; asya manu- sasya sarvam bhutam madhu, yas cayam asmtn mdnuse tejomayo'^ mrtamayah purusah, yas” cayam adhyatmam mdnusas tejomayo' mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo'yam atma, tdam amrtam, tdam brahma, tdam sarvam.

13 This mankind i* (like) honey for all beings, and all beings are like honey for this mankind This shining, immortal person who is in this mankind and with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal person who exists as a human bemg, he is just this self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all

14 ayam atma sarvesam bhutdndm madhu; asydtmanah sarvdni bhutam madhu, yas cayam asmmn dtmani tejomayo' mrtamayah purusah, yas cayam atma tejomayo' mrtamayah purusah, ayam eva sa yo' yam atma, tdam amrtam, tdam brahma, tdam sarvam.

14 This self is (like) honey for all beings and all beings are (like) honey for this self This shining, immortal person who is in this self and the sinning, immortal person who is in this (individual) self, he is just this Self, this is immortal, this is Brahman, this is all.

The cosmic self and the individual self are referred to.

15 sa vd ayam atma sarvesam bhutdndm adhtpatih; sarvesam bhutdndm raja; tad yatha ratha-ndbhau ca ratJta-nemau cdrdh same samaipitdh, evam evdsmmn dtmam sarvdni bhutam sarve dcvdh sarve lokdh sarve prdndh sarva eta dtmanah samarpttdh.

15. This self, verily, is the lord of all beings, the king of all beings As all the spokes are held together in the hub and felly of a wheel, just so, in this self, all bemgs, all gods, all worlds, all breathing creatures, all these selves are held together.

206

The Principal Upamsads II 5 17.

MADHU-VIDYA THE HONEY DOCTRINE

16 i^am vat ton madhu dadhyann atharvano 'svibhydm uvaca tad etad rsth pasyann avocat'

tad vam nard sanaye damsa ugram avis krnomi, fanyatur na vrstvm dadhyan ha yan madhv atharvano vam asvasya s“irsnd pra yad im uvaca tit

16 This, verily, is the honey which Dadhyan, versed m the Atharva Veda, declared unto the two AsVins Seeing this the seer said 'O Asvins in human form, I make known that terrible deed of yours which you did out of greed, even as thunder (makes known) the coming ram, even the honey which Dadhyan, versed m the Atharva Veda, declared to you through the head of a horse '

See RV I 116 12 Satapatha Brahmana XIV I 1 and 4 The two Asvins desired instruction from Dadhyan, but he was unwilling to impart it as Indra had threatened Dadhyan that he would cut off his head, if he taught this madhu-vtdyd, honey doctrine to any one else So the Asvins took off Dadhyan's head and sub- stituted for it a horse's head Dadhyan declared the honey doctrine Indra earned out his threat, and the Aivins restored to Dadhyan his own head This story illustrates the extreme difficulty which even the gods had to secure the knowledge originally possessed by Indra ASvins in human form, narakarau asmnau & sanaye out of greed, labhaya labha-lubdho hi loke'pi kruram karma- carah S

17 idam vat tan madhu dadhyann atharvano 'svibhyam

uvaca

tad etad rsih pasyann avocat

atharvanayasvina dadhtce

asvyam sirah praty airayatam

sa vam madhu pra vocad rtdyan,

tvastram yad dasrdv apt kaksyam vam iti 17 This, venly, is the honey which Dadhyan, versed in the Atharva Veda, declared unto the two Asvins Seeing this, the seer said, '0 Aivms, you set a horse's head on Dadhyan, versed in the Atharva Veda, ye terrible ones to keep his promise he declared to you the honey of Tvastn which is your secret '

SeeRV I 117 22

Keeping one's solemn promise is more important than the life itself, jivitad apt hi satya-dhartna-paripdlanagurutarett S

II 5. 19- Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 207

kaksyam secret, gopyam, rahasyam paramatma-sambandki yad viplanam £

tvastram of Tvasty, the sun - tvasta adiiyah tasya sambandki S

The head oiyajna or sacrifice became the sun; to restore the head the nte called pravargya was started, yajnai siras chmnam tvasfa- bhavat, tat pratisandhdnartham pravargyam karma &

18 idam vai tan madhu dadhyann atharoano 'svibhyam uvaca, tad etad rsih paiyann avocat'

purai cakre dvipadah, purai cakre catuspadah purah sa paksi bhuiva purah purusa amiat iti.

sa va ayam purusah sarvdsu pursu puniayah, natnena him ca nanavrtam, natnena kim ca nasarhvrtam.

18 This, venly, is the honey which Dadhyan, versed in the Atharva Veda, declared unto the two Asvins. Seeing this the seer said 'He made bodies with two feet and bodies with four feet Having first become a bird, he the person entered the bodies ' This, venly, is the person dwelling in all bodies There is nothing that is not covered by him, nothing that is not per- vaded by him

purah bodies, puram, iarirdni S” Safest- bird, subtle body, Ivhga-sarlram

Cp pura-samjfie Sariresmm iayanat puruso karih, quoted by R. There is nothing which is not filled by the Supreme, inside or outside

sa eva nama-rilpatmanSntar-bahir-bhdvena karya-karana-rubena vyavasthitah § j ■ r

Cp 'This city {pur) is these worlds, the person [purusa) is the spirit {yoyam pavate, vSyu), who because he inhabits (sefe) this citv is called the citizen <jmru sa) ' Salapatha Brahmana XIII. 6. 2. 1.

See also Atharva Veda X 2 30, where 'he who knoweth Brahma's S wwff a X SOn h 80 caa * i » ^ neitber S1 ght nor

&^4^S?cC S 188 ' pbll ° says <As for lotdship -

/ JL^^VT , ten viadhu fodhyann dtharvano' hibhydm ttvaca, taa etad rsih paiyann avocat'

rupam rupam prahrupo babhuva, tad asya rupam praticaksanaya; indro m&yabhihpuru-ritpa tyate yum hy asya harayah said data tti

7*1*7 JZT h i ay -T- vai ca sahasrdni -

208

The Principal Upanisads II 6. 2

19 This, venly, is the honey which Dadhyan, versed m the Aiharva Veda, declared unto the two Asvms Seeing this the seer said 'He transformed himself m accordance with each form This form of him was meant for making him known Indra(the Lord) goes about m many forms by his mdyas (magical powers), for to him are yoked steeds, hundreds and ten He, venly, is the steeds He, venly, is tens and thousands, many and countless This Brahman is without an earlier and without a later, without an inside, without an outside This Brahman is the self, the all-perceiving This is the teaching '

SeeRV. VI 47 18 pralicaksanaya for making him known Creation is for the mani- festation of the glory of god tndrah' lord, paramcsvarah

mSySbhh prajiiabhth £ By his wisdom he manifests himself san.kalpa-riipa-jnanath R The Lord reveals himself through many forms by his maya, to reveal his thoughts Indra assumes one form after another, makes round himself wonderful appearances. Sayana says, yad rfipam kamayate tad rupatmako bhavatt nana-mdhdm Sarirant ntrmwnlc

Larayak steeds, sense-organs, mdriyam

Sixth Brahmana

THE LINE OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS

1 atha vamiah paultma$yo gaupavanah, pautimasyiil, patttt- vu'ifyo gaupavanat, gaupavanah kauSikat, kauhkah kaundmyai, kauv.dmyah idndilydt, idvdilyah kauStkdc ca gautamac ca, gatilwals —

1 Now the line of tradition (of teachers). Pautimasya (received the teaching) from Gaupavana, Gaupavana from (another; Pautimasja (This) Pautim.lsya from (another) Craujnv.ma (This) Gaupaiana from Kauiika, KauSika from Katindtrija, Katinrlmja from S“indiha, S”mdilya from KaiKika and GanUma Gautama —

2 tir,}'iftl, t urmvefyak iundilyuc ca anabhmWdc ca, aribhwU'i'a i~rabl:vsl«ial, dr.abhmtldla t'tnahhimlali'it, tir.abLw:- lii'* ?it!ii>'it, fauiav ah sitiaW'pracinayagyubhyam, saitavi- f'X'.tv, '.tu f:'.r3$(tryiil, pwiiaryo bhiiradvdjat, bhuradvajo

II. 6. 3- Brhad-draityaka Upani?ad 209

bhdradvdjdc ca gautamdc ca, gautamo bhdradvdjdt, bJidradvdjah Pardsarydt, pdrdiaryo baijavdpdyandt, baijavdpdyandh, kauit- kdyaneh, hmiikdyanify.

2. From Agmvesya. AgniveSya from 3andilya and Anabhi- mlata, Anabhimlata from (another) Anabhimlata. Anabhimlata from (still another) Anabhimlata (This) Anabhimlata from Gautama Gautama from Saitava and Pradnayogya, Saitava and Pracinayogya from Parasarya, Parasarya from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Bharadvaja and Gautama, Gautama from (another) Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja from Parasarya, Parasarya from Baijavapayana, Barjava.pa.yana from Kausikayarn, Kausi-

3. ghrtakaustkdt, ghrtakauiikah pdrdiarydyandt, pdrdsaryd- yanah pardsarydt, pdrdiaryo jdtukamydt, jdtuhamya dsurd- ya^ac caydskdc ca, dsurdyanas tratvapefy, tmvoayw aupajandha- «4; jwpajandhanir dsureh, dsunr bhdradvdjdt, bharadvaja atreyat, dtreyo mdnteh, mdntir gautamdt, gautamo gautamdt, gautamo vdtsydt, vdtsyah sdndilydi, idndilyah kaiiorydt kdpydt, mxioryah kdpyah kumdrahdntdt, kumdrahdnto gdlavdt, gdlavo mdarbhi-kamidmydt, vidarbhv-kaundtnyo vatsanapdto bdbhravdt, msanapdd bdbhravahpathah saubhardt, panthdh saubharo 'ydsydd anprasdt, aydsya dngirasa dbhiites ivdsirdt, dbhutis ivdstro vwanipattvastrdt, viharupas tvdstro 'toibhydm, asvwau dadHca aiharvandt, dadhyann dtharvayo 'tharvano davodt, atharvd davoo myoh prddhvamsanat, mrtyuh prddhvamsanah pradhvam- Wiat pradhvamsana ekarseh, ekarstr vipracitteh, vipracittir Weft, vyastth sandroh, sandruh sandtandt, sandtanah sanagdt, wnflgaA paramesfhinah, paramesthi brahmanah, brahma svaya- monu, brahmane namah

•js.., .f-v-“- «uui jTcuciscirya, jrarasarya irom jaiuitaniya.

Traiv y T fr ° m - Asur5 ' yana and Yaska - Asurayana from an l Traivani from Aupajandham Aupajandhani from Aw * n from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Vat!,™ v? m Mantl mntL from Gautama Gautama from from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya Galarar-i pya from Kumar aharita Kumarahanta from from V t a bom Vl <iarbhikaundmya. Vidarbhikaundmya Pathah c a ^ pat Babh rava Vatsanapat Babhrava from Av^ra | aubhara t. Pathi Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa, i* Angirasa from Abhuti Tvastra, Abhuti Tvastra, from

210

The Principal Upantsads

II 6 3

Visvarupa Tvastra VisVarupa Tvastra from the two Asvms The two Asvms from Dadhyanc Atharvana Dadhyanc Athar- v ana from Atharvan Daiva Atharvan Daiva from Mrtyu Pra- dhvamsana Mrtyu Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi Ekarsi from Vipracitti Vipracitti from Vyasti Vyasti from Sanaru Sanaru from Sanatana, Sanatana from Sanaga Sanaga from Paramesthin Para- mesthin from Brahma. Brahma is self-born Salutation to Brahma.

Paramesthin is Viraj Brahma is Htranya-garbha

The tradition of the Veda is traced to the Supreme It is expressed or formulated by individuals but they are not its authors The tradition belongs to the supra-individual order and is said to be apauruseya or non-personal It is timeless though its apprehension is possible at any time

Ill i 2. Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad

211

CHAPTER III

First Brahmana

SACRIFICIAL WORSHIP AND ITS REWARDS

1, janako ha vaideho bahu-daksinena yapieneje. tatra ha kuru- pdncalanam brahmana abhisametd babhumh tasya ha janakasya vmdehasya vipjmsa babhuva kah svtd esam brdhmandndm aniicanatama iti. sa ha gavdm sahasram avarurodha: daia daia padd ekaikasydh irngayor abaddhd babhumh.

i Janaka (King) of Videha performed a sacrifice at which many presents (were offered to the priests) Brahmanas of the Kurus and the Pancalas were gathered together there. In this Janaka of Videha arose a desire to know which of these Brahmanas was the most learned in scripture. He enclosed (in a pen) a thousand cows. To the horns (of each cow) were fastened ten corns (of gold).

Though this states the same doctrine as the previous madhuvidya, a makes out that while the previous section depended on scripture, agamajradhanam, the present one is based on reasoning, upapaUt- pradhdnam When the two, scripture and reasoning, demonstrate the TOrtyof theSelf, it is seen clearly as a bael fruit m the palm of one's hand agamopapatti hy atmaikatva-prakasanaya pravrtte Saknutah wm-lala-gata-folvam vua darSayttum. 5

2. tan hovdca. brahmana bhagavantah, yo vo brahmisthah, sa tiaga udajatam ttt te ha brahmana na dadhrsuh atha hayajna- wukyak svam eva brahmacannam uvdca: etah, saumya, udaja, samdrava th td hodacakdra, te ha brahmana* cukrudhuh: mmmm no brahmtstho bruviteh atha ha janakasya vaidehasya nm&alo babhuva: sa hatnam papraccha, tvam tm khalu nah, ypmvalkya, brahmistho 'sih sa hovdca namo vayam brahmtst-

tya kurmah, gokdmd eva vayam sma ttt. tarn ha tola evaprastum «*e hotasvalah

J' said to them 'Venerable Brahmanas, let him of you “° is the wisest Brahmana among you, take away these cows ' nose Brahmayas did not dare (to take the cows). Then Yajfia- awav^w aid to his pupil 'Samasravas, my dear, dnve them saidf 'H dr ° Ve them away ^ Br ahmanas were enraged (and am™ Howcan he declare himself to be the wisest Brahmana on g as? Now, there was ASvala, the hotr pnest of Janaka

212

The Principal Upanisads

HI. i. 5.

of Videha He asked him, 'Yajnavalkya, are 3*011, indeed, the wisest Brahmana among us?' He rephed, *We bow to the wisest Brahmana but we just wish to have these cows ' Therefore, Asvala, the Iiotr priest, decided to question him.

Yajnavalkya is a teacher of the Tajur Veda but his pupil chants the Soman which is the Rg Veda set to music, and the Aiharva Veda- is subsidiary to the other three. So Yajnavalkya is learned in all the four vedas

3. Yajnavalkya, iti hovaca. yad idam sarvam vijiyanaptam, sarvam mrtyundbhipannam, kena yajamano viriyor aptim atimu- cyata iti: hotrd rtvija, agmna, vdea: vag vai yajnasya hoia, tad yeyam vak so' yam agnih, sa hota, sd luuktiL, safimuktih

3 'Yajnavalkya,' said he, 'since everything here is pervaded by death, since everything is overcome b}^ death, by what means does the saenficer free himself from the reach of death?' (Yajnavalkya said) Hy the hotr priest, by fire, by speech. Verny, speech is the hotr of sacrifice. That which is this speech is this fire. This (fire) is hotr This is freedom, this is complete freedom '

aptam' pervaded, vy apiam S

abhipannam' overcome, swayed, vasikrlam S

By the knowledge of the identity of the sacrificer, the fire and the ritual speech one gets beyond death.

4. yajnavalkya, ih hovaca, yad idam sarvam ahorairabhyani apiam, sarvam ahoratrdbhyam abhipannam, kena yajamano 'hoidirayor dptmi aitmncyaia iti adhvaryund rtvija, caksnsa, ddityena, caksur vat yajnasya adhvaryuh, tad yad idam caksuh, so' sdv ddityah; so 'dhvaryuh, sd mukfih saiimuktih.

4. 'Yajnavalkya,' said he, 'since everything here is pervaded by day and night, since everything is overcome by da}' and night, by what means does the saenficer free himself from the reach of day and night?' 'By the adhvaryu priest, by the eye, by the sun Verily, the eye is the adhvaryu of the sacrifice. That which is his eye is the yonder sun. This is the adhvaryu This is freedom. This is complete freedom.'

Day and night are symbolic of time, which is the source of all change: viparinama-letuh kalah. S

5 yajnavalkya, iti hovaca, yad idam saroani purva-pakss- apara-paksdbhyam apiam, sarvam purvapaksa-aparapaksabTydm abhipannam. kena yajamdnah purvapaksa-aparapaksayor aptim

Ill i 8 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 213

atimucyata iii. udgdird rtvijd, vdyund, prdnena, prdiyi vai yajiiasya udgatti, tad yo yam prdyah sa vdyuh, sa ttdgdtd, sd muktth satvmuktih.

5 'Yajnavalkya/ said he, 'since everything here is overtaken by the bright and dark fortnights, since everything is overcome by the bright and dark fortnights, by what means does the sacnficer free himself from the reach of the bright and the dark fortnights?” 'By the udgdtr pnest, by the air, by the breath. Verily, the breath is the udgdtr priest of the sacrifice. That which is this breath is the air. This is the udgdtr priest. This is freedom. This is complete freedom/

6. Yajnavalkya, ih Jiovdca, yad idam antanksam anaramba- mm wa kendkramena yajamdnah svargam lokam dkramata ih brahmand rtvijd, manasd, candreija, mano vai yajiiasya brahmd, tad yad idam manah, so' sau candrah, sa brahmd, sa muktth, sdtnmikiih ity atimoksdh, atha sampadah.

6. 'Yajnavalkya,' said he, 'since the sky is, as it were, without a support, by what means of ascent does a sacnficer reach the heavenly world?' By the Brahma priest, by the mind, by the moon Venly, mind is the Brahma of the sacrifice. That which k this mind is the yonder moon This is the Brahman. This is freedom. This is complete freedom This is concerning freedom; and now the achievements.

sampadah- achievements of results acquired, phala-prdptih

7_ yajnavalkya, iti hovdca, katibhir ayam adya rgbhir hotdsmm y*}ne kan$yaffii hsrbhtr iti katamds ids tisra iti. puro'nuvdkyd cayajyd ca sasyawa trtiyd' Mm tdbhir jayaffiv yat kirn cedam pranabhrdth.

I 'Yajnavalkya/ said he, 'how many (kinds of) Rg. verses J™ the Mr priest use today in this sacrifice?' 'Three/ which are these three?' 'The introductory verse, the verse r^Pj^ying the sacrifice and the benedictory as the third/ breath ' 008 * m by these? ' <wliatever that k here that has

<a^r^~[ iaVa ^ a ' lit hovdca, kaiy ayam adyddhvaryur asmin mm I “t hos y aiU%: iiSr <* »•* katamds ids Usra iti: yd huta matt - y i hm atl1leAante , yd huta adhiseraie: kim tdbhir wa h r ya , > u M valanit dsua»lokam eva tdbhir jayati, dvpyata aeva -hkah;yd huta atinedante, pitr-lokam eva tdbhvr jayati,

2I 4 The Principal Upamsads UI i 10

attva hi pitr-lokah, yd hida adhiierale, manu$ya-lokam eva tabhtr jayah, adha tva hi vtanusya-lokah

8 'Yajnavalkya,' said he, 'how many (kinds of) oblations will the Adhvaryu pnest offer today in this sacrifice?' 'Three ' 'Which are these three ' 'Those which, when offered, blaze upward, those which, when offered, make a great noise and those which, when offered, sink downward ' 'What does one win by these?' 'By those which, when offered, blaze upward, one wins the world of the gods for the world of the gods burns bright, as it were By those which, when offered, make a great noise one wins the world of the fathers for the world of the fathers is excessively (noisy) By those which, when offered, sink downwards, one wins the world of men for the world of men is down below, as it were '

The three kinds of oblations are said to be wood and clarified butter, flesh, milk and soma juice § The first flares up, the second makes a hissing noise, the third sinks down into the earth

Those who are in the world of the fathers cry to be delivered out of it

atmedante make a great noise, ativa sabdam kurvanh £

9 yajnavalkya, iti hovaca, kattbhir ay am adya brahmd yajnam daksmato devatdbkir gopdyatttt ekayeh katama saiketi mana eveti, anantam vat manah ananta visve-devdh, anantam eva sa tena lokatn jayati.

9 'Yajnavalkya,' said he, 'with how many divinities does the Brahm5 pnest on the nght protect the sacrifice today?' 'With one ' 'Which is that one?' 'The mind alone ' Venly, the mind is infinite, the Visve-devds are infinite An nifinite world he wins thereby

Through mind we meditate and it is said to be infinite on account of its modifications

10 yajnavalkya, iti hovaca, katy ayam adyodgdidsmtn yajHe itotriydh stosyatih tisra iti katamds ids tisra iti puro' nuvakyd ca ydjyd ca iasyaiva trtiyd katamds id yd adhyatmam itt pram eva puro' nuvakyd, apdnoyajyd, vydnah sasyd kim tabhir jayatitt ' prthtvi-Iokam eva puro 'nuvdkyayd jayati, antariksa-lokam ydjyayd, dyu-lokam iasyayd tato ha hot&svala uparardma

io 'Yajnavalkya,' said he, 'how many hymns of praise will the udgdtn pnest chant today in the sacrifice?' 'Three ' 'Which are these three?' 'The introductory hymn, the hymn accom- panying the sacrifice and the benedictory as the third ” 'Which

HI i 4 Brhad-arayyaka Upanisad 215

are these three with reference to the self?' 'The introductory- hymn is the inbreath, the hymn accompanying the sacrifice is the outbreath The benedictory hymn is the diffused breath.' 'What does one win by these?' 'By the. introductory hymn one wins the world of the earth, by the accompanying hymn the world of the atmosphere, by the benedictory hymn one wins the world of heaven.' Thereupon the Hoir priest Asvala kept silent

upararama kept silent, tusmm babhUva. R.

Second Brahmana

THE MAN IN BONDAGE AND HIS FUTURE AT DEATH

1. atha hatmmjdratkdrava drtabhdgahpapraccha' ydplavalkya tit hovdca, kati grahah katy atigrahd tti. astau grahah astdv atigrahd iti ye te' stau grahah, astdv atigrahah, katame to Hi.

1 Then Jaratkarava Artabhaga questioned him, 'YfLjfia- valkya,' said he, 'how many perceivers are there, how many over-perceivers?' 'Eight perceivers Eight over-perceivers.' 'Those eight perceivers and eight over-perceivers, which are they?'

The grahas are the organs of perception, graspers or apprehenders and the attgrahas are the ob]ects of perception

2. firdno vat grahah, so 'fdnendtigrahena grhitah, apanena hi gandhdn pghrati

2 'The nose is the organ of perception. It is seized (controlled) by the outbreath as an over-perceiver, for by the outbreath one smells an odour.

prana th ghrdnam ucyate fi.

3 vdg vai grahah, sa ndmndtigrdheria grhitah, vdcd hi ndmdny abhtvadah

3 'Speech, venly, is the organ of perception It is seized by name as an over-perceiver, for by speech one utters names.

4 phvd vat grahah, sa rasendtigrdhena grhitah, jihvayd hi rasdn vijandti.

4 'The tongue, venly, is the organ of perception It is seized oy taste as an over-perceiver, for by tongue one knows tastes.

2l6

The Principal Upamsads

III 2 IX

5 caksur vat giahah, sa lupenattgraliefia grhitah, caksusa hi rupdm pasyatt

5 'The eye, venly, is the organ of perception It is seized by form as an over-perceiver, for by the eye one sees forms

6 stotram vat graJuth, sa sabdendttgrdhena grhitah, siottcna hi sabddii srnoH

6 'The ear, venly, is the organ of perception It is seized by sound as an over-perceiver, for by the ear one hears sounds

7 mano vat grahah, sa kdmenatigrdhena grhitah, manasd hi kdmdn kdmayaie

7 'The mmd, venly, is the organ of perception, it is seized by desire as an over-perceiver, for through the mmd one desires desires

8 haslau vat grahah, sa karmamhg) dhena grhitah, Jiastdbhyam hi karma karoti

8 'The hands, venly, are the organ of perception They are seized by action as an over-perceiver, for by the hands one performs actions

9 ivag vai giahah, sparsendtigrdhena grhitah, tvacd hi sparsdn vcdayatc ity ete'slau grahah, asfdv attgrahah

9 'The skin, venly, is the organ of perception, it is seized by touch as an over-perceiver, for by the skin one feels touch These are the eight organs of perception, and the eight over-perceivers '

10 ydpiavalkya th hovdca, yad idam sarvam mrtyor amiam, kd svit sd dcvatd, yasyd mrtyur annam tit agntr vat mrtytih, so'pdm annam, apapunar mrtyum jay ah

10 'Yajiiavalkya,' said he, 'since everything here is food for death, what, pray, is that divinity for whom death is food 'Fire, venly, is death It is the food of water He (who knows this) overcomes further death '

Everything is the food of death as everything is born and is imperilled by and is subject to death sarvam jayate vtpadyate mrlyuna grastam §

II. ydpiavalkya, th hovdca, yatrdyam puruso mrtyatc, «d asindt prdndh krdnianty alio nctx na tit hovdca ydjfiavalkyah, airaiva samavaniyantc, sa ttcchvayah, ddhmdyatt, ddhvidto mrtah tele

II. 'yajnavalkya,' said he, 'when such a person (a liberated

Ill 2, 13 Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 2×7

sage) dies, do the vital breaths move up from him or do they not?' 'No,' replied Yajfiavalkya. 'They aTe gathered together in him. He (the body) swells up, he is inflated and thus inflated the dead man (body) lies '

The liberated man, when his bondage is destroyed, does not go anywhere- bandhava-ndse mukiasya na kvacid gamanam S

12. yajfiavalkya, Hi hovaca, yatrayam puruso mnyate, ktm emm najahatttt noma ttt, anantam vai noma, anantfi. vtive-devdh, anantam em sa tena lokath jayaU

12 'Yajfiavalkya,' said he, 'when such a person dies, what is it that does not leave him?' 'The name The name is in- finite and infinite are the Vihie-devds. Thereby he (who knows this) wins an infinite world '

What remains is name, noma It is the name which does not perish at death Cp with this the Buddhist doctrine that the element which is reborn is nama-rupa, natna and shape Cp RumI 'Every shape you see has its archetype m the placeless world and if the shape perished, no matter, since its original is everlasting' Shams*- Tabriz: XII, Nicholson's E.T

13. yajfiavalkya, ttt hovaca, yatrasya purusasya mrtasyagnim vag apyeh, vatam pranah, caksur Mttyam, manas candram, diiah srotram, prthvim ianram, akaiwm atma, osadhir lomarn, vanaspatm keiah, apsu lohitam ca retai ca mdhtyate, kvayaih tada puruso bJiavaffli ahara, somya, kastam, artabhdga; avam evaitasya vedisyavah, na nav etat sajana %h. tau hotkramya, mMraytoh cakrate tauJutyad ucatuh, Jumna .ham tad wcaiuh atha yat praiasatiisatuh karma, havoa tat praiaiamsatulv punyo vaiptmyena karmana bhavah, papahpapeneti Mo ha jaratkarava artablmga upararama

13 'Yajfiavalkya,' said he, 'when the speech (voice) of this dead person enters into fire, the breath into air, the eye into the sun, the mind into the moon, hearing into the quarters the self into the ether, the hairs of the body into the herbs the tors on the head into the trees and the blood and the semen 3u* d *P. oslted 111 water, what then becomes of this person?” Artabhaga, m y dear, take my hand We two alone shall know of this this is not for us two (to speak of) in public ' The two

218 The Principal Upanisads III. 3 2

atman self, ether in the heart, hrdaydkaiam S lohtam blood, lohto rohto raktah, Amara-hosa I 5 15

WJiai then becomes of flits person? What is the support by which he again takes birth' The results of action, Karma, producerebirth

This view finds a parallel in the Buddhist doctrine, that -while, at death, the different parts of the individual are scattered to then- different sources, karma remains to cause a new existence See also RV X 16 3

Third Brfihmana

THE RESORT OF THE PERFORMERS OF THE HORSE- SACRIFICE

1 atha hainam bhujyur Jdhydyamh papraccha' yajnavalkya, iti hovdca, madrcsit carakdh, paiyavrajdma, tc patancalasya kdpyasya grMn aima; tasydsid diihitd gandhamagrhitd; tarn aprcchdma ko 'sttt, so'bravTt, sitdhamdngirasa iti, tarn yadd lokdndvt aafdn aprcchdma, athainam abruma, kva pdriksitd abhavann iti, kva pdriksitd abhavan, sa tvd prcchdmi, ydj- iiavalkya, kva pdriksitd abhavann iti

1 Then Bhujyu Lahyayaiii asked him - 'Yajnavalkya,' said he, 'we were travelling around as wanderers among the Madra tribe and came to the house of Patancala Kap^ra. He had a daughter who was possessed b}* a gandharva We asked him “Who are }'ou?” He said, “I am Sudhanvan, a descendant of Angiras ” When we were asking him about the ends of the earth, we said to him, “What has become of the Panksitas? What has become of the Panksitas?” And I ask 3'ou, Yajnavalkya, what has become of the Panksitas?'

The questioner who obtained the knowledge of the limits of the earth from a gandharva asks Yajnavalkya about the descendants of Pariksit The writer believes in the fact of possession Pataficala's daughter was possessed by a gandharva, an aenal spirit, and so served as a medium She was asked about the actual extent of the world and the place where the sons of Pariksit were

Modern para-ps3 chology is 1m estigating phenomena of possession and medmmship, as these cannot be explained on principles of psj chology which are generally recognised

2 sa hovdca, ttvdca vai salt agacchan vai te tad yairdsva-mc- dha-yajmo gacchanttti kva iiv asva-medha-yajino gacchaniiti.

Ill 4 I

Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad

dvdtnmiatam vat deva-ratha-ahnydny ayam lokah, iam samantant prtkivi dvts tavat paryeh, torn samantam prthivim dvis tavat samudrah paryeh, tad yavatt ksitrasya dhdra, ydvad va maksv- kdydh pattram, tdvdn antarenakasah, tan rndrah suparno bhittvd vdyave prdyacchat, tan vayur atmam dhitvd tatragamayad, yatrasva-medha-yajmo 'bhavann ih, evam tva vat sa vdyum eva praia&amsa, tasmdd vayur eva vyastth, vdyuh samashh - apa punar mrtyum jayah, ya evam veda tato ha bhujyur Idhydyamr uparardma

2 Yajnavalkya said, 'He (the gandharva) evidently told (you) that they went where those who perform horse-sacrifices go ' 'And where do the performers of the horse sacrifices go?' 'Thirty-two times the space covered by the sun's chanot m a day makes this world Around it covering twice the area is the earth Around it covering twice the area is the ocean Now there is ]ust that much interspace as large as the edge of a razor or the wing of a mosquito Indra, having become a bird, delivered them to the air Air, placing them m itself led them to the place where the performers of the horse sacrifice were. Thus did he (the gandharva) praise the air Therefore, air is the separate individuals and air is the totality of all individuals. He who knows it as such, conquers further death ' After that Bhujya Lahyayam kept silent.

Fourth Brahmana

THE THEORETICAL UNKNOWABILITY OF BRAHMAN

I atha hamam usastas cdkrdyanah papraccha yainavalkva ill Iwvaca, yat sdksdd aparoksdd brahma, ya dtma sarvdntarah tarn me vydcaksveh esa ta dtma sarvdntarah kata?naJi, ydina- valkya, smvdntarah yah prdncna pramU, sa ta dtma sarvd^ tarah yopanenapamh, sa ta dtma sarvdntarah, yo vydnena vyamU sa ta atmd sarvdntarah, ya uddnena uddmh, sa ta dtma sarvantarah, csa ta dtma sarvdntarah.

I Then Usasta Cakrayana asked him 'Yainavalkva ' said he explain to me the Brahman that is immediat^preSt and directly perceived, who is the self m all things?' your self That is within all things.' 'Which is Sail 22£

220 The Principal Upamsads III, 5 1

Yajnavalkya 7 ' 'He who breathes m with your breathing in is the self of yours which is m all things He who breathes out with your breathing out is the self of yours which is m all things He who breathes about with your breathing about is the self of yours which is in all things He who breathes up with your breathing up is the self of yours which is m all things He is your self which is m all things '

2. sa hovaca usastas cakrayanah yatlia vibruydd, asau gauh, asav asva tli, evam evmtad vyapadistam bhavah, yad eva sdksad aparoksad brahma ya alma saivantarah tarn me vydcaksva ttt esa ta dtmd sarvdntarah katamah yajnavalkya, sai~uaiitarah na drstei diastaiampasych, na sruter stotdtam srmtydh, 11a mater mania.} am manvTlhdh, na vijiidtcr vijndtaram vijdnlydh, esa ta atma saivantatah, ato'nyad attain tato ha usastas cakrdyana uparardma

2. Usasta Cakrayana said 'This has been explained by j'ou as one might say “This is a cow,” “this is a horse.” Explain to me the Brahman that is immediately present and directly perceived, that is the self m all things “ 'This is your self that is within all things ' 'Which is within all things, Yajnavalkya?' 'You cannot see the seer of seeing, you cannot hear the hearer of hearing, you cannot think the thinker of thinking, you cannot understand the understander of understanding He is your self which is in all things Everything else is of evil' Thereupon Usasta Cakrayana kept silent

artam everything else perishes

FiftJi Btahmana

RENUNCIATION, THE WAY TO KNOW BRAHMAN

I atha hainam kaholah kausttakeyah papraccha yajnavalkya, ih hovaca, yad eva sdksad aparoksad brahma ya dtmd sarodn- tarah, tarn me vydcaksva lii esa ta dtmd sarvdntarah-katainah, yajnavalkya, sarvdntarah yo' sandy d-pipdse iokam mohamjardm mrtyum atyeti etam vai tarn dtmdnam mditvd, brdhmandh putraisandyds ca vittmsandydi ca hkaisandyds ca vyuffhdya, atha bhtksdcaryam caranti yd hy eva ptttiatsand sd inttaisand yd vtttatsand sd lokaisand, ubhe hy ete esane eva bhavatah;

Ill 5 i. Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 221

tasmdd brdhtnanaJi.pdndityam mrvidya bdlyena Usthaset, balyam ca pandityam ca mrvidya, aiha mtmili; amaunam ca maunam ca mrvidya, aiha brahnanah sa brdhmanah kena sydt. yena sydt Una idrsa eva ato'nyad drlam taio ha kalwlah kausTtakeya uparardma

1 Now Kahola KausTtakeya asked him, 'Yajfiavalkya/ said he, 'explain to me the Brahman that is immediately present and directly perceived, that is the self in all things ' 'This is your self which is in all things.' 'Which is within all things, Yajfiavalkya.' 'It is that which transcends hunger and thirst, sorrow and delusion, old age and death The Brahmanas, having known that self, having overcome the desire for sons, the desire for wealth, the desire for worlds, live the life of mendi- cants That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth; that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for the worlds for both these are but desires Therefore let a Brahmana, after he has done with learning, desire to live as a child When he has done (both) with the state of childhood and with learning, then he becomes silent meditator Having done with (both) the non-meditative and the meditative states, then he becomes a Brahmana (a knower of Brahman).' 'How does the Brahmana behave 'Howsoever he may behave, he is such indeed Everything else is of evil.' Thereupon Kahola KausTtakeya kept silent

hunger asitmn iccha a&andyd 5. thmt patum iccha pipasa §

sorrow desire, sofeufc kamatt S Desire or hankering after desirable objects is the cause of sorrow

delusion mistake or confusion arising from wrong perception vipwntarpratyaya-prabliavo'mveko Ihramah § esana desire kdnwh All desires are of one type, since they are directed towards results and all means are adopted towards that end sarvah pialarttia-prayukta eva hi sarvam sadlumam upadatte § The knowers embrace the hf e of a monk and wander as mendicants

JShST U ? T n SlgnS of a monk ' s Me Prescribed by the scriptures, which are sometimes merely the means of hvehhood for

!&w « h f- tak6n t0 llfe P^^isa^artvrdjyZ

carmih tyaklva. smartam hngam kevalam asrama-matra-sarand^m

nS?S ha ™ S d ° ne Wth ' havmg laam ^ ab0 *- “Mefam balya: state of the chad Deussen and Gough adopt this inter-

222

The Principal Upamsads

III 6 i

pretation Immediacy and lack of reflection as in a child give us the experience of the real See Subala U 13

It is not a question of remaining as children, but becoming as children It involves the sacrifice of intellectual conceit, a 'sacnfiamn tnlclleclus ' We must be able to acquire naivete It is what Lao Tzu calls 'returning to the root ' St Paul says 'Thou art beside thyself, much learning doth make thee mad' Acts xxvi 24 Cp 'St Francis once said that a great scholar when he joined the Order, ought in some sort to resign even his learning, in order that, having stripped himself of such a possession he might offer himself to the arms of the Crucified' A G Little, Franciscan Papers Lists and Documents (1943), P 55

Certain things are hidden from the learned and revealed to the babes 'In this hour Jesus rejoiced, saying, I thank Thee, Heavenly Father because Thou hast hidden these things from the wise and prudent and revealed them unto babes ' 'Except ye become like little children, ye shall not see the Kingdom of God ' To become like little children is not easy It takes much effort to acquire the grace and meekness of the child-like, to measure our littleness against the greatness of the Supreme

biilya strength which is the total elimination of the perception of objects of self-knowledge jnana-bala-bhava, £ This view is different from what is stated above

Manna is abstinence from speech It is regarded as helpful for meditation We must turn away from the world of noise into the inward stillness, the interior silence to become aware of the reality which transcends time and space Cp Kierkegaard 'The present condition of the world is diseased If I were a doctor and was asked for my advice, I should answer. Create silence, bring men to silence — the word of God cannot be heard in the world today And if it is blazoned forth with all the panoply of noise so that it can be heard even in the midst of all other noise, then it is no longer the word of God Therefore, create silence '

The true knowcr of Brahman devotes himself exclusively to the contemplation of the self and shuns all other thoughts as distractions.

Sixth Brahmana

BRAHMA. THE WORLD GROUND

1 atha hnvatn gargi vacafnavT fapraccha, yiiji'iavalkya, fit /•aim a, yad tdtw sairam apsv otam ca protam ca, kasmtn nu fl lis if a «'<”({ ca pttittH celt vayau, gargi, ill kasnnn nu kftalu j hur, f'uts ca protai celt antanh<a~lokcm, gargi, ill. kasmtn

HI 6 i. Brhad-dranyaka Upantsad 223

mi khalv antartksa-bkd otai ca protai cett gandharva-hkesu, gargi, ttt kasmin nu kltalu gandharva-hkd otai ca protas ceti adttya-lokesu, gSrgi, ttt kasmin nu klialv ddttya-lokd otai ca protas cett candra-kkesu, gargi, ttt kasmin nu khalu candra-lokd otai ca protai cell naksatra-lokesu, gdrgt, ih kasmin nu khalu naksatra-lokd otai ca protas ceti deva-lokesu, gargi. iti kasmin nu khalu deva-lokd otai ca protai ceti. mdra-lokesu gargi, itt. kasmin m khalv tndra-hkd otai ca protai ceti prajd-pali-lokesu, gargi, ih kasmin nu khalu prajd-pati-lokd otai ca protas ceti. brahma- lokesu, gargi, itt kasmin nu khalu brahma-loka. otai ca protai cell sa hovaca, gargi mdtipraksih, ma te murdha vyapaptat, anatiprainyam vat devatam aliprechasi, gargi, mahpraksir ih. tato ha gargi vdcaknavy uparardma

1 Then Gargi Vacaknavi asked him 'Yajfiavalkya,' said she, 'since all this here is woven, like warp and. woof, in water, on what, pray, is water woven, like warp and woof?' 'On air, 0 Gargi' 'On what, then is air woven, like warp and woof?' 'On the worlds of the sky, 0 Gargi ' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of the sky woven, like warp and woof?' 'On the worlds of the gandharvas, 0 Gargi ' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of the gandharvas woven, like warp and woof?' 'On the worlds of the sun, 0 Gargi ' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of the sun woven, like warp and woof?' 'On the worlds of the moon, 0 Gargi ' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of the moon woven, like warp and woof 'On the worlds of the stars, 0 Gargi' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of the stars woven, like warp and woof?' 'On the worlds of the gods, 0 Gargi ' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of the gods woven, like warp and woof?' 'On the worlds of Indra, 0 Gargi ' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of Indra woven, like warp and woof ?' 'On the worlds of Pra}d-pah, 0 Gargi ' 'On what, then, pray, are the worlds of Prajd-pati woven, like warp and woof 'On the worlds of Brahma, 0 Gargi ' 'On what then, pray, are the worlds of Brahma woven, like warp and woof?' He (Yajnavalkya) said, 'Gargi, do not question too much lest your head fall off Verily, you are questioning too much about a divinity about which we are not to ask too much Do not, 0 Gargi, question too much ' Thereupon Gargi Vacaknavi kept silent *

The basis of this whole universe is said to be brahma-hka maahpraksih S argues that the nature of the deityis to be gathered from scnptures and not inferred by logic- svam praimm nyayZ

224 7 he Principal Upamsads III 7 1

piakSram atilya agamcna ptasfavydnt devatam anum&nena ma priiktJh

Seventh Btfihmana

AIR, THE PRINCIPLE OF THE WORLD THE INNER CONTROLLER

1 alha hamam nddalaka dmnih papraccha' yajhavalkya, iti hovaca viadtcsv avasdma, patancalasya hdpyaiya grhcsu, yajnam adhtydnah tasyasid bhdiyd, gandhanta-g>hitd, lam aprcchdma, ko'siti so'havTt, kabandha athaivam lit so'bravTl, palancalam kapyam ydjfnkams ca, veltha mt tvam, kapya, tal sui ram yasmtnn (v yena) ayam ca lokah, pat at ca lokah, sanidm ca bhutani samdrbdhdni , bhavantUt so'bravit palancalah kapyah, naham tad, bhagavan, vedett so'bravTl palancalam kapyam yajmkams ca velt- ha mi tvam, kapya, tarn anlaiydmtnam, ya imam ca lokam param ca lokam sarvaut ca bhutani yo'ntaro yamayatitt so'bravit patafi- calah kapyah, naham tarn, bhagavan, vedett so'bravTl palancalam kapyam ydjmkami ca, yo vai tat, kapya, sutra7>i vtdydt, tarn cdntatydminam ill, sa brahma-vii, sa loka-vit, sa deva-vit, sa veda-vtt, sa bhiila-vii, sa atma-vit, sa saiva-vi{, ttt tcbhyo'bravU tad aham veda, lac ecl tvam, yajnavalkya, sutram avtdvdms lam catitar- yammam btahmagavTr ndajasc, murdha, tc vtpattsyalTlt veda va aham, gantama, tat sub am tarn canldryamtnam iti yo vd idam kas ctd h Fiydl, veda vedett yalhd vcttha, talltd brfthUi

1 Then Uddalaka Arum asked him, 'Yapavalkya/ said he, 'we lived in the house of Pataficala Kapya among the Madras, studying the scriptures on the sacrifices He had a wife who was possessed by a gavdharva We asked him, “Who are you?” He said, “I am Kabandha Atharvana ” He said to Pataficala Kapya and those who studied the scriptures on the sacrifices, “Do you know, O Kapya, that thread, by which this world, the other world and all beings are held together?” Pataficala Kapya said “I do not know it, Venerable Sir ” He said to Pataficala Kapya and those who studied the scriptures on the sacrifices “Do you know, Kapya, that inner controller from withm who controls this world and the next and all things ” Pataficala Kap}'a said, “I do not know it, Venerable Sir” He said to Pataficala Kapya and those who studied the scrip- tures on the sacrifices “He who knows that thread, 0 Kapya,

Ill 7. 3 BrJiad-dranyaka Upanisad 225

and that inner controller, indeed knows Brahman, he knows the worlds, he knows the gods, he knows the Vedas, he knows beings, he knows the self, he knows everything.” Thus he explained it to them I know it If you, Yajnavalkya, do not know that thread, that inner controller and still take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman, your head will fall off ' 'I know, 0 Gautama, that thread and that inner controller ' 'Anyone might say, “I know, I know ” Tell us what you know '

Here is a description of the world spirit, brahma-lokanam antara- tarnam sutram § It is that which binds together all bemgs from the highest to the lowest, braJimadi-stamba-paryantdm samdrbdhdm samgralhitdm, § All things are strung like a garland with a thread. Reference here is to the siitratman Cp Maitrl I 4 Sataiilokl 12, 55 Man is a bead strung on the thread of the conscious self, and just as wooden puppets are worked by strings, so the world is operated by the siiirdtman, the thread spirit

2 sa hovaca vdyur vat, Gautama, tat sutram; v&yuna vai, Gautama, siltrendyam ca lokah paras ca lokah sarvdni ca bhutani samdrbdhdm bhavanti, tasmdd vai, Gautama, purusam pretam dhuh vyasramsisatdsydngdnih; vdytmd hi, Gautama, siitrena samdrbdhdm bhavantlh evam etat, yajnavalkya, antarydmmam bruhih

2 He said, 'Air, verily, 0 Gautama, is that thread By air, venly, 0 Gautama, as by a thread this world, the other world and all beings are held together Therefore, verily, 0 Gautama, they say of a person who dies that his limbs have been loosened, for they are held together, 0 Gautama, by air as by a thread ' 'Quite so, Yajnavalkya, describe the inner controller '

3 yah prthivydm tisthan prthivyd antarah, yam prthivi na veda, yasya prthivi sariram, yah prthivim antaro yamayah, esa ta atmdntarydmy amrtah

3 (Yajnavalkya said,) 'He who dwells in the earth, yet is within the earth, whom the earth does not know, whose body the earth is, who controls the earth from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

'He was m the world and the world was made by him and thp world knew him not —St John I 10 y antarah within; sometimes 'different from ”

226 The Principal Upanisads III 7 9

4 yo'psu tisthann, adbhyo'ntarah, yam apo na viduh.yasyapah sariram, yo'po'ntaro yamayati, esa ia atmantaryamy amrtah

4 'He who dwells m the water, yet is within the water, whom the water does not know, whose body the water is, who controls the water from within, he is your self, the inner con- troller, the immortal '

5 yo'gnau tisthann, agner antarah, yam agnir 11a veda, yasyagmh sariram, yo'gmm antaro yamayati, esa ta atmantar- yamy amrtah

5 'He who dwells m the fire, yet is within the fire, whom the fire does not know, whose body the fire is, who controls the fire from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

6. yo'ntankse tisthann antariksad antarah yam antariksam na veda, yasydntanksam sariram, yo'ntariksam antaro yamayati, esa ta atmantaryamy amrtah

6 'He who dwells in the sky, yet is within the sky, whom the sky does not know, whose body the sky is, who controls the sky from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

7. yo vayau tisthann vayor antarah, yam vayur na veda, yasya vdyujt sariram, yo vdyum antaro yamayati, esa ta atmantaryamy amrtah

7 'He who dwells m the air, yet is withm the air, whom the air does not know, whose body the air is, who controls the air from withm, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

8 yo dwi tislhan dwo'ntarah, yam dyaur na veda, yasya dyauh sariram, yo divam antaro yamayati, esa ta atmantaryamy amrtah

8 'He who dwells in the heaven, yet is within the heaven, whom the heaven does not know, whose body the heaven is, who controls the heaven from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

9 ya aditye tisthann aditydd antarah, yam adityo na veda, yasyadityah sariram, ya ddityam antaro yamayati, esa ta atman- taryamy amrtah

9 'He who dwells in the sun, yet is within the sun, whom the sun does not know, whose body the sun is, who controls the sun from within, he is your self, the mner controller, the immortal '

Ill 7 14 Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad 227

It is not the 'sun whom all men see' but that 'whom we know with the mind ' Atharva Veda X 8 14, It is the 'light of lights ' R V I, 113 1, B G XII 17. 'Whose body is seen by all, whose soul by none ' Plato Laws 898 D 'That was the true light of the world ' John I. 4, 1 9, IX 5 See C U I 6 6, which speaks of an effulgent person m the solar regions who is free from evil

10 yo dtksu tisthan, digbhyo'ntarah, yam diso na viduh, yasya di&ah sariram, yo dtso antaro yamayati, esa ta atmantar- yamy amrtah.

10. 'He who dwells in the quarters (of space), yet is within the quarters, whom the quarters do not know, whose body the quarters are, who controls the quarters from within, he is your self , the inner controller, the immortal '

11 yai candra-tarake hsthaihi candra-tdrakdd anlarah, yam candra-tarakam na veda, yasya candra-tarakam sariram, yai candra-tarakam antaro yamayah, esa ta atmantarydmy amrtah

11 'He who dwells in the moon and the stars, yet is within the moon and the stars, whom the moon and the stars do not know, whose body the moon and the stars are, who controls the moon and the stars from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

I2 1 &k ,^ e akaiad antarah, yam akaso na veda,

yasyakaiah sariram, ya akasam antaro yamayati, esa ta atmdn- iaryamy amrtah

12 'He who dwells in the ether, yet is within the ether, ^ whom the ether does not know, whose body the ether is, who controls the ether from within, he is your self, the inner con- troller, the immortal '

13 yas tamasi tisthams tamaso'ntarah, yam tamo na veda yasya tamah sariram, yas tamo'ntaro yamayah, esa ta atman- taryamy amrtah

'5 e dwells in the darkness, yet is within the darkness, wftom the darkness does not know, whose body the darkness wh0 controls the darkness from within, he is your self the inner controller, the immortal ' y ' me

fJt yas .^ asi tethams tejaso'ntarah, yam tejo na veda yasya.

anLtTVf 3 U3 °' niaro <*« * «^2«K

amrtah Uy adhidaivatam, aihadhibMtam. y y

thl Cr7 h0 dwells m the yet is within the light whom the hght does not know, whose body the light is, Xcoltv^

228

The Principal Upamsads

III. 7 ig

the light from within, he is 3'our self, the inner controller, the immortal. Thus far with reference to the divinities Now with reference to beings.'

adhibhfitanr pertaining to the different grades of beings from Brahma down to a clump of grass, brdhmddt-stamba-paryantesu antarydmi-darsanam §

15 yah saroesu bhittesu tisthan, sarvebhyo bhutebhyo'ntarah, yam saroani bhiitdm na viduh, yasya sarvdni bhiltdni sariram, yah sarvdni bhutdni antaro yamayati, esa ta dtmantaryamy amrtah liy adhtbhiitam; aihddhydtmam.

15. 'He who dwells in all beings, yet is within all beings, whom no beings know, whose body is all bemgs, who controls all beings from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal Thus far with reference to the beings Now with reference to the self '

16 yah prune tisthan prdnad aniarah, yam prdno na veda, yasya prdnah sariram, yah prdnam anfaio yamayati, esa ta dtmantaryamy amrtah.

16. 'He who dwells in the breath, 3-et is within the breath, whom the breath does not know, whose body the breath is, who controls the breath from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

prana. breath S means by it the nose prdna-vdyu-sahite ghrane

17 yo vaci tisthan vaco'ntaiah, yam van na veda, yasya vak sariram, yo vdcam antaro yamayati, esa ta dtmantaryamy amrtah

17. 'He who dwells in (the organ of) speech, yet is within speech, whom speech does not know, whose body speech is, who controls speech from within, he is your self, lie inner controller, the immortal '

18 yas caksiisi tisthams caksuso'ntarah, yam caksur na veda, yasya caksuh sariram, yas caksur antaro yamayati, esa ta Stmdntarydmy amrtah.

18 'He who dwells in the eye, yet is within the eye, whom the eye does not know, whose body the eye is, who controls the eye from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

19 yah srotre tisthan srotrdd aniarah, yam drotram 11a veda, yasya srotram sariram, yah srolram antaro yamayati, esa ta dtmantaryamy amrtah.

Ill 7. 23 Bfhad-dranydka Upamsad 229

19 'He who dwells in the ear, yet is within the ear, whom the ear does not know, whose body the ear is, who controls the ear from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

20. yo manasi tisthan manaso'ntarah, yam mano na veda, yasya manah sariram, yo mano'ntaro yamayati, esa ta dtmdn- tarydmy amrtah.

20. 'He who dwells in the mmd, yet is within the mind, whom the mmd does not know, whose body the mmd is, who controls the mind from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal.'

21 .yas tvaci hsthams tvaco'ntarah, yam tvaii na veda, yasya took sariram, yas tvacam antaro yamayati, esa ta dtmdntarydmy amrtah

21 'He who dwells in the skm, yet is within the skin, whom the skm does not know, whose body the skm is, who controls the skm from within, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal '

22. yo vijnane tisthan, vijndndd antardh, yam vijndnam na veda, yasya vijMnam sariram, yo vtjndnam antaro yamayah, esa ta dtmdntarydmy amrtah.

22 'He who dwells in the understanding, yet is within the understanding, whom the understanding does not know, whose body the understanding is, who controls the understanding from withm, he is your self, the inner controller, the immortal.'

w4? SCU f 68 the - text in SB 1 2 l8 ~ 20 Both the Kanva and the Madhyandina recensions speak of the universal and the individual selves as different from each other, the former being the ruler and the latter the ruled The Kanva speaks of the embodied self as the undemanding and the Madhyandina speaks of it as the self: yo vipiane hstiian ih kdnvah, atra-viptdna-tabdena iarwah novate ya atiwm tisthan ih madhyandmah, atra dtma-ialdah hrirasyavacakah

doSneS3,i PaSSage K M a f ° r ta

dt J£ va “ s f this text in support of his theory of the absolute distinction between Brahman and the individual soul

y x° - aasi hsthan reia $°'ntarah, yam reto na veda, yasya amLt n T' ret ° ,niaro yamayah, esa ta dtmdntarydmy «Si ad : st ° drtstd, airutah Srotd, amato mania, avlmto vtpiata nanyo'to'sh drasid, ndnyo'to'sh irotd, nanyoWto

230 The 'Principal Upantsads III 8 2

mantd, ndnyo'to'sh vijndta esa ta dtmdntarydmy amrtah ato'nyad artam tato hodddlaka aruntr uparardma

23 He who dwells in the semen, is other than the semen, whom the semen does not know, whose body the semen is, who controls the semen from within, that is your self, the inner controller, the immortal He is never seen but is the seer, he is never heard but is the hearer He is never perceived, but is the perceiver He is never thought but is the thinker There is no other seer but he, there is no other hearer but he, there is no other perceiver but he, there is no other thinker but he He is your self, the inner controller, the immortal Everything else is of evil After that Uddalaka Arum kept silent

Everything that is not the self perishes

Though he is free from all the empirical qualities, he still controls them all

Cp S sarva-samsdra-dharma-varptah sarva-samsdrmam karma- phala-vibhdga-karld

Eighth Brdhmana

THE UNQUALIFIED BRAHMAN

I atha ha vdcaknavy uvdca, brdhmand bhagavantah, hanta, aliam imam dvau prasnau praksydmi, tau cen me vaksyah, na vai jdtu yusmdkam imam has cid brahmodyam jeteti prccha, gdrgiti

1 Then Vacaknavi said 'Venerable Brahmanas, I shall ask him two questions If he answers me these, none of you can defeat him in arguments about Brahman ' 'Ask, Gargi '

Vacaknavi is also Gargi but she is not the Gargi, who is the wife of Yajiiavalkya

brahmodya discussion about Brahman which often accompanied the sacrifices

2 sd hovdca aham vai tod, yajnavalkya, yatha kdiyo vd vaideho vd ttgra-putrah, ujjyam dhanur adhijyam krlvd, dvau bdnavantau sapatna-ahvyddhmau haste krtvd upottisthet, evam evaham ivd dvdbhydm pra&ndbhyam upodastham, tau me briihtti prccha, gargi, lit

2 She said, 'As a warrior son of the Kasis or the Videhas might rise up against you, having strung his unstrung bow

Ill 8. 7. Brhad-arattyaka TJpanhai 231

and having taken in his hand two pointed foe-piercing arrows, even so, 0 Yajfiavalkya, do I face you with two questions. Answer me these.' 'Ask, Gargi' (said he)

3 sa hovaca yad iirdhvam, yajiiavalkya, divah, yad avak prthivydh, yad antara dyavdprthivt ime, yad bhutam ca bhavac ca bhavisyac ceti acaksate, kasmnhs fad oiaih ca protam ceti.

3 She said 'That, 0 Yajfiavalkya, of which they say, it is above the heaven, it is beneath the earth, that which is between these two, the heaven and the earth, that which the people call the past, the present and the future, across what is that woven, like warp and woof?'

avak below, arvak.

4 sa hovaca, yad iirdhvam, gargi, divah, yad avak prthivyah, yad antara dyavdprthivt tme, yad bhutam ca bhavac ca bhavisyac cety dcaksate, dkdse tad otam ca protam ceti.

4 He said 'That which is above the heaven, that which is beneath the earth, that which is between these two, heaven and earth, that which the people call the past, the present and the future, across space is that woven, like warp and woof.'

5 sa kovaca, mamas te'stu, yajiiavalkya, yo ma etam vyavocah: aparasmai dhdrayasveti prccka, gargi, Hi

5 She said, 'Adoration to you, Yajfiavalkya, who have answered this question for me. Prepare yourself for the other ' Ask, Gargi '

6 sa hovaca, yad iirdhvam, yajiiavalkya, divah, yad avak prthivyah, yad antara dyava-pphivx ime, yad bhiitam ca bhavac ca bhavisyac cety acaksate: kasmims tad otam ca protam ceti.

0 She said. 'That, O Yajfiavalkya, of which they say, it is above the heaven, it is beneath the earth, that which is between these two, the heaven and the earth, that which the people call tfte past, the present and the future, across what is that woven like warp and woof?'

vZ ^ hov&ca ' >' ad iirMvam, gargi, divah, yad avak prthivyah, yaa antara dyavdprthivt ime, yad bhutam ca bhavac ca bhavisyac ay acaksate dkasa eva tad otam ca protam ceti, kasmm mi khalv akasa otas ca protai ceti

hl*Sh + l aid ” '^ at whlch 155 above sty' to whi ch is Snf i t arth ' that which » between these two. sky and earth, that which the people call the past, the present and the

232 The Principal Upanisads III 8 9

future, across space is that woven like warp and woof Across what is space woven like warp and woof?'

It is a difficult question If Yajnavalkya does not explain it because he thinks it inexplicable, he lays himself open to the charge of non- comprehension, a-prattpath, if, on the other hand, he attempts to explain what is inexplicable he would be guilty of contradiction, vi-prattpatti

8 sa hovaca, etad vat tad aksaram, gargi, brahmand abhtva- dantt, asthulam, ananu, ahrasvam, adirgham, alohttam, asncham, acchdyam, atamah, avdyv andkaiam, asangam, arasam, agan- dham, acaksuskam, asrotram, avdk, amanah, atejaskam, apranam, amukliam, amatram, anantaram, dbdhyam, na tad asnah him cana, na tad asnah has“ cana

8 He said 'That, O Gargi, the knowers of Brahman, call the Imperishable It is neither gross nor fine, neither short nor long, neither glowing red (like fire) nor adhesive (like water) (It is) neither shadow nor darkness, neithef~air nor space, un- attached, without taste, without smell, without eyes, without ears, without voice, without mind, without radiance, without breath, without a mouth, without measure, having no within and no without It eats nothing and no one eats it '

This passage brings out that the Imperishable is neither a sub- stance nor a possessor of attibutes

aksara It is not the letter but the Supreme Self, aksaram paramatma eva, na varnah S B I 3 10 It is the changeless reality

9 etasya vd aksarasya praidsane, gargi, siirydcandramasait vidhrtau tisthatah, etasya vd aksarasya prasdsane, gargi, dydvd- prthivyau vidhrte tistJtatah, etasya vd aksarasya prasdsane, gargi, nimesd, muhurta, ahoratrany ardhamdsd, mdsd, rtavah, samvat- sara th vidhrtds tisthanti, etasya vd aksarasya prasdsane, gargi, prdcyo' 11yd nadyah syandante svetebhyah parvatebhyah, praticyo' nydh, yam yam cd diiam anu, etasya vd aksarasya prasdsane, gargi, dadato manusyah praiamsanti, yajamdnam devdh, darvim pitaro 'nvdyattdh

9 'Venly, at the command of that Imperishable, 0 Gargi, the sun and the moon stand in their respective positions At the command of that Imperishable, 0 Gargi, heaven and earth stand in their respective positions At the command of that Imperishable, 0 Gargi, what are called moments, hours, days and nights, half-months, months, seasons, years stand in their respective positions At the command of that Imperishable, 0

Ill 8 12 Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad 233

Gargi, some rivers flow to the east from the white (snowy) mountains, others to the west in whatever direction each flows By the command of that Imperishable, 0 Gargi, men praise those who give, the gods (are desirous of) the sacrificer and the fathers axe desirous of the dam offering.'

Inferential evidence from the orderliness of the world is here given anum&nam pramanam upanyasyah §

The maintenance of the respective positions of heaven and earth is not possible without the guidance of an intelligent transcendent ruler cetanavantam prasdsttdram asamsannam antaretfa itaitad ynUam. §.

10 yo va etad aksaram, gargi, aviditvasmiml loke pihoh, yajate, tapas tapyate, bahunt varsa-saliasrdny antavad evasya tad bhavah; yo va etad aksaram, gargi, avidiiraasmal hkat praiti, sa krpanah, athaya etad aksaram, gargi, vidttvdsmdl hkat praiti, sa brahmanah

10 'Whosoever, 0 Gargi, in this world, without knowing this Imperishable performs sacrifices, worships, performs austerities for a thousand years, his work will have an end; whosoever, 0 Gargi, without knowing this Imperishable departs from this world, is pitiable But, 0 Gargi, he who knowing the Im- perishable departs from this world is a Brahmana (aknower of Brahman) '

yad apianal satitsara-praptth, yad pmndc cdmrtatva-prapttli R

11 tad va etad aksaram, gargi, adrstam drastr, aitntam, srotr, amatam mantr, avyjiidtam vijndtr, nanyad aio'sti drastr, nanyad ato' sh Srotr, nanyad ato' sh mantr, nanyad ato' sti mplafr; etasmm nu khalv aksare, gargi, akaia otai ca protas ca.

11 'Verily, that Imperishable, O Gargi, is unseen but is the seer, is unheard but is the hearer, unthought but is the thinker, unknown but is the knower. There is no other seer but this, there is no other hearer but this, there is no other thinker but this, there is no other knower but this. By this Imperishable, 0 «argi, is space woven like warp and woof '

12. sa Jiovaca; brahmana bJiagavantah, tad eva bahu manye- nvamyad asmdn namaskdrena mucyedhvam; na vai jdtuyusma- ■ „r^” aW kaidd brahmo ^y a} f i jstett. tata ha vacahtavy upa-

12 She said 'Venerable Brahmanas, you may think it a great ™mg if you get off from him though bowing to him. Not one

234 The “Principal Upanisads III 9 1

of you will defeat him in arguments about Brahman ' Thereupon (Gargi) Vacaknavi kept silent

£ says that the same Brahman on account of the differences in limiting adjuncts, upddhtbhedena is called differentiy tasman mnipadhtkasyalnw.no mnipakhyalvan mrvisesatvad ekatvdc ca ne.h netlti vyapadeso bhavati, avidyd-kdma-kartna-visisfa-karya-karano- padhir atma samsdrljiva ucyate, mlya-nirahsaya-jiidna-sakty-upadhir dtmdnlarydmisvara ucyate, sa eva mrupddhth kevalah suddhah svena- svabhavendksaram param ucyate

Therefore the unconditioned Self, being beyond speech and mind, undifferentiated and one, is defined as 'not this,' 'not this', when it has the limiting adjuncts of the body and the organs, the products of ignorance, desire and work, it is called the individual ego , when the self has the limiting adjunct of eternal knowledge and power, it is called the inner controller, the Supreme Lord The same self, absolute, alone, pure is called the Imperishable Supreme Self The self is everywhere assuming different forms For S the differences are all traceable to limiting adjuncts and to nothing else, upddht- bhedenawaisdm bJiedah, nanyatha

Ninth Brahmana

MANY GODS AND ONE BRAHMAN

1 atJia hatnam vidagdliah iakalyah papraccha kati devah, yajiiavalkya, iti sa haitayaiva mvida pratipede, ydvanto vaisva- devasya nwtdy ucyante, trayas ca trl ca said, trayas ca in ca sahasreti aum iti hovaca, kaly eva devah, ydjnavalkya tit kayos' tnms'ad itt Aum ih hovaca, katy eva devah, yajiiavalkya, iti sad ill aum tit liovdca, katy eva devah, ydjnavalkya, iti traya tti aum ttt hovaca, katy eva devah, yajiiavalkya, ttt dvav tti aum iti hovaca, katy eva devah, yajiiavalkya, iti adhyardha ih aum ttt hovaca, katy eva devah, yajiiavalkya, tti eka tti aum tti hovaca katame te trayas ca trl ca sdliasreti

1 Then Vidagdha Sakalya asked him 'How many gods are there, Yajiiavalkya ?' He answered, in accord with the following nivid (invocation of the gods) 'As many as are mentioned m the nivid of the hymn of praise to the Visve-devas, namely, three hundred and three, and three thousand and three ' 'Yes,' he said, 'but how many gods are there, Yajnavalkya ? ' 'Thirty three ' 'Yes,' he said, 'but how many gods are there, Yajna-

Ill 9 4 Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad 235

valkya?' 'Six ' 'Yes,' said he, 'but how many gods are there, Yapavalkya?' 'Three ' 'Yes,' said he, 'but how many gods are there, Yajfiavalkya?' 'Two ' 'Yes,' said he, 'but how many gods are there, Yajfiavalkya?' 'One and a half ' 'Yes/ said he, 'but how many gods are there, Yapiavalkya?' 'One' 'Yes,' said he, 'but which are those three hundred and three and three thousand and three?'

wvid group of verses giving the number of the gods which are recited in the hymns of praise to the Visve-devas devatd-samkhyd-va- cakam manira-padam kdnictd vaisva-deve sastre sasyamte. §

2 sa hovaca, mahvmdna evatsdm ete, trayas trvmsat to eva deva itt katame te irayas tnthiad itt astau vasavah ekddas'a rudrah, dvadasddttydh, te ekatrimiat inirai caiva prajdpahi ca irayastnmiav th

2 He (Yajfiavalkya) said, 'They are but the manifestations of them, but there are only thirty-three gods ' 'Which are these thirty-three 'The eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, and the twelve Adityas, these are thirty-one, Indra and Prayd-patt (make up) thirty-three '

ntahmdnah manifestations. vibhiUayah §.

3 katame vasava itt agms” ca prthwi ca vdyus cdntanksam cadityai ca dyaui ca candramM ca naksatrdm ca, ete vasavah, eiesu htdam sarvam httam itt, tasmad vasava lit.

3 'Which are the Vasus?' 'Fire, the earth, the air, the sky, the sun, the heaven, the moon, the stars, these are the Vasus for in them all this is placed therefore they are called Vasus.'

The Vasus transform themselves into bodies and organs of all beings which serve as the support for their work and its fruition as ajso into their dwelling-places They help other beings to live and wey themselves live, pranindm karma-phalairayatoena karya- “arana-samgkdta-riipena tan mvasatvena vtparinam anto jagad tdatn sarvam vasayattti vasantt ca S

Because they help others to live they are called Vasus teyasmdd wsayatfa, tasmad vasava id S

4 katame rudrd lit daieme puruse prandh atmaikddaiah; te yMasindt Sariran martyad utkramantt, atha rodayanti, tad yad rodayanti, tasmad ruara itt.

4 T^ 0 * 1 are the Rudras?' 'These ten breaths in a person wtn the mind as the eleventh When they depart from this

236 The Principal Upanisads III 9 8

mortal body, they make us (his relatives) weep So because they make us weep, therefore they are called Rudras '

icn breaths the ten sensory and motor organs jiiana-karmendnyam dasa purttsasikant R

5 kalama adttya ifi dvddas'a vai masfih samvatsarasya, eta adilyah, etc hidam sarvam adadand yanii, ic yad idam sanam tldadana yanti, iasmad adilya itt

5 “Which arcthe Adityas?' 'Venly, the twelve months of the j ear, these are Adityas, for they move carrying along all this Since they move carrying along all this, therefore they are called Adityas '

6 hatama w.drah, katamah prajapaitr tit, stanayitnur eve- ndrah, yajnah prajapahr itt katamah stanayitnur tti asantr tit katamo yajna it% paiava tft

6 'Which is Indra' Which is Praja-patO 'Indra is the thunder, Prajd-pah is the sacrifice ' 'Which is the thunder 3 ' 'The thunderbolt.' 'Which is the sacrifice 'The (sacrificial) animals '

aiamf. thunderbolt vajram S

Animals arc called sacrifices as the latter depend on animals 3 ajilazya hi sSdhaniim pafavah S.

7. hatame sad Ui agmi ca prlhivi ca vdyui cunlariham aidilyaS ca dyaui ca, etc sat, etc hidam sarvam sad tti

7 'Which are the m>' 'Fire, the earth, the air, the sk', the sun and the heaen, these arc the si, for the si are all this '

S fatanic te trayo dci'ii :/i una tva trayo lokt'ih, etu hhne san'c dt 1 i tti /ataman tan dvau devav tit, annam catva prdmii ceti Liiav'.n'dh%ardha tit yo yam pavala ill

b 'Which arc the three qods?' 'They are, venly, the three worlds for m them all thfe gods eist ' 'Which are the two I ./I- To k! and tmath ' 'Which it. tlu one and a half 'Tins on> h< rt' who blow*, (the air) '

1h> c -rlli iw tlu* fire rn→l ” ow Rrvl, th< 4.y and tlx 1 air another. tl» “in rid tie !>.t< i) ft third pfthx'wi ttyui, caiiUfty.vJo dm)., {.r'.r'.i-.n %~iun fj-fUrht ditltyul. dtum iidtlyw cailVrlya

it'.”, ll.Jjf! 1 i',t d<” ,T t'i “s

»>.:t «i f imU←r .it.d l.f> tli* r←.t tU< !oj>. at rw. can 1 prSmicaitau e'f. in, t ” v, “J ish * Jr”, <.<! 'Zf im art nbl h ih S

Ill 9 ii Bfhad-aranyaka Upanisad 237

9 tad dhuh, yad ayam eka vaavoa pavate, atha katliam adhy- ardha itt yad asmtnn idam sarvam adhyardhnot, tenadhyardha th, katama eko deva til. prana ill, sa brahma, tyad ity dcaksate.

9 'Regarding this, some say, since he who blows is like one, how then is he one and a half? (The answer is) because in “him (when he blows) all this grew up ' 'Which is the one God?' 'The Breath. He is Brahman They call him lyat (that) '

aihyarihiwt. grew up, attains great growth, adhiruddhim prdpnoh. S.

The one God has different names, forms, activities, attributes and powers owing to differences of function* devasyaikasya nmna-mpa-karma-guna-sakti-bliedo' dhikara-bhedat §

EIGHT DIFFERENT PERSONS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING DIVINITIES

10 prthvoy eva yasydyatanam, agmr lokah, mano yyotxh, yo vai tarn purusam vidydt sarvasyatmanah pardyanam, sa vat vediia sydt, yajnavalkya veda va aham tarn purusam sarvasyd- tmanah pardyanam, yam dttha; ya evdyam sarirah purusah, sa esah vadaiva sdkalya, tasya ka devatd iti amrtam tti hovdca

10 'Verily, he who knows that person whose abode is the earth, whose world is the fire, whose light is the mind, who is the ultimate support of every soul, he, verily, would be a knower, 0 Yajnavalkya Verily, I know that person, who is the ultimate support of every soul, of whom you speak ' This very person who is in the body is he. Tell me, Sakalya, who is lus god?”The immortal/ said he.

Syatawm abode dirayah § ddharah R

pardyanam ultimate support param ayanam para asrayah 5. Ptranui-prdpya-bhMahpurusa-S-abditab paramdtma R.

11 kama eva yasydyatanam, hrdayam lokah, mano jyotih, yo a% tarn purusam vidydt sarvasyatmanah pardyanam, sa vai ectita sydt, yajnavalkya veda va aham tarn purusam sarvasya

a esali vadaiva, sdkalya, tasya kd devoid ill stnyah, iti hovdca. dps v y ' he who J* 110 ™ 5 tnat person whose abode is

vhn?c X , WOrld K the heart ' whose h & ht 1S the mind - a 1 ^amate support of every soul, he, verily, would be

the »-T er ' ? Yii 3 navalk ya ' 'Verily, I know that person who is

verv ™ ^PP 011 of ever Y soul, of whom you speak. This

is W 18 made of desure 1S he - TeU me « Sdkalya, who

° Women/ said he.

238 The Principal Upamsads III 9 14

kama desire desire for sex pleasures strl-vyattkardbhildsah kamah hrdayam lokah We see through the intellect hrdayena buddhya pasyati §

women for men's desire is inflamed through them strito hi kamasya diptir jayate §

12 rupdny eva yasyayatanam, caksur lokah, mano jyohh, yo vat tarn purusam vidyat sarvasyatmanah parayanam, sa vai vedttd syat, ydpiavalkya veda vd aham tarn purusam sarvasyat- manah parayanam, yam attha ya evdsav dditye purusah, sa esah vadavoa, sakalya, tasya ka devoid iti satyam ttt hovaca

12 'Verily, he who knows that person whose abode is forms, whose world is the eye, whose light is the mind, who is the ultimate support of every soul, he, verily, would be a knower, O Yajfiavalkya ' 'Venly, I know that person who is the ultimate support of every soul, of whom you speak This very person who is m the sun is he Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? ' 'Truth/ said he

forms colours like white and black sukla-krsnddim 5

13 dkdsa eva yasyayatanam, srotram lokah, mano jyohh, yo vat tarn purusam vidyat sarvasyatmanah parayanam, sa vat vedttd syat, ydjilavalkya veda vd aham tarn purusam sarvasyat- manah parayanam, yam attha, ya evdyam srautrah prdttsrutkah purusah sa esah vadavoa, sakalya, tasya ka devata th dxsah iti hovaca

13 'Venly, he who knows that person, whose abode is space, whose world is the ear, whose light is mind, who is the ultimate support of every soul, he, venly, would be a knower, 0 Yajfiavalkya ' 'Venly, I know that person who is the ultimate support of every soul, of whom you speak This very person who is m heanng and who is in the echo is he Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? ' 'The quarters of space,' said he

pratisrutkah prattdhvam-msistah R

14 lama eva yasyayatanam, hrdayam lokah, mano jyolth, yo vat tarn purusam vidyat sarvasyatmanah parayanam, sa vat veditd syat, ydpiavalkya veda vd aham tarn purusam sarvasyat- manah, parayanam, yam attha, ya evdyam chdydmayah purusah sa esah vadavoa, idkalya, tasya kd devata iti mrtyur iti hovaca

14 'Venly, he who knows that person, whose abode is darkness, whose world is the heart, whose light is the mind, who is the ultimate support of every soul, he, venly, would be a

Ill 9 17 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 239

knower, 0 Yajnavalkya.' 'Verily, I know that person who is the ultimate support of every soul, of whom you speak This very person who is made of shadow is he Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ?> 'Death,' said he.

15 rupany eva yasyayatanam, caksur lokdh, mano jyotih, yo vat tarn purusam vidyat sarvasyatmanah parayanam, sa vat vedita syat, yajnavalkya veda va aham tarn purusam sarvasyat- manah parayanam, yam attha. ya evayam adarie purusah, sa esah vadatva, sakalya, tasya ka devata ttt, asur ttt hovaca.

15 'Verily, he who knows that person, whose abode is forms, whose world is the eye, whose light is the mind, who is the ultimate support of every soul, he, verily, would be a knower, 0 Yajnavalkya ' 'Venly, I know that person who is the ultimate support of every soul, of whom you speak This very person who is in the looking-glass is he Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god?' 'Life,' said he.

16. apa eva yasyayatanam, hrdayam lokah, mano jyotih, yo vox tarn purusam vidyat sarvasyatmanah parayanam, sa vat vedUa syat, yajnavalkya. veda va aham tarn purusam sarvasyat- manah parayanam, yam attha ya evayam apsu purusah sa esah vadaiva, iakalya, tasya ka devata ttt varuna tit hovaca.

16 'Venly, he who knows that person, whose abode is water, whose world is the heart, whose light is the mmd, who is the ultimate support of every soul, he, venly, would be a knower, 0 Yajnavalkya ' 'Venly, I know that person who is the ultimate support of every soul, of whom you speak This very person who is m water is he. Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god?' varuna,' said he

vmina' rain.

17 reta eva yasyayatanam, hrdayam lokah, mano jyotih yo »<w tarn purusam vidyat sarvasyatmanah parayanam sa vat vmta syat, yajnavalkya. veda va aham tarn purusam sarvasyat- manah parayanam, yam attha. ya evayam putramaya}} purusah, hvafa Vadatm ' & ka h> a > tes .y« ka devata ttt prajdpatth ttt

*7 Venly, he who knows that person, whose abode is semen, whose world is the heart, whose light is the mmd, who knn support of every soul, he, venly, would be a

the ult' Y& ] fiavalk ya ' 'Venly, I know that person who is intimate support of every soul, of whom you speak This

240 The Principal Upamsads III 9 21

very person who is made of a son is he Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god?' 'Prajd-pah,' said he

18 Sakalya, th hovaca yajnavalkyah, tvam svid ime brahmana angdrdvaksayanam akrata u th

18 'Sakalya,' said Yajfiavalkya, 'have these Brahmanas made you their remover of burning coals?'

'Have these Vedic scholars thrown you to me to be burnt or consumed by me?'

FIVE DIRECTIONS IN SPACE, THEIR DEITIES AND

SUPPORTS

19 yajfiavalkya, tti hovaca sakalyah, yad idam kuru-panca- landm brdhtnanan atyavddih, kim brahma vtdvan tti, diio veda sadevdh sapratisthd iti yad diio vettha sa devah sapratistMh

19 'Yajfiavalkya/ said Sakalya, 'What is the Brahman you know, that you have talked down the Brahmanas of the Kuru-paficalas?' 'I know the quarters with then: deities and supports ' 'If you know the quarters with then- deities and supports,

20 hm-devato'syam prdcydm diSy asih dditya-devata tti sa ddityah kasmm prahsthtta iti caksusih kasmm nu caksuh pratisthttam iti rupesv tit caksusa hi rupam paiyati kasmm nu rupdm pratisthitdnUi hrdaye iti hovaca, hrdayena hi rupdm jandti, hrdaye hy eva rupdm prahsthitdm bhavantiti evam evatiat, yajfiavalkya

20. 'What deity have you in this eastern quarter?' (Yajfia- valkya said) 'the deity sun ' 'That sun, on what is it supported ?' 'On the eye ' 'On what is the eye supported?' 'On forms, for one sees forms with the eye ' 'On what are forms supported?' 'On the heart,' said he (Yajfiavalkya), 'for one knows the forms through the heart, on the heart only are the forms supported ' 'Even so, Yajfiavalkya '

Whatever forms we meditate upon, we become identified with them yam yam devatam upasle thaiva, tad bhttias tarn tarn pralipad- yate S

hrdaya heart It refers to the intellect and the mind taken together htdayam ih buidln-manasl eklkrtya mrdesah S

21 hm-devalo'sydm daksmdydm dtsy asttt yama-devata tti sa yaviah kasmm prattsthita tti yajna tti kasmm nu yajnah

III. 9 23. Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 241

pratisthita Hi. daksmdydm tti kasmin nu daksind pratisthita tti. sraddhdydm tti yadd hy eva iraddhatte atha daksmdm daddti; sraddhdydm hy eva daksmd prattsthtd tti. kasmin mt sraddha praltsihtd tit hrdaye th. hovdca hrdayena hi iraddhdm jdndti, hrdaye hy eva sraddha pratisthita bhavatiti. eoam evailat, yajfiavalkya.

21. 'What deity have you in this southern quarter?' (Yajfiavalkya said) 'The deity Yama/ 'That Yarna, on what is he supported 7 ' 'On the sacrifice.' 'On what is the sacrifice supported 'On the offerings to the priests ' 'And on what are the offerings to the priests supported?' 'On faith, for when one has faith, he gives offerings to the priests Therefore it is on faith that the offerings to the priests are supported ' 'On what is faith supported?' 'On the heart/ he (Yajfiavalkya) said, 'for through the heart one knows faith; verily, on the heart alone is faith supported.' 'Even so, Yajfiavalkya.'

faith- faith in the Vedas accompanied by devotion, dstikya-buddhir bhakti-sahttd §.

22 kim-devato'sydm praticyam dtsy asiti. varuna-devata ili, sa varunah kasmin pratisthita Hi apsv tti. kasmin nv dpafr pratisthta tti retasitt, kasmin mi retah pratisthitam tii. hrdaye tit, hovaca; tasmdd apt pratirupam jdlam dhxd}, hrdaydd iva srptah, hrdaydd ma mrmtta tti, hrdayz hy eva retah pratisthitam bhavattti evam evaitat, ydpiavalkya.

22 'What deity have you in this western quarter?' “The oeity Varuna' 'That Varuna, on what is he supported?' 'On water' *0n what is water supported 'On semen ' 'On what is semen supported?' 'On the heart,' he said 'Therefore they say of a new-born child who resembles (the father) that he seems as if he slipped out of his heart, he is built out of his

Y^jSav^ 011 '^ 6 heart al ° ne 13 semen su PP orted ' * Even so -

mf?fi e V S said t0 be 3×1 ^ ect oi me heart > for sex desire 1S a is imrt tif 1 ° f ^ heart ^ semen issues when the heart of man hrj* “^fluence of sex desire: hrdayasya kdryam retah, kamo wayasya vrthh, kdmrno hi hrdaydd relo' dhtshandah. S

so}M 3 /*t' I “^ fiI,fl/o ' s - y5w ,fifii iy*» t&h- soma-devata tti. sa irat ii, tm P raUs({nta iti- diksdyam tti. kasmin mt diksd vail 1 %U ' Salya tli - tasni ^ a P l diksttam dhuh, satyam ” l sat y<> hy eva diksd pratisthita tti kasmin mi satyam

242 The Principal Upamsads III g 26

pratisthitam ih hrdaye lit hovaca, hrdayena hi satyam jdndh hrdaye hy eva satyam pratisthitam bhavatiti cvam evaitat, yajriavalkya

23 'What deity have you m this northern quarter 'The deity Soma ' 'That Soma, on what is he supported?' 'On the initiatory rite* 'On what is initiation supported?' 'On truth, therefore, they say to one who is initiated, “speak the truth” for on truth alone is the initiation supported ' 'On what is truth supported?' 'On the heart,' he (Yajriavalkya) said, 'for through the heart one knows truth, therefore it is on the heart that the truth is supported ' 'Even so, Yajriavalkya '

24 kim-devato'sydm dhuvdydm disy asiti agm-devata ih so'gnth kasmm pratisthita iti vdci iti kasmm nu vak pratisthita iti hrdaya iti kasmm nu hrdayam pratisthitam iti

24 'What deity have you in this fixed quarter (zenith)?' 'The deity, fire' 'On what is fire supported?' 'On speech' 'On what is speech supported? 1 'On the heart ' 'On what is the heart supported?'

25 ahalhka iti hovaca ydjiiavalkyah, yatraitad anyatrdsman manydsai, yaddhy etad anyatrdsmat syat, svdno vatnad adyuh vaydmsi vamad vimathnirami iti

25 'You ghost,' said Yajriavalkya, 'that you think that it (the heart) would be elsewhere than in ourselves, for if it were anywhere else than in ourselves, the dogs might eat it (the body) or the birds tear it to pieces '

Cp Sumsumara Jaiaka ahaUika ghost, that which disappears by day, aham Uyate A

Madhva means a fool, one who has his knowledge, aliar, in a potential, hka, condition His knowledge is not developed

When the heart leaves the body, the body becomes dead

THE SELF

26. kasmm nu tvam cdtmd ca pratisthitau stha iti prdna xti kasmm nu prdnah pratisthita ih apdna iti kasmm nv apanah pratisthita iti. vydna iti kasmm nu vydnah pratisthita iti uddna iti kasmmn adanah pratisthita iti samdna tit sa esa, na til na tly dtmd, agrhyak, 11a hi grhyate, asiryah 11a hi siryate, asangak na hi sajyatc, asito na vyathate, na risyah etdny astdv dyatandnt, astan lokdh, astau devah, astau purusdh sa yas tan pttrttsdn mruhya pratyuhydtyakrdmat, tarn tvd aupamsadam

HI 9 28 Brltad-dranyaka Upanisad

243

purusam prcchami, tarn cen me 11a mvaksyasi miirdhd te vipatis- yatlU tarn ha na mem iakalyah, tasya ha miirdhd vvpapdta, api hasya panmosmo'stMny apajahruh, anyaii manyamdnah

26 Sakalya said 'On what are you (your body) and yourself (the heart) supported?' (Yajfiavalkya said) 'On the prana (hfe-breath— inbreath).' 'On what is prana supported?' 'On the apam (the outbreath) ' 'And on what is the outbreath sup- ported?' 'On the vyana (the diffused breath) 'And on what is the diffused breath supported?' 'On the samdna (the equalising or middle breath) That self is not this, not this It is incom- prehensible for it is not comprehended It is indestructible for it is never destroyed It is unattached for it does not attach itself It is unfettered It does not suffer It is not injured These are the eight abodes, the eight worlds, the eight gods, the eight persons He who takes apart and puts together these persons and passes beyond them, that is the person taught in the Upanisads about whom I ask you If you do not explain him to me your head will fall off ' Sakalya did not know him, and his head fell off Indeed robbers took away his bones, thinking they were something else

Brahman is incomprehensible because it goes beyond the attri- butes of effects sarva-karya-dharmatitah § asilah unfettered, abaddhah S” •namyati not destroyed na mnaiyatt S

■panmostnah robbers, taskardh, g See Satapatha Brdhmana XI. 0 3 11

MAN COMPARED TO A TREE

27 atha hovaca, brdhmana bhagavanto, yo vah kdmayate sa ma pcchatu, sane va ma prcchata, yo vah kdmayate, tarn vah prcchami, sarvdn va vah prcchamih te ha brdhmana na dadhrsuh.

2 7 Then he (Yajfiavalkya) said. 'Venerable Brahmanas vnosoever among you wishes to do so, may question me or ma 7 a11 question me or I will question him of you who “saes (to be questioned) or I will question all of you ' Those

ratimanas, however, did not dare (to say anything)

28 tan haitath slokath papraccha

ywia vrkso vanaspahh, tathavoa puruso'mrsd tosya lomdm parnani, tvag asyotpdtikd bahih ivaca evdsya rudhiram prasyandi, tvaca utpaiah, tasmdt, tad dtrnndt praiti, raso vrksdd vodhatat

244

The Principal Upanhads

III g 28

3 mdmsdny aya Sakartlm, ktnafant snava, tat sthitam, asthhiy aniatato datum, majja majjopama krla

4 yad vrkso vtkno rohah mulan navatarah punah, mariyah svtn mrtyima vrknah hasmdn mfilat prarohalt

5 rclasa lit ma vocata, jivatas tat prajdyalc dltdndrulia tva vai viksah anjasa pretyasambhavah

6 yat samulam dvrhcyuh vrhtatn, napunar dbhavct, martyah svm mrtyund vrknah kasmdn muldt prarohalt

7 jdta cva najayatc, konvcnaM janaycl punah, vijMnam anandam brahma, rdlir ddtith parayanam, U$lhamdnasya tadvidah

28 He questioned them with the following verses

1 'As is a mighty tree so, indeed, is a man , his hairs are leaves and his skin is its outer bark

2 'From his skin blood flows forth and sap from the skin (of the tree) Therefore when a man is wounded blood flows as sap from a tree that is struck

3 'His flesh is its inner bark, his nerves are tough like inner fibres His bones are the wood within and the marrow is made resembling the pith

4. 'A tree when it is felled springs up from its root in a newer form, from what root does man spring forth when he is cut off by death?

5 'Do not say “from the semen” for that is produced from what is alive (men) A tree springs also from the seed After it is dead it certainly spnngs again

6 'If a tree is pulled up with the root, it will not spring again From what root does a mortal spring forth when he is cut off by death?

7 'When born, he is not born (again) for who should create him again? Brahman who is knowledge, bliss is the final goal of him who offers gifts as well as of him who stands firm and knows {Brahman) '

SeeTU I 10, II 1 aviysa indeed, salyam §

From what root does man spring forth when he ts cut off by deatfi^ See also Job XIV 7-10 A man struck down by death does not come to life from seed, because human seed comes from the living only while trees springing from gram are seen to come to life after the tree is dead

fivatas what is alive Philo Judaeus says 'Are not the parents, as it were, concomitant causes only, while Nature is the highest,

III. g 28 Brhad-dranyaka Upani§ad 245

elder and true cause of the begetting of children?' Quis remm dmnarum hem 115 Cp St Thomas Aquinas, 'The power of the soul which is in the semen through the spint enclosed therein fashions the body ' Smnma Theologica III 32 11 dhdnah seed, bijam, Ujaruho'pi vrkso bhavati, 11a kevalam kanda-ru- haeva §

aiqasa certainly, saksat R listhamanasya brahma-samslhasya.

tadvidah, brahtnavtdak. R Brahman is the principle or the root of a new life both for those who practise works and for those who, having relinquished works, stand firm in knowledge.

246

The Principal Upamsads IV 1. 2

CHAPTER IV

First Btdhmana

INADEQUATE DEFINITIONS OF BRAHMAN

1 janako ha vaideha dsdm cakre aiha ha ydjnavalkya dvav- rdja tarn hovdca ydjnavalkya, kvm, artham acdrih, pasiin icchan, anvanidn-iii ubhayam eva, samrad iti hovdca

1 Janaka (King) of Videha was seated (to give audience). Then Yajfiavalkya came up He (Janaka) said to him 'Yajfiavalkya, for what purpose have you come, wishing for cattle or for subtle questions?' He (Yajfiavalkya) said (in reply) 'for both, Your Majesty '

dsdm cakre was seated, Ssanam krtavdn, dsthayikam dattavan ily arthali, darsana-kdmebhyo raja S acdrih dgatosi S

anvantdn subtle questions, s&ksmantan, sUksma-vastu-nirmydntdn prasnan attah srotum icchan £ anoh suksmasya vastunah pratya- galmader antdn mscayan kartum iti arlhah R samrdt emperor of India, bharatasya varsasya raja S himaval-setu-paryantasyett ydvat A

2 yal ie kas cid abravit tat imavdmeti abravln me jitva sailmih, vdg vai brahmeli yaihd mdtrmdn pitrmdn dcdryavdn briiydt, tathd tat Saihmr abravit vdg vai brahmeti, avadato hi kvm sydd iti abravit tu te tasydyatanam prattsthdm na me 'bravid iti eka-pdd vd etat, samrdt, iti sa vai no bruhi, yajfiavalkya vdg evdyatanam, dkdiah pratisthd, prajnety enact updsita ka prajnatd, yajfiavalkya vdg eva, samrdt, ttt hovdca vdcd vai, samrdt, bandhuh prajndyate, rg-vedo yajur-vedah, sdma-vedo' tharvdngirasa, itihdsah, purdnam, vidyd upamsadah, ilokdh, sutrdny anuvydkhydndni, vydkhydndmstam hutam diitam pdyi- tam, ayam ca lokah, paras' ca lokak, sarvdm ca bhutdm vdcaiva, samrdt, prajMyante, vdg vai, samrdt, paramam brahma, namam vdg jahdti, sarvany enam bhittdny abhiksaranti, devo bhuiva devdn dpyeti, ya evam vidvdn elad updste hasty-rsabham sahasram daddmi, iti hovdca janako vaidehah sa hovdca yajfiavalkya}), pita me'manyata, nananuiisya haretett

2 'Let me hear what any (of your teachers) may have told you ' 'Jitvan Sailim told me that “speech, verily, is Brahman ” As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so

IV. i 3 Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad 247

did Sailim say that speech is Brahman, for what can one have who cannot speak 'But did he tell you the abode and the support (of the Brahman) ?' 'He did not tell me ' 'This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty ' 'Verily, Yajfiavalkya, do tell us ' 'Its abode is ]ust speech, its support space One should worship it as intelligence ' 'What is the nature of that intelli- gence, Yajnavalkya?' 'Just speech, Your Majesty/ said he (Yajnavalaya). 'Verily, by speech, Your Majesty, a friend is recognised By speech alone, Your Majesty) are the Rg Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Soma Veda, the Atharvdngirasa, history, ancient lore, arts, the upamsads, verses, aphorisms, explana- tions, commentaries, (the effects of) sacrifices, oblations, food and drink, this world and the other and all beings are known The higher Brahman, Your Majesty, is, in truth, speech Speech does not desert him who, knowing thus, worships it as such All beings approach him Having become a god he goes even to the gods ' Janaka (King) of Videha said, 'I shall give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant ' Yajfia- valkya said, 'My father thought that one should not accept gifts without havmg instructed.'

prapla intelligence Vak is Logos, wisdom

I ifidna is discrimination, thought, excogitation It is logical know- ledge which is a preparation for prapid or intuitive wisdom Prapla is the wisdom that sets free, that shatters the bondage of suffering and desire It is related to the Greek prognosis, knowledge a priori as distinct from samjfta or knowledge by observation Cp the Buddhist PrajnapSramita

samma means for §, consciousness of one's personality, vdesapidna-

SeeS on BU IV. 5 13

alofa dyatamm noma sariram. S

riTO trm apl kdlesu y* ™™y<& S

w-pad one-footed, the instruction is partial only, not complete w one . who has a mother, father, teacher As one who has been taught nfe , # l y hs mother » the n hy his father and then by a teacher «Ti , . m & 1™*™^ sisyam krtdrtham akrtva hsydd dhanam na ^telimamapita'manyata.

JUL*! ie ^ c,i * a ^ rav!ii tot bnavamett. abravin ma Mrlr ^teyanah, prano vat brahmeti yathd matrman wi bml UC f ryavdn bruyat, taihd tat saulbdyano'bravit, prano prattstl” a ^ rdnat0 hi him sydd iti abravit tu te tasydyatanam “o bm' M - a ! >ie ' hravU ltt eka-pdd vd etat, samrdd, ttt. sa vai ni > ydjnavalkya, prdna evdyatanam, akdsah pratistkd,

248 The Principal Upamsads IV. 7 4

pnyam tty enad upastta, ka prtyatd, yajnavalkya, prdna eva, samrdd, ttt hovaca prdnasya vat, samrat, kdmdydydjyamyajayati, aprahgrhyasya prattgrhndtt, apt tatra vadhdsankam bhavatt, yam dtiam ett, prdnasyatva, samrat, kdmdya, prano vat, samrat, paramam brahma, navnam prano jahdtt, sarvdny enam bhutdny dbhtksaranti, devo bhutva devdn apyeti, ya evam vidvdn etad upaste. hasty-rsabham sahasram daddmt, ttt hovaca, janako vatdehah sa hovaca ydjnavalkyah, pttd me'manyata ndnanuitsya karetett

3 'Let me hear whatever any one (of your teachers) may have told you 1 ' Udanka 5aulbayana told me that the vital breath, verily, is Brahman As one who has a mother, father, teacher should say, so did that Saulbayana say that the vital breath is Brahman, for what can one have who has not the vital breath 'But did he tell you the abode and the support?' 'He did not tell me ' 'This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty ' 'Verily, Yajnavalkya, do tell us ' 'Life, venly, is its abode and space its support Venly, one should worship it as the dear ' 'What is the nature of that dearness, Yajna- valkya?' 'The vital breath itself, Your Majesty/ said he 'Venly, out of love for life, Your Majesty, one offers sacrifices for him for whom one should not offer sacrifices, one accepts gifts from one from whom they should not be accepted Out of just love for life, Your Majesty, there anses fear of bemg in whatever direction one goes Life is, in truth, Your Majesty, the highest Brahman Life does not desert him, who, knowing thus, worships it as such All beings approach him Having become a god, he goes even to the gods ' Janaka (King) of Videha said, 'I shall give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant ' Yajnavalkya said, 'My father thought that one should not accept (gifts) without having instructed '

prahgraha that which is received, a gift

life does not desert him he will live long, dirghdyur bhavait R

4 yad eva te kai ctd abravtt tat srnavamett abravin me barkur vdrsnah caksur vat brahmett yathd mdtrmdn pttrmdn dcdryavdn bruydt, taihd tad vdrsno'bravit caksur vai brahmett, apaiyato hi him sydd ttt abravit tu te tasydyatanam prattsthdm na me' bravid ttt eka-pdd vd etat, samrdd, ttt sa vat no bruht, yajna- valkya caksur evdyatanam, akdsah praltsihd, satyam ttt etad upastta kd satyatd, yajnavalkya caksur eva, samrdd, ttt hovaca, caksusd vai, samrat, pasyantam Shuh, adrdksir ttt, sa aha.

IV. I 5 Brhad-dranyaka Vpanisad 249

aimksam tit iat saiyam bhavah caksur vai, samrdt, paramam brahma. nainam caksur yahdii, sarvany enam bhutdny abhik- saranh, devo bhutvd devan apyeh, ya evam vidvdn etad updste. kasty-rsabham sdhasram daddmi, iti hovdca janako vaidehah. sa hovdca ydjnavalkyah. pitd me'manyaia, nananuitsya hareteti

4 'Let me hear what any one (of your teachers) may have told you.' 'Barku Varsna told me that the eye, verily, is Brahman. As one who has a mother, father, teacher should say, so did that Varsna say that the eye, verily, is Brahman for what can one have who cannot see?' 'But did he tell you the abode and the support?' 'He did not tell me.' 'This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.' 'Venly, Yajfiavalkya, do tell us ' 'The eye, verily, is its abode and space its support, venly one should worship it as truth.' 'What is the nature of truth, Yajfiavalkya?' 'The eye itself, Your Majesty,' said he (Yajfiavalkya) 'Venly, Your Majesty, when they say to a man who sees with his eyes, “have you seen?” and he answers, “I have seen”- that is the truth; verily, Your Majesty, the eye is the highest Brahman. The eye does not desert hun, who loiowmg thus, worships it as such. All beings approach him Having become a god, he goes even to the gods.' Janaka (King) of Videha said, 'I shall give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant.' Yajfiavalkya said, 'My father thought that one should not accept (gifts) without having instructed.'

What is seen with the eye is regarded as more authoritative than tt B ,P erceived b y the ot her senses, so it is said to be true: ym tu caksusa drsfam tad avyabhcarat saiyam eva bhavati. §; caksusd a rstamnavismarati R ” *

5 ^ eva te has ad abramt, iat srnavdmeh. abravin me gardhabhmpito bhdradvdjah sroiram vat brahmeti yathd mdtr- mn fitrmdn acdryavdn bruydt, iathd tad bhdradvdjo'bravlt. sroiram vat brahmeti, airnvato hi him sydd iti. abramt tu te nsyayatanam pratisthdm na me'bramd tti. eka-pad vd etat, ahiii ltU Sa w * no ^ r ^ 1 ' yajfiavalkya. irotram evdyatanam, MZfc % a * tsih *> tiy enad updsita ka. anantatd, ydjna- vanh- e ™' samrad > th hovAca ias7»ad vai, samrdd, api hdi'f'^T diiaril 8 acchatt > antam gacchati, anantd brah Mi ' sam ™t> ^°iram. sroiram vat, samrat, paramam iara»T irotram jahdh, sarvany enam bhutdny abhtk-

m, devo blmtva devan apyeti, ya evam vidvdn etad updste.

250

The Principal Upanisads IV. i 6.

hasty-rsabham sahasram dadami iti hovaca janako vaidehah, sa hovacayajnavalkya.il, pita me'manyata, nananuiisya hareteii.

5 'Let me hear what any one (of your teachers) may have told you ' 'Gardhabhivipita Bharadvaja told me that the ear, venly, is Brahman. As one who has a mother, father, teacher should say, so did that Bharadvaja say that the ear, venly, is Brahman; for what can one have who cannot hear?' 'But did he tell you the abode and the support?' 'He did not tell me ' 'This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty ' 'Venly, Yajfiavalkya, do tell us' 'The ear venly, is its abode and space its support; venly, one should worship it as the endless ' 'What is the nature of endlessness, Yajfiavalkya ' 'The quarters themselves, Your Majesty,' said he (Yajfiavalkya). 'Therefore, Your Majesty, to whatever quarter one goes, he does not come to the end of it for the quarters are endless Venly, Your Majesty, the quarters are the ear and the ear, Your Majesty, is the highest Brahman The ear does not desert him, who, knowing this, worships it as such All beings approach him Having become a god he goes even to the gods ' Janaka (King) of Videha said, 'I shall give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant ' Yajfiavalkya said, 'My father thought that one should not accept (gifts) without having instructed '

6.yad eva kai cid abravit tat irnavdmeti abravin me satyakdmo jabalah, mano vai brahmetv yaihd mdtrman pitrmdn deary avan briiydt, tatha taj jabalo'bravtt, mano vai brahmeti, amanaso hi kim sydd iti abravit tu te tasydyatanam prahsthdm na me'bravid th eka-pdd va etat samrdd tti sa vai no bruhi, yajfiavalkya mana evdyatanam, akdsah pratisthd, ananda tty enad updsita, kd anandatd, ydjnavalkya mana eva, samrdd, iti hovdea, manasd vai, samrdt striyam abhiharyate, tasydm pratiriipah pulro jdyate, sa dnandah, mano vai, samrdt, paramam brahma namam mano jahdti, sarvdny enam bhutdny abhiksaranh, devo bhiitvd deva.il apyeti, ya evam vidvdn etad updste hasty-rsabham sahasram dadami, tti hovaca janako vaidehah sa hovaca ydjna- valkyah, pita me'manyata nananuiisya hareteti.

6. 'Let me hear what any one (of your teachers) may have told you ' 'Satyakama Jabala told me that the mind, venly, is Brahman. As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so did that Jabala say that the mind, venly, is Brahman, for what can one have who is without a mind?' 'But did he tell you the abode and the support?' 'He did not

IV i. 7. Brhai-dranyaka Vpanisad 251

tell me.' 'This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.' 'Verily, Yajfiavalkya, do tell us ' 'The mind, venly, is its abode and the space its support Venly one should worship it as the blissful' 'What is the nature of blissfulness, Yajfiavalkya?' 'Just the mind, Your Majesty/ said he 'Venly, Your Majesty, by the mind one takes to a woman. A son resembling him is bom of her He is (the source of) bliss Verily, mind, Your Majesty, is the highest Brahman. The mind never deserts him who knowing thus worships it as such All beings approach him Having become a god he goes even to the gods ' Janaka (King) of Videha said, 'I shall give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant.' Yajfiavalkya said. 'My father thought that one should not accept (gifts) without having instructed. 1

J. yad eva kascidabravit, tat srnavdmeti. abravln me vidagdhak sakalyah, hrdayam vat brahmeh, yathd mdtrmdn pitpnan acaryavdn brttydt, tathd tat sdkalyo'bravtt, hrdayam vai brahmeti, akrdayasya hi him sydd iti. abravit tu ie tasyayatanam pratis- mm na me'bravid ih eka-pdd vd, etat, samrdd, ih sa vat no bruhi, yajfiavalkya. hrdayam evdyatanam, akdiah pratisthd, tfmftr ity enad updsita ka slhttitd, yapiavalkya. hrdayam eva samrad, iti hovaca, hrdayam vat, samrat, sarvesam bhutdndm ayatamm, hrdayam vai, samrd$, sarvesam bhutanam pratisthd, Ijrdaye hy eva, samrat, sarvdm btutam prattsihitdm bhavanh. hrdayam vat, samrat, paramam brahma. nainam hrdayam jahah, sarvany enam bhutdny abhtksaranh, devo bhuivk devan a p e K ya evam vidvan etad upaste. Jiasty rsabham sahasram *~?*»». th hovaca janako vatdehah. sa Jiovdca ydjnavalkyah, pna me'manyata ndnanuiisya hareteU.

. 1 m e hear what any one (of your teachers) may have tow you ' 'Vidagdha Sakalya told me that the heart, verily, w««wan As one who has a mother, father, teacher should ay, so did that Sakalya say that the heart, venly, is Brahman foil 05×1 one have who is without a heart?' 'But did he 'U y °n abode and the su PP0rt?' 'He did not tell me.' v- - Br * h man is only one-footed, Your Majesty' 'Verily, » ajnavalkya, do tell us ' 'The heart, venly, is its abode and

ua 4. lie ueari, vcruy, is its aDoae ana •Wu ? ace , lts su PP°rt. One should worship it as the stable.' Ynnr m nature of stabilit y. Yajfiavalkya?' 'Just the heart, Jw? a3 ^ y ' he (Yajfiavalkya) said; 'the heart, Your ia Jesty, a the abode of all things and the heart, Your Majesty,

252 The Principal Upamsads IV. 2 2.

is the support of all beings On the heart, Your Majesty, all beings are supported The heart, verily, Your Majesty, is the Supreme Brahman The heart never deserts him who knowing thus, worships it as such All bemgs approach him Having become a god, he goes even to the gods ' Janaka (King) of Videha said, 'I shall give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an elephant.' Yajfiavalkya said, 'My father thought that one should not accept (gifts) without having instructed.'

See III 9 24

1 janako ha vatdehah kurcdd updvasarpann uvdcw nomas ie'stu yajfiavalkya, anu ma iadhitt sa hovdca- yathd vat, samrdf, mahantam adhvdnam esyan ratham va navam va samddadita, evant evaitdbhir upamsadbhih samahitatmasi, evam brnddraka ddhyah sann adhita~veda ukta-upamsafkdh, ito vimucyamanah kva gamisyastti naham tad, bhagavan, veda, yatra gamisyamiti, atha vai Wham tad vaksyami, yatra gamisyastti, bravitu, bhagavan, %tx.

1 Janaka (King) of Videha, descending from his lounge and approaching said 'Salutations to you, Yajfiavalkya, please instruct me ' He (Yajfiavalkya) said 'As one who wishes to go a long distance, Your Majesty, would secure a chariot or a ship, even so you have a mind well equipped with the teachings of the Upamsads You are likewise honoured and wealthy, you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upamsads Where will you go when you are released (from this body) ?I (Janaka said) 'Venerable Sir, I do not know where I shall go ' (Yajfiavalkya said) 'Then truly I shall tell you that, where you will go ' (Janaka said) 'Tell me, Venerable Sir '

bpiddrakah honoured, pUjyah Sdhyah wealthy, i&uarah, na dandrah §

The theoretical knowledge of the Vedas and the Upamsads is not enough, for it does not remove fear We require knowledge of Self or Brahman for salvation evam sarva-vibhfili-sampanno'pt son bhaya-madhya-stha eva paramatmajnamna vmd akrldrtha eva tavat. S.

2. indho ha vai ndmaisa yo'yam daksme'ksan purusah tam

Second Brahmana

CONCERNING THE SOUL

kiircat from the louni

IV. 2. 4. Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 253

va etam tndham santam indra tty dcaksate paroksenaiva, parok- sa-pnyd iva hi devdh, pratyaksa-dvisah

2. 'Indha by name is this person who is in the right eye Him, venly, who is that Indha people call Indra, indirectly, for the gods are fond of the indirect, as it were, they dislike the direct (or the evident).

Indha is the self, identified with the physical self.

3. athaitad vame'ksani purusa-rupam, esdsya patnivirdt, toy or esa sathstdvoya eso'ntar-hrdaya akdiah, athainayor etad annamya eso'ntar-hrdaye lohta-pmdah, athainayor etat prdvaranam yad etad antar-hrdaye jdlakam iva; athainayor esa srtth samcaranT yaisa hrdayad urdhva nddy uccarati. yatha keiah sghasradhd bhnnah evam asyaita hita noma nddyo'ntar-hrdaye prattsthttd bhavanh, etdbhtr va etad asravad dsravati; tasmad esa praviviktd- haratara ivawa bhavaty asmac cdrTrdd atmanah

3 .Now that which is in the form of a person in the left eye is his wife Vira.3 Their place of union is the space within the heart. Their food is the red (of blood) lump in the heart Their covering is the net-like structure m the heart Their path for moving is that channel which goes upward from the heart; like a hair divided a thousandfold, so are the channels called htta which are established within the heart Through these flows that which flows on. Therefore that (self composed of fodha and Viraj) is, as it were, an eater of finer food than the bodily self

Indra is Vaiivanara and Vtraj or matter is said to be his wife>

ior it is the object of enjoyment, bkogyatvdd eva. £

samstava place of union, literally the place where they sine praises

together, the meeting-place.

sr/tft path, margah S

.^subtle body is nourished by finer food than the gross- tasmac atanrad atmanah vaisoanarat taijasah suksmdnnopaato lhavati. “1 the dream state the self is identified with the subtle body.

4 fasjw pracl dtk prdncah prdnah, daksmd dig daksine -jT- ^ ratTcI diJi pr«tyafcah prdnah, udici dig udaficah prdnah, jafiva, dig iirdhvdh prdnah, avdci dig avdncah prdnah, sarvd waft, sane prdnah, sa esa neti nety atmd agrhyah ma higrhyate;

“W. na hi iiryate; asaiigah na hi sayyate, asito na vyathate; ™ r £y™*bhayamvai,jamfoi,prdpW

* novaca janako vaidehah, abhayam tvd gacchatdt, ydpuivalkya,

254

The Principal Upanisads IV. 3 1.

yo nah, bhagavan, abhayam vedayase, namas ie'stu, me videhah ayam aham asmitt

4 'Of him the eastern direction is the eastern breaths, the southern direction is the southern breaths, the western direction is the western breaths, the northern direction is the northern breaths, the upper direction is the upper breaths, the lower direction is the lower breaths, all the quarters are all the breaths But the self is not this, not this He is incompre- hensible for he is never comprehended He is undestructible for he cannot be destroyed He is unattached for he does not attach himself He is unfettered, he does not suffer, he is not injured Verily, Janaka, you have reached (the state of) fearlessness,' thus said Yajfiavalkya Janaka (King) of Videha said 'May fearlessness come unto you, Yajfiavalkya, to you, Venerable Sir, who make us to know (the state of) fearlessness Salutations to you Here are the people of Videha, here am I (at your service) '

See III 9 26 abhayatn janma-maranadi-mtmtia-bliaya-iiinyam £

Third Brahmana

THE LIGHT OF MAN IS THE SELF

1 janakam ha vatdcham yajnavalkyo jagdma sa mene: na vadtsya xii atha ha yaj janakaS ca vatdeho ydjiiavalkyai cdgm- hotre samudatc, tasmai ha yajnavalkyo varam dadau sa ha kdma-prasnam eva vavre, tarn hasmai dadau tarn ha samrdd cva ptmah papraccka

1 Yajiiavalkya came to Janaka (King) of Videha He thought (to himself) 'I will not talk ' But when (once) Janaka (King) of Videha and Yajfiavalkya discussed together at an agmhoira ceremony, Yajiiavalkya granted the former a boon He chose to ask any question he wished He granted it to him. So (now) His Majesty first asked him.

Though Yajfiavalkya did not wish to say anything, Janaka asked lnm a question, for on a former occasion Yajfiavalkya per- mitted Janaka to ask him any questions he liked See Satapatha Brahmana XI 6. 2 10

Sometimes sa mene na vadisya Ut is read as sam cnena vadtsya

IV 3 6. Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 255

tit Yajnavalkya came to Janaka intending to speak with him. This is only an ingenious conjecture

2. yajnavalkya, ktm-jyotir ayam purusa iti ddttya-jyotth, samrkt, tit hovaca, ddttyenaivdyam jyottsdste, palyayate, karma kurute, vtpalyetitt. evam evaitat, yajnavalkya.

2 'What light does a person here have? (What serves as thehght for man?)' 'He has the light of the sun, Your Majesty,' he said, 'for with the sun indeed as the light, one sits, moves about, does one's work and returns.' 'Just so, Yajnavalkya.'

3. asiam tta ddttye, yajnavalkya, ktm-jyotir evdyam purusa iti candramd evasya jyottr bhavah, candramasawayam jyottsdste, palyayate, karma kurute, vipalyetUi evam evaitat, yajnavalkya

3. When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, what light does a person here have?' 'The moon, indeed, is his light, for with the moon indeed as the light, one sits, moves about, does one's work and returns.' 'Just so, Yajnavalkya '

4. asiam ita ddttye, yajnavalkya, candramasy asiam tte, kim- jyohr evdyam purusa iti. agnir evasya jyotvr bhavah, agnt- nawayam jyottsdste, palyayate, karma kurute, vipalyetUi. evam evattat, yajnavalkya

4 When the 'sun has set, Yajnavalkya, and the moon has set, what light does a person here have?' The fire, indeed, is his light, for with the fire, indeed as the light, one sits, moves about, does one's work and returns.' 'Just so, Yajnavalkya '

5 astam tta ddttye, yajnavalkya, candramasi astam tte, iante agnail, ktm-jyottr evdyam purusa tit vag evasya jyotvr bhavah, vacavodyam jyottsdste, palyayate, karma kurute, vtpalyett, tasmdd ”<«, samrad, apt yatra pdntr na vinirjR&yate, atha yatra vag uccaratt, upatva tatra nyetitt evam evaitat, yajnavalkya.

5 'When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, and the moon has set and the fire has gone out, what light does a person here aave 'Speech, indeed, is his light for with speech, indeed, as tte light, one sits, moves about, does one's work and returns.

inerefore, Your Majesty, even where one's own hand is not discerned there when speech is uttered one goes towards it.'

Just so, Yajnavalkya.'

speech sound, vag ih sabdah pangrhyate. §.

6. astam ita ddttye, ydjftavalkya, candramasy astam tte, sdnte g»w«, sdnidydm vdct, ktm-jyotir evdyam purusa ttt. dtmatvdsya

256 The Principal Upanisads IV. 3. 8.

jyoltr bhavah, almanaivayam jyotisaste, palyayate, karma kurute, vipalyeti itt

6. 'When the sun has set, Yajfiavalkya, and the moon has set, and the fire has gone out and speech has stopped, what light does a person here have?' 'The self, indeed, is his light,' said he, 'for with the self, indeed, as the light, one sits, moves about, does one's work and returns '

This self is present in all the states of waking, dream and sleep. It is the light different from one's body and organs and illumines them though it is itself not illumined by anything else kdrya-kara- na-svdvayava-samghdta-vyatmktam, karya-karandvabhdsdkam, Sdtt- yddi bdhya-jyotirvat svayam anyendnavabMsyamdnam abhidhiyate jyohh S

THE DIFFERENT STATES OF THE SELF

7 katama atmeti yo'yam vipianamayah prdnesu, hrdy antarjyohh purusah, sa samdnah sann ubhau lokdv awusancarah, dhyayativa lettyativa, sa hi svapno bhutva, imam lokam atik- r&matt, mrtyo rupant

7 'Which is the self?' 'The person here who consists of knowledge among the senses, the light within the heart He remaining the same, wanders along the two worlds seeming to think, seeming to move about He on becoming asleep (getting into dream condition), transcends this world and the forms of death

seeming to think he does not really think but only witnesses the acts of thought

seeming to move about Thought and action do not belong to the real nature of the self The universal self appears limited on account of the conjunction of the self, with buddht or understanding, with its modifications of desire and aversion, pleasure and pain In the state of liberation the connection with understanding terminates ydvad ayam dlmd samsari bhavah, tdvad eva asya buddht-samyogah, na tu paramdrthatah, atmanah satnsdntvam buddht-samyogad iva S B. II 3 30 .

who consists of knowledge S argues that the self is so called because we fail to discriminate its association with the limiting adjunct. buddht-vijiidnopadhi-samparkavtvekad vipldnamaya tty ucyate svapno bhitlva svapndvastho bhutva R

8 sa va ayam puruso jdyamanah, iariram, abhisampadyatnd- nah pdpmabhih samsrjyate, sa utkraman, mriyamdnah pdpmano vijahati

IV. 3 10- Brhad-drayyaka Upamsad 257

8. 'Venly, this person, when lie is horn and obtains a body, becomes connected with evils. When he departs, on dying he leaves all evils behind.

evils sources of good and evil, body and the organs - papmasama- vayibhr dharmadharmdirayath karya-karanaih. S. sathsijyate becomes connected, mnrnqyate. vijaMh; leaves behind, pantyajati. S.

9 tasya va etasya purusasya dve evct sthane bhavatah: idath ca para-loka-sthdnam ca; sandhyam trtvyam svapna-slhanam; tasmin san&hye sthane tisfhann, ubhe sthane paiyati, idam ca paraloka- sthdnath ca atha yathdkramo'yam para-loka-sthdne bltavah, tarn akramam dkramya, ubhaydn pdpimna dnanddmi ca pasyati. sa yalra prasvapih, asya lokasya sarvdvato mdtrdm apdddya, svayam mhatya, svayam mrmaya, svena bhdsd, svena jyottsd prasvapih; atrayam purusah svayath-jyottr bhavati.

9 'Venly, there are just two states of this person (the state of being in) this world and the state of being in the other world. There is an intermediate third state, that of being m sleep (dream). By standing in this intermediate state one sees both those states, of being in this world and of being in the other world. Now whatever the way is to the state of being in the other world, having obtained that way one sees both the evils (of this world) and the joys (of the other world) When he goes to sleep he takes along the material of this all-embracing world, himself tears it apart, himself builds it up; he sleeps (dreams) by his own brightness, by his own light. In that state the person becomes self-illummated.

mdhyam: intermediate state: literally, the junction, sandht, of the

akrama- the way, that by which one proceeds, support or outfit mamiy anenety akramah asrayah, avasiambhah S. He provides jumseflf with whatever knowledge, work and previous experience he nay have for the attainment of the next world para-loka-prattpatti- satthanena mdyd-karma pOrva-prajna-laksanena yukto bhavait. S. prasvaptii- sleeps, dreams, svapnam ambhavah. R.

f?: m ^ira raihaf}, na ratha-yogdh, na panthdno bhavanti; atha x! • rai ^a-yogdn, pathali srjate; na tatrdnandah, mudah mmudc 1 bhaoanti, athdnanddn, mudah, pramudah srjate; na

ra veSantdh puskarinyah sravantyo bhavanh; atha veidntdn,

IT sramnm s Wte sa ht hartd. °' There are no chariots there, nor animals to be yoked to

258 The Prinapal Upamsads IV 3 12

them, no roads but he creates (projects from himself) chariots, animals to be yoked to them and roads There are no joys there, no pleasures, no delights, but he creates joys, pleasures and delights There are no tanks there, no lotus pools, no rivers, but he creates tanks, lotus-pools and rivers He, indeed, is the agent (maker or creator)

According to S the agency attributed to the self is only figurative The light of the self, which is pure intelligence, illumines the body and organs through the internal organ and they perform their functions being illumined by it yac caitanyatmajyohs-antahkarana- dvarenavabhdsayah karya-karanam tatra kartrtvam upacaryata atmanah

According to R, the agent is the Supreme Lord, sakala-prapan- ca-nalaka-siitradharah sarvesvarak khalu tatra kartd

11 tad ete iloka bhavanh:

svapnena idriram abhiprahatyasuptah suptdn abhicakasih; Sukram dddya punar ath sihdnam, hiranmayah purusa eka-hamsah

11 'On this there are the following verses Having struck down m sleep what belongs to the body, he himself sleepless looks down, on the sleeping (senses) Having taken to himself light he goes again to his place, the golden person, the lonely swan (the one spirit)

While one is in the state of dream, the self makes the body to sleep but the self remains awake and notices the impressions of the deeds, that have been left upon the mind By associating himself with the consciousness of the sense-organs, the self causes the body to awake the golden person the light that is pure intelligence, htranya-tnaya tva cattanya-jyohs svabhavah S

Sleep is the indispensable condition of physical health and mental sanity In sound sleep there is a respite from craving and aversions, fears and anxieties In that state the individual is obscurely at one with the divine ground of all being

the lonely swan he moves alone in the waking and dream states, in this world and the next eko jagrat svapnehaloka-para-lokadin gacchatity eka-hamsah S sah aham so'ham 'That I am', hamsa, a swan, the symbol of the spirit of the universe

12 pranena raksann avaram kuldyam bah%s kuldyad amrtai

carttvd,

sa iyate amrto yatra kdmam, hiran-mayah purusa eka- hamsah

IV. 3 M- Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 259

12. Guarding his low nest with the vital breath, the immortal moves out of the nest That immortal one goes wherever he likes, the golden person, the lonely bird.

avaram low, nikrstam. anekdsttci-samghatatvdd atyanta-bibhatsam § kulayam nest, nidam, iarlram S

iyate goes, gacchati S The eternal self goes wherever he desires

13. svapndnta uccavacam iyamano rupdm devah kurute bahunt titeva stribhih saha modamdnah jaksat, utevapi bhaydni

pasyan.

13 Tn the state of dream going up and down, the god makes many forms for himself, now as it were enjoying himself in the company of women or laughing or even beholding fearful sights.

svapndnte in the state of dream, svapnasthdne S. in the middle of a dream, svapna-madhye, anla-sabdo madhya-vaamah R.

14 aramam asya paiyanh, na tarn pasyati kas cam

tti torn ndyatam bodhayed ity ahufy, durbhisajyam hdsmai bhavah, yam esa na pratipadyate. atho khalv dhuh, jaganta-deia evdsyaisah, yam hi eva jdgrat pasyati, tdm supta th atrdyam ■purusah svayam-jyotir bhavati so'ham bhagavate sahasram daddmi, aia urdhvam vimoksaya bruhitt.

14 'Everyone sees his sport but himself no one ever sees There- fore they say that one should not wake him (the sleeping person) suddenly, for it is difficult to cure if he does not get back (rightly to his body) Others, however, say that (the state of sleep) is just his waking state for whatever objects he sees

11 j aWake ' those t00 ' he sees ' when as * e ?P> ( not so ) for in the dream state the person is self-illuminated ' Janaka said, 'I

give you a thousand (cows), Venerable Sir, please instruct me

further, for the sake of my liberation.'

himself no one ever sees everyone is aware of the experiences but no one sees the expenencer, regret is expressed that the self so near to us is yet unperceived by us* yac-chakya-darianam apy umanatji tam na paiyah, lokam praty anukrosam darsayah sruttk. §. one should not wake the sleeping person suddenly: this has reference to the popular belief that the self leaves the body m the dream state. ayaiam sleeping, gadha-suptam R

T$ vm * the theory of self-illumination it is said that the «ate ot dream is the same as that of waking as we see m dreams wnat we see m the waking state This is wrong because in dreams we senses cease to function, so only the light inherent in the self

1*

260 The Principal Upantsads T^IVNII/t3S

15 sa va esa etasmm samprasdde ratva carttva dr^9di r punyam ca pdpam ca, punah prattnyayam prattyony da svapnayatva, sa yat tatra kim cit paiyatt ananvagatat J{ § I bhavati, asango hy ayam purusa tit evam evattat, ydjiiavt so' ham bhagavate sahasram dadamt, ata urdhvam vimoksa bruhiti

15 'After having tasted enjoyment in this state of sleep, after having roamed about and seen good and evil . returns again as he came to the place from which he started (the place of sleep) to dream Whatever he sees in that state, he is not followed (affected) by it for this person is not attached (to anything) ' (Janaka said) 'Just so, Yajnavalkya, I give you a thousand (cows) Venerable Sir, please instruct me further, for the sake of my liberation

samprasdda deep sleep, the state of highest serenity, samyak prasldaty asmtnn ttt samprasadah £ The true nature of the self remains unaffected

pratinyayam—yathanyayam, yathagatam, m ayah, nyayah, ayanam ayah, mgamanam, pwnah piirva-gaman a-vaiparityena yad agamanam, sa prahnyayah, yathagatam punar agacchatity arthah §.

16 sa va esa etasmm svapne ratva carttva drsivatva punyam ca pdpam ca, punah, prattnyayam prattyony adravatt buddhdn- tdyaiva sa yat tatra kim at paiyatt, ananvagatas tena bhavati asango hy ayam, purusa iti evam evaitat, ydjmvalkya so'ham bhagavate sahasram dadamt, ata urdhvam vimoksdyavoa bruhtti

16 'After having tasted enjoyment in this state of dream, after having roamed about and seen good and evil, he returns again as he came to the place from which he started to the state of waking Whatever he sees in that state he is not followed (affected) by it for this person is not attached (to anything) ' (Janaka said) 'Just so, Yajnavalkya, I give you a thousand (cows) Venerable Sir, please instruct me further for the sake of my liberation '

buddhdntayatva the state of waking, jagartta-sthanaya 5

17, sa va e?« etasmm buddhante ratva carttva drsfvaiva punyam ca pdpam ca, punah prattnyayam prattyony adravatt svapndn- tdyatva

17 'After having had enjoyment m this state of waking, after having roamed about and seen good and evil, he returns again as he came to the place from which he started, the state of dream (or that of deep sleep)

IV. 3< 20 - Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 261

§ says that svapnanta may also be interpreted as deep sleep susuplt. The self is unaffected in all the three states of waking, dream and sleep avastha4raye'pi, asangatvam ananvagatatvam calmanah stddham cet A

18 tad, yatha mahdmatsya ubhe kiile armsamcarati, purvam caparam ca, evam evayam purusa etav ubhav antav anusamcarati, svapnantam ca buddhantam ca

18 'Even as a large fish moves along both banks of a river, the hither and the further, so also this person moves along both these states, the state of dream (or sleep) and the state of waking.

The self is different from the body and the organs In the waking state it appeals, through ignorance, as connected with attachments and death, in the dream state as connected with desire but free from the forms of death, in the state of deep sleep it is perfectly serene and unattached The sense of this passage is that the Self is by nature, eternal, free, enlightened and pure § Even as a large fish moves from one bank of a river to another, so does the self move between dreaming and waking

THE SELF IN DEEP SLEEP

19 tad yathdsmmn akaie iyeno va suparno va vipanpatya iranta.h samhatya paksau samlayayaiva dhnyaU, evam evayam purn$a etasma antaya dhavatt yatra na kam cana kamam kamayate, na kam cana svapnam pasyatt

19 'As a falcon or any other (swift) bird having flown around m the sky becomes weary, folds its wmgs and is borne down to its nest, even so this person hastens to that state (of self) where he desires no desires and sees ho dream

sumfoyaft nest nUah § The fatigue theory of sleep is suggested here.

20 ta va asyaita hita noma nadydh, yatha kesah sahasradha ohtnnah, tavatdntvind tisthanh, iuklasya, riilasya, pvngalasya, liantasya, hhtasya pumah, atha yatrainam ghnatwa, jvnantiva, AasitM vtcchayayati, gartam wa patatt, yad eva jagrad bhayam pasyah, tad atravidyayd manyate, atha yatra deva wa rdjeva; ahavi evedam, sarvo 'smiti manyate, so'sya paramo lokah

20 'In him, verily, are those channels called hita, which are as fine as a hair divided a thousandfold and filled with white, wue, yellow, green and Ted (fluids) Now when (he feels) as if

e were De “ig killed, as if he were being overpowered, as if he

262

The Principal Upamsads

IV 3 21

were pursued by an elephant, as if he were falling into a well, he thinks (imagines) through ignorance whatever fear he has seen (experienced) in the waking state But when he thinks that he is a god, as it were, that he is a king, as it were, that I am all this, that is his highest world

hitd See II 1 19, IV. 2 3 The subtle body is said to be m these channels

The place where the two selves unite is the heart. They have a path in common The vein susumna leads upwards from the heart to the top of the skull See C U VIII 6 6 When their union takes place, self-consciousness disappears as well as the distinction between the outer and the inner world The highest reality, the all-conscious- ness, free from fear and grief is reached

Dream states are traced to impressions of waking experiences Ignorance avidyd is not natural to the self, if so it cannot be removed even as heat and light cannot be removed from the sun m dtma-dharmo'vidyd na hi svdbhdvikasyocchittth kadacid apy upapadyate savitur ivausnya-prakdfayoh S

21 tad vd asyaitad aticchando'pdhatapapmdbhayam riipam tad yatM priyayd stnyd samparisvakto na bdhyam him cam veda ndntaram, evam'evdyam purusah prdpiendtmand samparis- vakto na bdhyam kirn cana veda ndntaram tad vd asyaitad a dpta-kdmam, dtma-kdmam, a-hdmam riipam iokdntaram /f '

21 This, venly, is his form which is free from c ravin g, free from evils, free from fear. As a man when m the embrace of his beloved wife knows nothing without or within, so the person when m the embrace of the intelligent self knows nothing without or within That, venly, is his form in which his desire is f ulfilled, m which the self is his desire, m which he is without .desire, free from any sorrow ^ /' ,<v

beyond desires chandah kamdh attgalah chando yasmdt riipal tad ahcchandam riipam S

Sokdniaram free from any sorrow. £oka-varjitam S

The analogy of man and wife is given to show that it is not a state of unconsciousness

We get on earth to the Kingdom of heaven In sex intercourse when it is rightly conceived, we have an act of pure delight which is not mere physical satisfaction but a psycho-spmtual communion The rich deep fulfilment of love between a man and a woman is a condition of earthly beatitude so simple, so natural and so real, that it is the happiest of all earthly conditions and many mystics employ this as the symbol of divine communion The mystic union of the finite and the divine is compared in this passage to the self-

IV. 3> 2 3 Brhad-arayyaka Upanisad 263

oblivion of earthly lovers where each is the other. It is a fuller identity than the mere sympathetic understanding of two individuals

In Vaisnava literature the soul pining for union with God is said to be the bride and the divine love which sanctifies, purifies and elevates the soul to itself is said to be the bridegroom.

St Bernard speaks of the highest contemplation as spiritual marriage which impels the soul to go forth to bear spiritual offspring to the Lord Richard of St Victor, St Bernard's contemporary, dwells upon four phases of spiritual marriage— espousals, marriage, wedlocks, child-bearing John Ruysbroeck's chief work is called The Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage St John of the Cross says The end I have m view is the divme embracing, the union of the soul with the divme substance In this loving obscure knowledge God unites Himsdf with the soul eminently and divmely ' Ascent of Carmel II 24

God, for some Sufis, is the Eternal Fermnine The Muslim poet Wall of Delhi composed love poems in which the lover is God and the loved one sought is the human soul invited to unite with God

22 atra pitii'pitd bhavatt, mata'mata, lokah alokah, deva adevah, veda avedah, atra steno'steno bhavatt bhruijahabhrunahd, candab'candalah, paulkaso'paulkasah, iramano'sramandh, tapaso'tdpasah, ananvdgatam punyena, ananvdgatam pdpena, firno hi tadd sarvan sokdn hrdayasya bhavatt.

22 'There (in that state) a father is not a father, a mother is not a mother, the worlds are not the worlds, the gods are not the gods, the Vedas are not the Vedas There a thief is not a thief, the murderer is not a murderer, a candala is not a canddla, a paulkasa is not a paulkasa, a mendicant is not a mendicant, an ascetic is not an ascetic He is not followed (affected) by good, he is not followed by evil for then he has passed beyond all the sorrows of the heart

The state is beyond empirical distinctions, avidya-kama-karma- vimrmuktah S

It exceeds the limitations of caste and stages of life WirRnaha murderer of a noble Brahmana, vartsfha-brahma-haiiid A.

It also refers to one who kills an embryo, one who produces an abortion

The Self is untouched either by good or by evil ajid the sorrows of the heart cease to be sorrows and are turned into joy

23 yad vai tan na paiyah, paiyan vai tan na jpaiyati; 11a hi draslur~dr^thTv^Trihpd vidyate, avmdiitmiTna hrtad dvitiyam osti, tato'nyad vibhaktam yat paiyet

23 Verily, when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does

264 The Principal Upamsads IV 3. 27.

not see, he is, venly, seeing, though he does not see for there is no cessation of the seeing of a seer, because of the imperish- ability (of the seer). There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him that he could see

Even m the state of deep sleep when the eye and the other senses are at rest, the self is the seer, though he does not see with the eyes The seer can never lose the character of seeing, even as fire cannot lose the character of burning so long as it is fire The self sees, by its own light, like the sun, even when there is no second, no object but the self that could be seen, the seer is svayam-jyotth self-light viparilopah destruction, vinaiah, alma avmasl £

R adopting the views of Ramanuja says, 'jnaiur dharmabhiUa- jnanasya mtyatvat vmaso nash

24 yad vat tan na jighratt, jighran vat tan na jtghratt. na hi ghratur ghrdter vipanlopo vtdyate, avindsttvat, na tu tad dvittyam ash, tato'nyad vibhaktam yaj jighret

24 'Verily, when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does not smell, he is, venly, smelling, though he does not smell for there is no cessation of the smelling of a smeller, because of the im- perishability (of the smeller) There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him that he could smell

25 yad vai tan na rasayatt, rasayan vat tan na rasayatt na hi rasayitu rasayater vipanlopo vidyate, avinahtvat, na tu tad dvittyam astt, tato' nyad vibhaktam yad rasayet

25 'Venly, when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does not taste, he is, venly, tasting though he does not taste, for there is no cessation of the tasting of a taster, because of the im- perishability (of the taster) There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him that he could taste

26 yad vai tan na vadatt, vadan vat tan na vadatt, na hi vaktur vakier vipanlopo vidyate, avmaiitvat, na tu tad dvittyam ash, tato'nyad vibhaktam yad vadet

26 'Venly, when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does not speak, he is, venly, speaking though he does not speak, for there is no cessation of the speaking of a speaker, because of the impenshability (of the speaker) There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him to which he could speak

27. yad vat tan na Srnoti, irnvan vai tan na trnoti, na ht

IV 3 3 1 * Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 265

frotuh fritter viparilopo vidyate, avindditvdt; na tu tad dvitiyam asti, tato'nyad vibhaktam yat ipiuyat

27 'Venly, -when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does not hear, he is, verily, hearing, though he does not hear, for there is no cessation of the hearing of a hearer, because of the imperishability (of the hearer). There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him which he could hear

28 yad vat tan na manute, manvdna vat tan na mamtie, na h nmntw water viparilopo vidyate, avinaiitoat; na tu tad dvitiyam asti, tato'nyad vibhaktam yan manvita.

28 'Venly, when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does not think, he is, verily, thinking, though he does not think, for there is no cessation of the thinking of a thinker, because of the imperishability (of the thinker). There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him of which he could think

29. yad vai tan na spriati, spriait vat tan na spriati, na hi sprastuhsprster viparilopo vidyate, avindsitvdt, na tu tad dvitiyam ash, tato'nyad vibhaktam yat sprset.

29 'Venly, when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does not touch, he is, verily, touching, though he does not touch, for there is no cessation of the touching of a toucher, because of the imperishability (of the toucher) There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him which he could touch.

30. yad vai tan na mjdnah, vtjdnan vai tan na vijanati, m h wjnatur vijndter viparilopo vidyate, avtnaittvdt; na tu tad dvitiyam asti, tato'nyad vibhaktam yad vijamyat.

30 'Venly, when there (in the state of deep sleep) he does not know, he is, venly, knowing though he does not know for there is no cessation of the knowing of a knower, because of the imperishability (of the knower). There is not, however, a second, nothing else separate from him which he could know.

31 yatra vdnyad voa sydt, tatranyo'nyat paiyet, anyo' nyaj Pgitret, anyo'nyad rasayet, anyo'nyad vadet, anyo'nyat irnuyat, anyo nyan manviia, anyo'nyat spriet, anyo'nyad vijdniyat.

3X 'Venly, when there is, as it were, another there one ™8W see the other, one might smell the other, one might taste wje other, one might speak to the other, one might hear the otner, one might think of the other, one might touch the otter, one might know the other

266

The Principal Upanisads IV. 3 33.

He does not see or smell or taste or speak or hear or think or touch or know, for there is nothing separate from him, there is no second to him, yet he sees, smells, tastes, speaks, hears, thinks, touches, knows for he is one with seeing, smelling, tasting, speaking, hearing, thinking, touching and knowing

32 salila eko drastddvatto bliavah, esa brahma-lokah, samrad ih hainam anuiaidsa ydjnavalkyah, esdsya parama gatih, esdsya parama sampat, eso'sya paramo lokah, eso'sya parama anandah, elasyavoanandasyanydm bhutam mdtrdm upapvantt

32 'He becomes (transparent) like water, one, the seer without duality This is the world of Brahma, Your Majesty ' Thus did Yajfiavalkya instruct (Janaka) 'This is his highest goal, this is his highest treasure, this is his highest world, this is his greatest bliss. On a particle of this very bliss other creatures live '

like water sahla iva salilah §

transparent svacchibhutah £

one because there is no second, dvitiyasyabhavdt S

the seer the vision which is identical with the light of the self is

never lost dfster avipariluptcdvdt, dtma-jyoti-svabhdvdyd S

33 sa yo manusydndm rdddhah samrddho bhavah, anyesdm adhipatih, sarvair mdnusyakatr bhogath sampannatamah, sa manusyanam parama anandah; atha ye iatam manusyanam anandah, sa ekah pitfnam jitalokdndm anandah; atha ye iatam pxtfnam pta-lokandm anandah, sa eko gandharva-loka anandah, atha ye iatam gandharva-loka anandah, sa eka karma-devanam anandah, ye karmana devatvam abhisampadyante; atha ye iatam karma-devanam anandah, sa eka djdna-devandm anandah, yai ca itrotrtyo'vrjmo 'kdma-hatah, atha ye iatam djdna-devan&m anandah, sa ekah praja-pah-loka anandah, yai ca irotnyo' vrjmo' kdma-hatah, atha ye iatam praja-pah-loka anandah, sa eko brakma-loka anandah, yai ca irotriyo'vrjmo 'kdma-hatah, atkatsa eva parama anandah, yai ca irotnyo 'vtjtno' kdma-hatah, atkatsa eva parama anandah esa brahma-lokah, samrad, iti hovdca ydjnavalkyah so 'ham bhagavate sahasram dadamt, ata urdhvam vimoksdyaiva bruhiti atra ha ydpiavalkyo bibhayam cakdra, medhdvl rdjd, sarvebhyo mdntebkya udarautstd ttt

33 'If one is healthy m body, wealthy, lord over others, lavishly provided with all human enjoyments, that is the highest bliss of men This human bliss multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of the bliss for the fathers who have won

IV. 3> 33- Brhad-arayyaka Upanisad 267

their world. The bliss of these fathers who have won their world multiplied a hundred times makes oneumt of the bliss of the gand- harva world. The bliss of the gandharva world multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of the bliss of the gods by action, those who attain their divine status by (meritorious) action. The bliss of the gods by action multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of the bliss of the gods by birth as well as of one who is versed in the Vedas, who is without sin and not overcome by desire. The bliss of the gods by birth multiplied, a hundred times makes one unit of the bliss in the world of Prajd-paU, as well as of one who is versed m the Vedas, who is without sin and not overcome by desire The bliss m the world of Prajd-patt multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of the bliss in the world of Hiranya- garbha as well as of one who is versed in the Vedas, who is without sin and not overcome by desire. This is the highest bliss. This is the world of Brahma, Your Majesty,' said Yajnavalkya. {Janaka said) 'I will give you, Venerable Sir, a thousand (cows) please instruct me further for the sake of my liberation ' At this Yajnavalkya was afraid that this intelligent king should drive him to (the exposition of) the ends of his convictions

See TU. II. 8. Those who live within the bonds of ignorance experience but a small portion of the infinite bliss raddhah healthy, perfect of body, samsiddhah, avikalah, sama- gravayavah S

tooinya one versed in the iruti, the Veda Samkara, the com- mentator of Kahdasa's Sakuntala quotes 'Birth gives the title of firahmana, the sacramental rites the title of the twice-born, knowledge the title of mpra and the three together make a irotriya ' jawmana. orahtnam jneyah, samskarair duija wyate, miyaya yah vipratvam. tnbhthsrotriyaucyaU-

Vedtc learning, sinlessness and freedom from selfish desire are essential for the enjoyment of the higher forms of bliss Cp 'The sense-pleasures of the world and the great joys of heaven are not of desire ?” Slxteenth P 31 * ol the bllss that oaxas& f rom ^ cessation

yac ca kama-sukham lokeyac ca divyam mahat sukham tma-hsaya-sukhasyaite narhatah sodaitm kalam

%Z, a f r Z td * ihiiavSn $ not because he was lacking in ab^hty 4 or Knowledge but because he felt that under the pretext of the boon he all m° V m f 'J 16 raises new problems every tune and wishes to gain padtisJr°J 6 SatVcm madi y am vijiianam kama-fra&na-vyajeno-

268

The Principal Upanisads IV 3. 36.

34 sa vd esa, etasmm svapndnte ratva carttvd drstvatva punyam ca papain ca, punah prahnyayam pratiyony adravatt buddhdntdyaiva

34. 'After having had enjoyment in this state of dream (or sleep), after having roamed about and seen good and evil, he returns again as he came to the place from which he started to the state of waking

See IV 3 16

THE SELF AT DEATH

35. tad yathd 'nah su-samdhitam utsarjad yayat, evam evayath iarira atma prdjtiendtmandnvarudha utsarjam yqh, yatraitad wrdhva ttcchvasi bhavati

35 'Just as a heavily loaded cart moves creaking, even so the self in the body mounted by the self of intelligence moves creaking, when one is breathing with difficulty (i.e. when one is about to expire).

the self tn the body the subtle body which moves between this and the next world as between the waking and the dream states, through birth and death consisting respectively m the association with and dissociation from the body and its organs' yas svapna-buddhantav tva janma-marandbhydm thatoka-paralokdv anusancarah £. breathing with difficulty gasping for breath. The body groans as a heavily laden cart groans under its burden

36 sa yatrdyam ammdnam nyeti, jarayd vopatapata vdni- m&nam mgacchati, tad yathdmram vd udumbaram vd pippalant vd bandhandt pramucyate, evam evdyam puru$a ebhyo' ngebhyah sampramttcya punah pratmydyam pratiyony ddr avail prdndyavoa

36 'When this (body) gets to thinness, whether he gets to thinness through old age or disease, just as a mango or a fig or a fruit of the peepul tree releases itself from its bond (gets detached from its stalk), even so this person frees himself from these limbs and returns again as he came to the place from which he started back to (new) life

The dying man separates himself from his gross body even as a fruit separates itself from its stalk He goes back to his new abode the same way he came and there assumes another body in which to begin a new life

The subjection of the body to old age and disease is mentioned to induce the spirit of renunciation, vatrdgydrtham S

IV. 4. i.

Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad

269

37. tad yatha rajdnam dydntam ugrdh, pratyenasdh, siita- grdmanyo'nnaih pdnair dvasatliaih pratikalpante: ayam dydti, ayam agacchaffii, evam haivam-vidant sarvdnt bhutdni pratikal- pante, tdam brakmdydti, idam dgacchatiti.

37. 'Just as for a king who is coming, policemen, magistrates, chariot drivers, leaders of the village wait for him with food, dnnk and lodgings, saying, “here he comes, heije he comes,” even so for him who knows this, all beings wait for him saying, “here comes Brahman, here he approaches.” '

ugrah- policemen, jatt-vtSesah, krura-karmano va. £ pratpenasah- magistrates, taskaradi dandanadau myuktah. S leaders of the village, grdma-netdro gramanyah, S

38. tad yatha rajdnam prayiydsantam, ugrdh pratyenasah, stita-grdmanyo'bMsamdyanti, evam evaimam dimdnam, antukdle sarve prdnd abhtsamdyanti, yatraitad urdhvocchvasi bhavaU.

38. Just as policemen, magistrates, chanot-dnvers, leaders of the village gather round a king who is departing, even so do all the breaths (or senses) gather round the self at the end, when one is breathing with difficulty (when he is about to die).

Fourth Brahmana THE SOUL OF THE UNRELEASED AFTER DEATH

1. sa yatrdyam atmd-abalyam nyetya sammoham tva nyeti, athainam etc prdna abhisamdyanti; sa etas tejomdtrdh sama- ohyadadano hrdayam evdmavakrdmatt, sa yatraisa caksusah ptmqah pard4 parydvartate, athdrupajno bhavatt.

1. When this self gets to weakness, gets to confusedness, as it were, then the breaths gather round him. He takes to himself those particles of light and descends into the heart. When the forms 1 m ^ tUrnS awa ^' tilen he Decomes non-knowing of

When his body grows weak and he becomes apparently un- S° ous > the dying man gathers his senses about him, completely wtncliaws their powers and descends into the heart S«s to weakness it is the body that becomes weak. Weakness-is weak 5 apphed t0 the self > which ' being formless, cannot become «* ' dehasya daurbalyam, tad atmana eva daurbalyam tty

pacaryaU: na hy asau svato' mUrtatvad abala-bhavam gacchah. g.

270

The Principal Upant$ads

IV 4 2

So also the self does not get confused for it is the eternal self- luminous intelligence, mtya-cattanya-jyotts-svabkdvatvdt 5

At the moment of death the person in the eye, 1 e pram, departs So one ceases to perceive forms The dying man becomes single The principle of intelligence (vtjnana) after having absorbed all the functions of consciousness proceeds to continue in a new life

2 eki-bhavatt, na pasyatt, tty ahuh, eki-bhavatt, na pghrati tty ahuh, ekl-bhavati na rasayah, tty ahuh, eki-bhavatt, na vadah, tty ahuh, eki-bhavatt na srnott, tty ahuh, eki-bhavatt, na mamtte, tty ahuh, ekt-bliavatt, na sprsati, tty ahuh, eki-bhavatt, na vijandtt, tty ahuh tasya haitasya hrdayasyagram pradyotate, tena pradyotenatsa atma mikramati, cak?u?o vd murdhno vd anyebhyo vd sarira-deiebhyah, tarn utkrdmantam prdno'nutkrd- mati, prdnam anutkrdmantam sarve prdnd aniitkrdmanti, sa vtjiidno bhavati, sw vtjndnam evdnvavakrdmaU, tarn vidya- karmani samanvdrdbhete purva-prajiid ca

2 'He is becoming one, he does not see, they say, he is becoming one, he does not smell, they say, he is becoming one, he does not taste, they say, he is becoming one, he does not speak, they say, he is becoming one, he does not hear, they say, he is becoming one, he does not think, they say, he is becoming one, he does not touch, they say, he is becoming one, he does not know, they say The point of his heart becomes lighted up and by that light the self departs either through the eye or through the head or through other apertures of the body. And when he thus departs, life departs after him And when life thus departs, all the vital breaths depart after it He becomes one with intelligence What has intelligence departs with him His knowledge and his work take hold of him as also his past experience.

Every organ becomes united with the subtle body, Itngatman S pftrva-prajM past experience, former intelligence, the results of his past life, iurvdnubhiila-vtsaya-prajnd, atita karma-plialdnubhava- vasana S S refers to those who are clever in painting though they had no practice in this life and traces their skill to past experience These impressions of the past, under the control of knowledge and work, stretch out like a leech from the body and build another body in accordance with past work vidya-karma-pitrva-vdsana-laksanam elal tntayam iakatika sambhdra-stJidniyam para-loka-palhcyam R

The individual ls born according to the measure of his under- standing Aitareya Aranyahall 3 2 See also Praina I V 11

Kahdasa in his SakuntalS, Act IV, says that when a being who is

IV. 4 4 Brhad-aranyaka Upantsad 271

(in all other respects) happy becomes conscious of an ardent longing, when he sees beautiful objects or hears sweet sounds, then m all probability, without being aware of it, be remembers with his mind the friendships of former fives, firmly rooted in his heart

ramyam vlksya madhurami ca ni&amya iabdan paryutsuki bliavah

yat stikhvno'pt jantuh tac cetasd smarah ntinam abodhapUrvam bhavasthirani jananantam

sauhrdam.

3 ttidyatha trnajalayuka, trnasyantam galvd, anyam akramam akramya, atmanam upasathharatt, mam evayam atma, tdam iariram mhatya, avxdam gamayitva, anyam akramam akramya, atmanam upasamharah.

3. Just as a leech (or caterpillar) when it has come to the end of a blade of grass, after having made another approach (to another blade) draws itself together towards it, so does this self, after having thrown away this body, and dispelled ignorance, after having another approach (to another body) draw itself together (for making the transition to another body).

4. tad yathd peiaskari peiaso matram updddya, anyan navataram kalydnataram riipam tanute, evam evayam atma, warn ianraih nihatya, avidydm gamayiiva, anyan navataram kalyanataram rupam kurute, pitryam va, gandharvam va, aatvatk va, prajapatyam va, brahmam va anyesam va bhutanam,

4. And as a goldsmith, taking a piece of gold turns it into another, newer and more beautiful shape, even so does this self, after having thrown away this body and dispelled its ignorance, fl !j, Unt0 mmself mother, newer and more beautiful shape ute that of the fathers or of the gandharvas, or of the gods or KPraja-pati or of Brahma or of other beings

goldmtth' pdah suvarpam, tat karoMi peiaskari 1 mmerfom samsthana-viiesam, dehantaram S nf £T«f aw more beautiful Beauty of form indicates beauty Zf JT e cannot have beaut y of form with an evil nature TWytaye na rupam- Kalidasa's Kumdra-sambhava V 36 Malh- X , other passages Beauty of form and good qualities go to- bdttw y f ^ taira 8 unS h}iavanti Those of good form do not hmSr n , Ways ' na SKra P* h P«P<i-samacara. hhavanti In Dasa- is «» *” A 11 u said ' se y am sk r tih «* vyabhicarah Slam, such

Bp * ' tte charact er cannot be different of th» tfTJi? ^ n *° l of the Ananda, the beloved disciple

Js hZSSP*' !v d t0 the Master ' Half of the hol y We. 0 Lord, mendship w th the beautiful, association with the beautiful

27 2 The Principal Upanisads TV. 4. 6.

communion with the beautiful ' 'It is not so, Ananda, it is not so,' said the Master. 'It is not half of the holy life; it is the whole of the holy life.' Samyutta Nikdya V. 2

5 sa va ayam alma brahma, vijMnamayo manomayah pr&na- mayai caksurmayah, frotramayah, prlhivimaya dpomayo vdyu~ maya akaiamayas tejomayo'tejomayah kdmamayo'kdmamayah, krodhamayo 'krodhamayo dkarmamayo'dharmamayah sarva~ mayahtadyad ctat; idam-mayah adomaya ill yathdkdnyalhdcdri talhd bhavatt, sddhukdn sadhur bhavah, pdpakdri papo bhavati; punyah punyena kannana bhavati, pdpah papena; athau khalv dhuh, kdmamaya cvdyam ptirtt$a ttt, sa yathdkanw bhavati, tat kratur bhavati, yal kralur bhavati, tat karma hirute, yat karma kurutc, tat abhisampadyatc

5 'That self is, indeed, Brahman, consisting of (or identified with) the understanding, mind, life, sight, hearing, earth, water, air, ether, light and no light, desire and absence of desire, anger and absence of anger, righteousness and absence of righteousness and all things This is what is meant by saying, (it) consists of this (what is perceived), consists of that (what is interred) According as one acts, according as one behaves, so does he become The doer of good becomes good, the doer of evil becomes evil One becomes virtuous by virtuous action, bad by bad action Others, however, say that a person consists of desires As is his desire so is his will; as is his will, so is the deed he does, whatever deed he does, that he attains.

See Mann II 4 Cp Plato 'Such as are the trend of our desires and the nature of our souls, just such each of us becomes ' Lam. 904 C

kratuh will, resolve, adhyavasayah, m&cayah S

attains gains the fruit thereof, tadiyam phalam abhsampadyate £.

tasya phalam ca prapnoh R

6 tad esa iloko bhavatt

tad eva saktah saha karmanaiti hngam mano yatra nisakiam asya,

prdpydntam karmanas tasya yat kim ceha karoiy ayam tasmdl lokat punar aih asmat lokdya karmane ttt mi kdmayamanah, athakdmayamdnah, yo'kdmo mskdma dpta-kama dtma-kdmah, na tasya prdnd utkrdmantt, brahmaiva san brahmapyea

6 'On this there is the following verse “The object to which the mind is attached, the subtle self goes together with the

IV 4 7- Brhad-aranyaka Upamsad 273

deed, being attached to it alone. Exhausting the results of whatever works he did in this world he comes again from that ■world, to this world for (fresh) work ” This (is for) the man who desires /But the man who does not desire, he who is without desire, who is freed from desire, whose desire is satisfied, whose desire is the self, his breaths do not depart Being Brahman he goes to Brahman.

Desire is the root of empirical existence- samsara-mfila

The subtle body is called mind because mind is the chief factor

of the subtle body tnanah pradhanatudt hngasya mono hngam tty

veyate S

He who has desires continues subject to rebirth

The man free from desires realises Brahman even here: sa ca mdvdn dpta-kamah atma-kamataya ihavoa brahmabhiitali S What the blind need is to receive sight Sight is not change of place or trans- porting into another world. One need not wait for the death of the body, na sarira-pStottara-kalam. Freedom is the cessation of ignorance, awdya-mvrtti He in whom desire is stilled suffers no rebirth

7 tad esa iloko bhavati yadd sarve pramucyante kamaye'sya hrdx intah, atha martyo'mrto bhavati, atra brahma samasnute lit tad yathdhinirvlayanl valmike mrta pratyastd sayita, evam eoedam iariram iete athayam asariro'mrtah pra.no brahmaiva, tya eva, so'liam bhagavate sahasram dadami, iti hovaca janako vaidehah

7 'On this there is the following verse : “When all the desires that dwell m the heart are cast away, then does the mortal unmorta1 ' t*” 31 he attains Brahman here (in this very body) ” Just as the slough of a snake lies on an anthill, dead, jast off, even so lies this body. But this disembodied, immortal we is Brahman only, is light indeed, Your Majesty ' 'I give you, venerable Sir, a thousand cows,' said Janaka (King) of Videha.

Se&KafltaYl. 14.

Y&f^- cast w*-y, prattksipta.

vyiien we identify ourselves with the body under the influence of W«f j “wo*, we are embodied and mortal When we

ZmHj odiei we become immortal, as we are no longer fa as ^ embodmen t kama-karma-prayukta-sarirattna-bhavena cah^rk arlr0 mar ^ as ca, tad vtyogad athedamm asarlrah, ata eva

hsht tndeed > a 3nana-laksanandhakara-prattbhafa eva R.

274 The Principal Upani$ads IV 4 9.

8 tad etc sloka bhavanh: anuh pantha vitatah purdnah, mam sprsto'nuvitto mayaiva, Una dhira, apt yantt brahmavidah svargam lokam tta urdhvam mmuktah 8 'On this there are the following verses “The narrow ancient path which stretches far away, has been touched (found) by me, has been realised by me By it, the wise, the knowers of Brahman go up to the heavenly world after the fall of this body, being freed (even while living)

anuh narrow, being difficult to comprehend, silksmah dumpiey- atvat §

vitatah stretching far away, vistirnah vispasta-tarana-heiulvad va V is vitarah leading across

The teachers are the path-finders The Buddha speaks of the ancient way, the wayfarer bound for home 'from which there is no coming back again ' Rum! attributes to Jesus, the Logos, 'For the true believers I become a bridge across the river * Mathnawi IV 10 70 The Bodhisattva makes of himself a bridge, atlanam samkatnam katua, by which we cross Having first crossed over himself, he serves as a bridge for others 'I am the way ' John XIV 6 touched by me found by me, maya-labdhah § ttah asmac charira-patad 5

They are freed even while in the body fivanta eva vimuMSs santah S

Cp Taithnya Brahmana *He who makes the self (atman) his waynnder is no longer stained by evil action ' III 12 9 8

Sometimes the verse is interpreted differently They go beyond the heavenly world There is a reading to this effect iena dhira apt yantt brahma-mda utkramya svargam lokam tto vtmuktah

g tasmtn suklam uta mlam dhuh, ptngalam, hantam, lohitam ca

esa pantha brahmana hdmtvtttah tenatti brahmavit punyakrt iatjasas ca

g ' “On that path they say there is white, blue, yellow, green and red That path was found by a Brahmana and by it goes the knower of Brahman, the doer of right and the shining one ”

These colours do not affect the path of realisation dariana-margasya ca sukladi-vamasambhavat These paths belong to the world of empirical existence, na te moksa-margah, samsara-vtsaya eva hi te S brahmana by a Brahmana pardtnia-svarQpenaiva bralimanena tyak- ta-sarvatsanena S

the doer of right £ finds it difficult to uphold his view that spintual

IV. 4 I2 - Brhad-dranyaka Upani?ad

275

wisdom and practical activity are incompatible He cites a number

of passages from M.B., which support his view.

apnnya-punyo parameyam punar-bhava-nirbhayah Santas samnydstno ydnh tasmai moksatmane namah XII 46.56. 'Salutation to that embodiment of liberation whom serene monks,

fearless about rebirth, attain after the cessation of the effects of

their good and bad deeds '

mrahsam, andrambham, mmamaskaram, astuhm akiinam, kslna-karmdnam, tarn devd brahmanam viduh XII. 269 34

“The gods consider him to be a knower of Brahman who has no desires, who undertakes no work, who does not bow (to others) or praise (any one), who remains unchanged, whose work is exhausted ' naitaariam brahmanasyastt vittam yathaikata, samata, satyata ca Ularn, sthihm, danda-nidhdnam, Srjavam, tatas tataS coparamah hiyabjtyah XII 174. 37. 'For a knower of Brahman, there is no wealth comparable to the sense of oneness, the sense of equality, truthfulness, virtue, stead- fastness, non-injury, integrity and withdrawal from all activities '

That the knowers of Brahman are doers of good is said by way of eulogy. This view of S is not the obvious meaning of the text which seems to suggest jndna-karmasamuccaya.

10 andham tamah prawianti ye vidydm updsaie tato bhuya %va te tamah ya u vidydydm ratah.

10 'Into blind darkness enter they who worship ignorance; into greater darkness than that, as it were, they that delight m knowledge (enter) '

See Ua 9. § means by avidya works, and by knowledge the ritual partoftheVedas

vidyfiyam- avidyd-vastu-prattpadtkayam karmarthayam trayydm S

11. ananda noma te lokafy, andhena tamasdvrtdh tarns te pretydbhgacchantt avidvdmso'biidho janah

11. Those worlds covered with blind darkness are called joyless To them after death go those people who have not Knowledge, who are not awakened

S&Kathal 3 Jifl 3> «d awakened devoid of the knowledge of the self, atmdvagama- wrptah. S pratyag-atma-vidya-tenyah R.

atmdnam ced wjamyad ayam asmiti purusah *tm tcchan, kasya kdmdya iariram anusamjvaret.

276 The Principal Upanisads IV. 4 14

12 If a person knows the self as 'I am this,' then wishing what, and for desire of what should he suffer in the body?

should suffer, santapyet, sarlra-tapam anutapyeta £

What craving can be left in him that he should take to himself another body, full of suffering, to satisfy iV

13 yasyanuvittah pratibuddha dtmasmm samdehye gahane

pravtstdh,

sa visva-krt, sa hi sarvasya karta, tasya lokak sa u loha eva

13 “Whoever has found and has awakened to the self that has entered into this perilous inaccessible place (the body), he is the maker of the universe, for he is the maker of all His is the world, indeed he is the world itself

anuvittah found, anulabdhah &

prattbuddah- awakened, directly realised, saksatkrtah §

samdehye perilous, subject to many dangers anekanariJm-samkafo-

pacaye S

gahane inaccessible, with hundreds and thousands of obstacles to obtaining enlightenment through (incrimination, aneka-sata-saha- sra-mveka-vijiiana-pralipaksa-visame § loka world According to S the Self, the Universal Self

14 ihaiva santo'tJui vidmas tad vayam, na cei avedtr maliatT

vinastih

ye tad viduh, amrtas te bhavanti, atketare duhkham evapi- yanh

14 Venly, while we are here we may know this if (we know it) not we would be ignorant, great is the destruction Those who know this become immortal while others go only to sorrow.

avediJr ignorant apianam bhavah R

The Eternal may be realised even while we live m the ephemeral body To fail to realise him is to live m ignorance, to be subject to birth and death The knowers of Brahman are immortal, others continue m the region of sorrow

Cp the words in the Homeric hymn to Demeter written about the beginning of the sixth century b c in Attica 'Blessed among men who dwell on earth is he who has seen these things, but he who is uninitiated and has no part m the rites has never an equal lot when he has died and passed beneath the dank darkness ' Lines 480 ff Plutarch quotes from Sophocles 'Thnce blessed are those mortals who have seen these mysteries before they come to Hades, for to them alone is granted true life All that is evil besets the rest ' W K C Guthne The Greeks and their Gods (1950), p xui

IV. 4 19 Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad 277

15. yadaitam anupaiyah atmanam devam anjasd, Uanam bhuta-bhavyasya, na tato vijugupsate

15. If one clearly beholds him as the self, as God, as the lord of what has been and what will be, he does not shrink away from him.

he does not shrink he is not afraid, he does not wish to hide himself from the Supreme

16 yasmdd arvak samvatsarah ahobhih panvartate, tad deva jyotisam jyotih ayur hopdsate'mrtam

16 That in front of which the year revolves with its days, that the gods worship as the light of lights, as life immortal

ayuk- kfe-pnnciple, sawatydnt-prdnam-hetUr-bMtam R.

17 yasmm paiica panca-jandh dkdias ca praitsthitah, tarn eoa. manya atmanam, vidvdn brahmd'mrto'mtiam.

17 That in which the five groups of five and space are established, that alone I regard as the self Knowing that immortal Brahman I am immortal

The five groups are the Gandkarvas or celestial singers, the fathers, the gods, the demons and the Rdksasas or Titans space the unmaiufested principle, avyakrtdkhyah S

18. prdnasya prdnam uta caksusas cak$uh uta irotrasya srotram,

mamso ye mano viiuh, te mctkyur brahma purdnam agryam.

18. They who know the life of life, the eye of the eye, the ear of the ear and the mind of the mind, they have realised the ancient primordial Brahman

Kena I. 2

hJh? dlSerent organs do not function if they are not inspired £ tfte ener gy of Brahman 'Divested of the light of the self which terf*/ ^ tem g eilce *ey are like wood or clods of earth ' svatap

h 1 T' sam5nt ht tSm caitanyatma-jyotis-sunydm. § mctRyuh bwe Te3 j 1S z&,niicayenajnatavantah S

x 9 manasaivdnudraslavyam, natha ndnasti him cana: wrtyoh sa mrtyum dpnahya iha ndneva paiyati

divL? rr by the mmd B 11 10 be perceived In it there is no ersity. He goes from death to death, who sees in it, as it

zy8 The Principal Upantsads IV 4 22

The mind purified by the knowledge of the Supreme Truth and the instructions of the teacher directly realises Brahman paramartha^Mna-saimkrtendcdryopade&a-purvakam ca. S Again, 'the mind refined by the subjugation of the body, the mind and the senses and equipped with the teaching of the scriptures and the teacher forms the instrument by which the self may be seen sastrdcdryopadesa-jamta-sama-damddi-samskrlam mana dtma-darsane kdranam S B G II 21

See Hatha IV 10-11 from death to death from birth to birth, samsarat samsaram R

20 ekadhaivdnudrastavyam etad aprameyam dhruvam, mrajah para akdsad aja dtmd mahan dhruvah

20 This indemonstrable and constant being can be realised as one only The self is taintless, beyond space, unborn, great and constant

as one only as homogeneous pure intelligence without any break in it, like space vijndfia-ghanaikarasa-prakdrendkdiavanmranlarena S Duality is essential for knowledge, as the self is one and there is nothing beside it, it is not an object of demonstration anyena hanyal pramiyate, idatn to ekam eva, ato 'prameyam § dhruvam constant, mtyam, kiltastham avicah § mrajah taintless, vtgata-rajah £ rdgddt-do§a-rahitah. R

21. tarn eva dhiro vijnaya prajndm kurvita brdhmanah ndnudhydydd bahun sabddti, vaco vigldpanam hi tat tti.

21 Let a wise Brahmana after knowing him alone, practise (the means to) wisdom Let him not reflect on many words, for that is mere weariness of speech

vijiihya knowing by means of the study of the scriptures and logical reflection sravana-manandbhyamjnatva R prajndm mdtdhydsanam

mgldpanam weariness, visesena gldm-karam srama-karam hi § The Real cannot be known by vain and idle arguments

22 sa vd esa -mahan aja alma yo'yam vijiidnamayah prdne?u; ya eso'ntar-hrdaya dkdsah tasnttn seta, sarvasya vast, sarva- 'syesdnah, sarvasyadhipahh, sa na sddhund karmatid bhtiydn no evdsddhutid kaniydn esa sarvesvarak, esa bhutddhipatth, esa bhutapdlah esa setur vidharana esdm lokdndm asambhedaya. tarn etam veddnuvacanena brahmana vmdisanti, yaptena, ddnena, tapasdndsakena, etam eva vtdttvd mttmr bhavatt, etam eva pravrdjmo lokam tcchantah pravrajantt. etadd ha stna vai tat piirve vidvamsah prajdm na kdmayante him prajaya

IV. 4- 2Z. Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad 279

karisydinah, yesam no'yam aimdyam loka iti. U ha sma i>utrai$andyas ca vitiaisattdyds ca lokaisandyas ca vyutthdya, atha bhiksd-caryam caranti; yd hy eva putraisand sd mttaisana, yd vittaisand sd lokaisana; ubke hy ete esane eva bhavaiah sa esa nett nety atmd; agrhyah, na hi grhyaU, astryah, na hi Siryate; asangah, na h% sajyate; asito na vyathate, na risyati; dam « haivatte na tarata tt%, atdh pdpam akaravam iti, atah kalydnam dkaravam iti; ubhe u haivaisa ete taraii, nainam krtdkrte tapatah.

22 Venly, he is the great unborn Self who is this (person) consisting of knowledge among the senses In the space within the heart lies the controller of all, the lord of all, the ruler of alL He does not become greater by good works nor smaller by evJ works. He is the bridge that serves as the boundary to keep the different worlds apart. Him the Brahmanas seek to know by the study of the Veda, by sacrifices, by gifts, by penance, by fasting. On knowing Him^m truth, one becomes an ascetic. Desiring Hun only as their worlds, monks wander forth Verily, because they know this, the ancient (sages) did not wish for offspring What shall we do with offspring (they said), we who have attained this Self, this world. TheyJiavj^^enjibDye the d esire for sons, the_desrre for wealth, the desire for_worids, led thelSe of a^mendic^trFor^the desire for sons is tiiejiesire for*weaIth”andLthe desire for wealth is the desire for worlds; both these are, mdeed,.desires only. TMsSelfJsJttetjwhich has, beenJLescnbedLas) not- this; not this. He is mamiprehensible for He is never comprehended. He is ^destr uctible for He can not be de stroyed He is unattachedrfor He does not atfaca” himseit Mels unfettered, He does not suffer, He is not injured. Hun (who knows this) these two (thoughts) do not overcome, 'for some reason he has done evil or for some reason he has done good. He overcomes both What he has done or what he has not done does not burn (affect) him.

SeeIII.5 i;m 9 26;IV.2.4. selu- bridge Agm (Fire) is spoken of as bridge: loan nas tantur uta selur agne- Taittirlya Brahmana. II. 4. 2. 6. Agni becomes the path of deva-yana

Ceremonial observances are treated as means for purification. See BG XVIII. 5.

Fasting is restraint, not abstinence, not starvation which will mean death: kamanaianam andsakam, na tu bhojana-nivjitih bhoja- na-nivrtlau mriyala eva S

The monastic orders which developed in Buddhism and Jainism are forecast here.

z8o The Principal Upamsads IV 4 24

' 23 tad esa rcdbhyuktam

esa nityo mahima brdhmanasya na vardhate karmana no kaniydn

tasyaiva syat pada-vit, tarn viditva na hpyate karmana papakena,

ttt tasmad [evam-mt, idnto ddnta uparatas tihksuh samahito bhutvd, atmany evdtmdnam pasyah, sarvam dtmdnam paiyatx, namam pdpma tarati, sarvam pdpmanam tarati, nainam pdpma tapatt, sarvam pdpmanam tapatt, vipdpo wrap 'victktiso brdh- mano bhavati, esa brahma-lokah, samrdt, enam prdptto'st th hovdca ydjMvalkyah, so'ham bhagavate videhdn daddmi, mam cdpt saha ddsydyeti

23 This very (doctrine) has been expressed in the hymn This eternal greatness of the knower of Brahman is not in- creased by work nor diminished One should know the nature of that alone Having found that, one is not tainted by evil action Therefore he who knows it as such, having become calm, self-controlled, withdrawn, patient and collected sees the Self in his own self f sees all m the Self Evil does not overcome him, he overcomes all evil Evil does not burn (affect) him, he burns (consumes) all evil Free from evil, free from Jaint, free from doubt he becomes a knower of Brahma This' is the world of Brahma, Your Majesty, you have attained it, said Yajfiavalkya. Janaka (Kmg) of Videha said, 'Venerable Sir, I give you the (empire of) Videhas and myself also to serve you '

fada-mt he who knows the nature padasya vettd, padyate gamyale jndyaia th mahimnas-svarupam eva padam S having become calm the Bhdgavata defines the state of tranquillity as one m which there is not grief nor happiness, nor worry, nor hatred, nor longing, not even any desire

nay air a duhkham na sukham na cinta, nai dvesa-ragau na ca kactd iccha

rasah sa sdntdh kathito munindraih sarvesu bhdvesu samah pramdnah

24 sa vd esa makdn aja atmd, annddo Vasu-ddnah, vindate vasu ya cvam veda

24 This is that great unborn Self, who is the eater of food and the giver of wealth He who knows this obtains wealth

the eater of food sarva-bhutasthas sarvannandm attd. £ He dwells in all beings and eats all food which they eat (he giver of wealth the giver of the fruits of actions He enables all beings to obtain the results of their actions dhanam sarvaprdnt-

jy, fj, 3, Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 281

karma-phalam, tasya data, praninam yatha-karma-phalena yojayitety arthak S

25 sa va e?a mahan ajatmd, ajaro, amnio' mrto'bhayo brahma; abhayam van brahma, abhayam hi vat brahma bhavati ya evath vtda.

25. This is that great tinhorn Self who is undecaying, undying, immortal, fearless, Brahman. Verily, Brahman is fearless. He who knows this becomes the fearless Brahman,

Fifth Brahmana

THE SUPREME SELF AND THE SUPREME VALUE

1 atha ha yfignavalkyasya dve bharye babhuvatuh, maitreyi ca katyayani ca. tayor ha maitreyi brahma-vadini babhuva, strt-prajmvoa tarhi katyayani. atha yajfiavalkyo'nyad-vrttam upakansyan.

1. Now then, Yajfiavalkya had two wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani Of these (two) Maitreyi was a discourser on Brahma- knowledge, while Katyayani possessed only such knowledge as women have. Now then, Yajfiavalkya when lie wished to get ready for another mode of life —

See II. 4

S holds that in this dialogue between Yajfiavalkya and Maitreyi, logical argument is advanced in support of scnptural statements- iarka-pradhanam hi yajnavalkylyam kandam. discourser on Bralana-knowkige brahma-vadana-Md. S.

2. maitreyi, iti hovaca yajfiavalkyah, prawaji?yan vd are'ham astnSt sthanad asmi; hanta te'naya katyayanydntam karavaniti.

z 'Maitreyi,' said Yajfiavalkya, 'lo, verily, I am getting away from this state (into the forest). Forsooth, let me make a settlement for you and that Katyayani,

3- sa hovaca maitreyi- yan nu ma iyam, bhagoh, sarva prthivi viltena puma syat, syam nv aham tendmrtd' oho na iti, na tti, novaca yajMvalkyah; yathawopakaranavatam jivitam, tathatva «;»wtofft syst; amriatvasya tu naidsti viUeneti. an a • n taud M^toyi: 'My Lord, if, indeed, this whole earth niied with wealth were mine, do I become immortal by it or

282 The Principal Vpamsads IV. 5 6

not?' 'No,' replied Yajnavalkya 'As the life of people who have plenty of things will your life be, but there is no hope of immortality through wealth '

4 sa hovaca maitreyi' yenaham ndmrtd sydm, ktm aham Una kurydm yad cva bhagavdn veda, tad cva me briihth

4 Then Maitreyi said 'What shall I do with that by which I do not become immortal? What you know (of the way to immortality), Venerable Sir, that, indeed explain to me '

5 sa hovaca yajnavalkyah prtyd vat kliatu no bhavati sail pnyam avrdhat. hanta tarht, bhavalt, etad vydkhyasydmi te, vydcaksdnasya tu me mdidhyasasvch

5 Then Yajnavalkya said 'You have been truly dear to me (even before), now you have increased yourdearness Therefore, if you wish, my dear, I will explain it to you As I am expounding to you, seek to meditate on it '

pnyatva fftrvam khalu nah, asmabhyam bhavati, bhavanti salt fnyam evavrdkat, vardhttavati, nirdharttavaly ast. S

6 sa hovaca tia vd are paiyuh kdmdya patth prtyo bhavaii, atmanas tu kdmdya patth prtyo bhavatt; tut vd are jdyayai kdmdya jdyd prtya bhavatt, atmanas tu kdmdya jdyd prtyd bhavatt; 11a vd are putrdndm kdmdya putrdh prtya bhavantt, atmanas tu kdmdya putrdh priyd bhavantt; »a vd are vtitasya kdmdya viltatn prtyam bhavatt, atmanas ttt kdmdya vittam pnyam bhavatt; na vd are pasundm kdmdya paiavah prtya bhavanii, atmanas tu kdmdya paiavah prtyd bhavantt, 11a vd are brahmanah kdmdya brahma prtyam bhavalt, atmanas tu kdmdya brahma pnyam bhavalt; na va are ksatrasya kdmdya ksatram prtyam bhavati, atmanas tu Kdmdya ksatram prtyam bhavatt, r.a vd are lokdndm kdmdya lokdh prtydh bhavantt, atmanas tit hin.dya lokdh prtyd bhavantt; 11a vd are devdndm kdmdya devdh priyd lhannti, atmanas ttt kdmdya devdh prtyd bhavanti, r.a id arc veddndm kdmdya veddh prtyd bhavantt, dtvtanas tu kdmdya itdak prtyd bhavantt na va are bhiildndm kdmdya bf.utdr.t pnydt.t bhavmti, atmanas tu kdmdya bhiitdnt prtyam Ikavarii; r.a id are sarvasya kdmdya sarratn pnyam bhaiati, iU>r'it”t% tu kdmdya sanam pnyam bhavati dtmd vd art dra;'vs th Irohxvyo mantavyo nidtdhydsttavyah, maitreyi, dtmani tktli are dr;'e, £rtite t irate, vtjRdtt, tdam sanam vtdttatn

6 TV:i. he (Y3jfiavalk>a) said- 'Vcnly, not for the sale of th* hinband is the husband de-u but for the sake of the J* If

IV. 5 7- Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 283

is the husband dear. Verily, not for the sake of the -wife is the wife dear but for the sake of the Self is the wife dear. Verily, not for the sake of the sons are the sons dear but for the sake of the Self are the sons dear Verily, not for the sake of wealth is wealth dear but for the sake of the Self is wealth dear. Verily, not for the sake of the cattle are the cattle dear but for the sake of the Self are the cattle dear. Venly, not for the sake of the Brahmana is the Brahmana dear but for the sake of the Self is the Brahmana dear. Venly, not for the sake of the K§atriya is the Ksatriya dear but for the sake of the Self is the Ksatriya dear Venly, not for the sake of the worlds are the worlds dear but for the sake of the Self are the worlds dear. Venly, not for the sake of the gods are the gods dear but for the sake of the Self are the gods dear. Venly, not for the sake of the Vedas are the Vedas dear but for the sake of the Self are the Vedas dear. Verily not for the sake of the beings are the beings dear but for the sake of the Self are the beings dear Venly, not for the sake of all is all dear but for the sake of the Self is all dear. Venly, the Self, Maitreyi, is to be seen, to be heard, to be reflected on, to be meditated upon; when, venly, the Self is seen, heard, reflected on and known, then all this is known.

tote heard from the teacher and the scriptures, acaryagamahhyam £. to be reflected on through argument and reasoning, tarkenopapattya §.

7 brahma tarn paraddt, yo'nyatratmano brahma veda; ksatram tarn paraddt, yo'nyatratmanab ksatram veda, lokas tarn paraduh, yo'nyatratmano lokan veda; devas tarn paraduh, yo'nyatratmano devan veda; vedas tarn paraduh, yo'nyatrdtntano vedan veda; mutant tam paraduh, yo'nyatratmano bhutani veda; sarvam tarn paradat, yo'nyatratmanah sarvam veda, idam brahma, idam ksatram, tme lokah, tme devdh, tme veddh, tmdm bhutdni, idam sarvam, yad ayam dtmd

7 Brahmanahood deserts him who knows Brahmanahood in anything else than the Self. Ksatnyahood deserts him who mows Ksatriyahood in anything else than the Self. The worlds Sif t T^ Un w1m> knows tlle worlds in anything else than the v>elt. The gods desert him who knows the gods m anything else

aJv Sdf * The Vedas desert ^ wno k 510 ™ 5 the Vedas in

tne beings in anything else than the Self. All deserts him who «wws all in anything else than the Self. This Brahmanahood,

284

The Principal Upanisads IV. 5 12.

this Ksatnyahood, and these worlds, these gods, these Vedas, all these beings, this all are the Self

8 sa yatha dundubher hanyamdnasya na bahyan Sabddn iaknuyad gralianaya, dundublies tu grahanena dundubhy-dghdta- sya va sabdo grhitah

8 Just as when a drum is beaten, one cannot grasp the external sounds but by grasping the drum or the beater of the drum, the sound is grasped,

9 sa yatha iankltasya dkmdyamdnasya na bahyan hbdan iaknuyad gralianaya, iankhasya tu grahanena iankha-dhmasya va iabdo grhitah

9 Just as when a conch is blown one 'cannot grasp the external sound but by grasping the conch or the blower of the conch, the sound is grasped,

10 sa yatha vinayai vadyamanayai na bahyan sabddn iaknuyad grahandya, vinayai tu grahanena vind-vddasya va sabdo grhitah

10 Just as when a Vina (or lute) is played one cannot grasp the external sounds but by grasping the vino, or the player of the vina, the sound is grasped,

iz sa yathardraidhagner abhydhitasya prtliag dhuma vtnts- caranh, evam va are'sya mahato bhutasya mMvasitam etad yad rg vedo, yajur vedah, soma vedo 'tharvdngirasa tUhdsah jniranam vtdya upamsadah slokah sutrdnt, anu-vyakhyandm vydkh- ydndnistam hutam diitam pdyitam ayam ca lokah paras ca lokah sarvam ca bhutdm, asyaivattam sarvant mlisvasitam

11 As from a fire kindled with damp fuel vanous kinds of smoke issue forth, so, verily, from this great bemg has been breathed forth that which is the Rg Veda, the Yajur Veda the Sdma Veda, the hymns of the Atharvans and the Angirasas, legend, ancient lore, sciences, sacred teachings, verses, aphor- isms, explanations, commentaries, sacrifice, oblation, food, drink, this world and the other and all beings From it, indeed, have all these been breathed forth

12. sa yatha sarvdsdm apdm samudra ekdyanam, evam sarvesam sparsdnam tvag ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm gandhdndm ndsike ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm rasandm phvaikdyanam, evam sarvesdm rupdtidm caksur ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm iabddnam irotram ekdyanam, evam sarvesam samkalpdndm mana ekdyanam, evam sarvdsdm vtdyandm hrdayam ekdyanam, evam sarvesdm

IV. 5 14 Brhad-dratiyaka Upanisad 285

karmdndm hastav ekayanam, evam sarvesam dmnddndm wpastha ekayanam, evam sarvesam visargdndm pdyur ekayanam, evam sarvesam adhvandm pdddv ekayanam, evam sarvesam veddndm vdg ekayanam.

12. As the ocean is the one goal (meeting-place) of all waters, as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, as the nose is the one goal of all smells, as the tongue is the one goal of all tastes, as the eye is the one goal of all forms, as the ear is the one goal of all sounds, as the mind is the one goal of all inten- tions, as the heart (intellect) is the one goal of all knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all kinds of work, as the genera- tive organ is the one goal of all forms of delight, as the anus is the one goal of all evacuations, as the feet are the one goal of all movements, as the (organ of) speech is the one goal of all the Vedas

13. sa yathd saindhava-ghanah anantaro'bdhyah, krtsno rasa- ghana em, evam vd are'yam dtma, anantaro'bdhyah, kftsnah prajndna-ghana eva, etebhyo bhiitebhyah samutthdya, tdny evd- ^ nuvtnasyati na pretya samjMsh, %U are bravwn, vti hovdca ' yajfiavalkyah.

13 'As a mass of salt is without inside, without outside, is altogether a mass of taste, even so, verily, is this Self without inside, without outside, altogether a mass of intelligence only. Having arisen out of these elements (the Self) vanishes again m them When he has departed there is no more (separate or particular) consciousness Thus, verily, say I', said Yajnavalkya.

Particular consciousness is due to association with elements* when this association is dissolved through knowledge, knowledge of oneness is obtained and particular consciousness disappears.

-I-i-I 5, 1m&Ca mo-tiny* atravoa ma bhagavdn mohantam aptpipat; na vd almm imam vijdnamUu sa hovdca; na vd are' dliannd 1 hravlmi> amn&il v& are'yam dtma, an-ucchitti-

14 Then Maitreyi said 'Here, indeed, Venerable Sir, you have caused me to reach utter bewilderment Indeed, I do not at all understand this (the Self) • He replied, 'I do not say

£3£JwSSSf ^ Self • venly * 18 lffiperi5habIe and *

fSf 'fi 1 6 natwe * 15 not sub J ect t0 destruction either in the

286 The Principal Upanisads IV. 5 15

15 yatra hi dvaitam tva bhavati, tad ttara ttaram paiyatt, tad xlara itarath pghratt, tad tiara ttaram rasayate, tad ttara ttaram abhtvadatt, tad ttara ttaram irnott, tad ttara ttaram vtjdndtt, yatra tv asya sarvam atmawabhttt, tat kena kam paiyet, tat kena kampghfet, tat kena kam rasayet, tat kena kam abhwadet, tat kena kam irnuyat, tat kena kam marnnta, tat kena kam sprset, tat kena kam vijdniydt; yenedam sarvam vtjanatt, tarn kena vijdniydt sa esa nett neiy dtmd; agrhyah, na hi grhyaie, aitryah na ht siryate, asangah, na hi sajyate, asito, na vyathaie, 1 na rtsyatt vijnqtgKtm. are kena vijdniydt, tty uktdnusdsandst, maitreyi, etdvad are khalv amrtatvam, ttt hoktvd, ydjnavalkyo vijahara

15 'For where there is duality as it were, there one sees the other, one smells the other, one tastes the other, one speaks to the other, one hears the other, one thinks of the other, one touches the other, one knows the other But where every- thing has become just one's own self, by what and whom should one see, by what and whom should one smell, by what and whom should one taste, by what and to whom should one speak, by what and whom should one hear, by what and of whom should one think, by what and whom should one touch, by what and whom should one know' By what should one know him by whom all this is known' That self is (to be described as) not this, not this He is incomprehensible for he cannot be comprehended. He is indestructible for He cannot be destroyed He is unattached for He does not attach himself He is unfettered, He does not suffer, He is not injured Indeed, by what would one know the knower? Thus you have the in- struction given to you, 0 Maitreyi Such, verily, is life eternal ' Having said this, Yajnavalkya went away (into the forest)

See III 9 26; IV 2 4, IV. 4 22 vijahara went into the forest, pravraptavan S by what would one know the knower> The suggestion is that the knower cannot be known m the usual way He can only be experienced.

§ makes out that all the four chapters had the one end in view, knowledge of Brahman culminating in renunciation brahma-vidyd samnyasa-paryavasana, etavan upadesa, etad vedanusasanam, esa parama-ntslha, esa purusartha-kartavyatanta tit £

This is the instruction, this is the teaching of the Vedas, this is the ultimate goal, this is the end of man's effort to achieve his highest good

Different views are expressed according to the E S , about the relation of the individual and the universal Self Asmarathya holds

IV 6 3 Brhad-dranyaka Upani?ad 287

that the unity of the two is emphasised to indicate that when the Universal Self is seen all else is seen I 4 20. Audulomi thinks that the identity taught here refers to the state which the individual finally attains when he is released from all limitations I. 4 21. Kasakrtsna holds that the identity is taught because the individual is the form in which the Universal exists. I 4. 22

Sixth Brdhmana THE SUCCESSION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS

1 atha vam&ah pautvmdsyo gaupavanat, gaupavanah pauh- mdsydt, pautvmasyo gaupavanat, gaupavanah kaidikdt, kausikah kaundmydt, kaundinyah idnixlyat, idndilyah kausikdc ca gautamdc ca, gautamah —

1. Now the line of tradition Pautimasya (received the teaching) from Gaupavana, Gaupavana from Pautimasya, Pautimasya from Gaupavana, Gaupavana from Kau£ika, Kauiikafrom Kaundrnya, Kaundinya from Sandilya, Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama, Gautama —

2 dgmvesydt, agmveiyo gdrgydt, gdrgyo gdrgydt, gdrgyo gautamat, gautamah saitavdt, sattavah pardiarydyandt, pdra- sarydyano gdrgydyandt, gdrgydyana udddlakdyandt, uddalakd- yano jdbdldyandt, jdhdldyano mddhyandtndyandt, mddhyan- dxndyanah saukardyandt, saukardyanah kdsayanat, kdsayanah sdyakdyandt, sdyakdyamh kausikayaneh, kausikdyamh —

2 From Agmvesya, Agmvesya from Gargya, Gargya from Gargya, Gargya from Gautama, Gautama from Saitava, Saitava from Parasaryayana, Parasaryayana from Gargyayana,Gargya- yana from Uddalakayana, Uddalakayana from Tabalayana, Jabalayana from Madhyandmayana, Madhyandinkyana “from Saukarayana, Saukarayana from Kasayana, Kasayana from Sayakayana, Sa.yaka.yana from Kausikayam, Kausikayani—

3- ghrtakauiikdt, ghrtakautikah paraiarydyandt, pdra- saryayanah pdrdsarydt, pdraiaryo jdtukarnydt, ' jdtHkamya asurayandc ca ydskdc ca, dsurdyanas traivanek, travoamr aupajandhanch, aupajandliamr dsureh, dsurir bhdradvdjdl fharadvaja dtreydt, atreyo vianfeh, matfir gautamat, gautamo” gautemat gautamo vdtsyat, vdtsyah Sdndilyat, sindtlvah kaxSoryat kdpydt, katioryah kdpyah kumdra-hdntat, kumdra-

288

The Principal Upantsads IV 3

harito galavat, galavo vidarbhi-kaundinyat, vidarbhi-katmdmyo vatsanapdto bdbhravdt, vatsanapdd babhravah pathah saubhardt, panthdh saubharo'ydsydd dngtrasdt, aydsya angtrasa abilities tvdstrdt, dbhuhs tvdslro msva-rilpdt tvdsirdt, visva-rupas tvdslro 'ivibhyam, asvinau dadhica atliarvandt, dadhyann dtharuano 'tharvano daivdt, atkarvd daivo mrtyoh prddhvamsamt, mrtytth prddhvamsanah pradhvamsandt, pradhvamsana ekarseh, ekarsir vipracitteh, vipracittir vyasteh, vyastih sandroh, sanaruh sand- iandt, sandtanah sanagdt, sanagah paramesthmah, paramestM brahmana)}, brahma svayambhu, brahmane namah

3 from Ghrtakausika, Ghrtakausika from Parasaryayana, Parasaryayana from Paraiarya, Paraiarya from Jatukarnya, Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska, Asurayana from Traivani, Traivam from Aupajandhani, Aupajandhani from Asun, Asun from Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja from Atreya, Atreya from Manti, Manti from Gautama, Gautama from Gautama, Gautama from Vatsya, Vatsya from Sindilya, Sandilya from Kaiiorya Kapya, Kaisorya Kapya from Kumara- hanta, Kumara-hanta from Galava, Galava from Vidarbhl- kaundinya, Vidarbhi-kaundmya from Vatsanapat Babhrava, Vatsanapat Babhrava from Pathm Saubhara, Pathin Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa, Ayasya Angirasa from Abhtiti Tvastra, AbhQti Tvastra from Visva-riipa Tvastra, Visva-rupa Tvastra from the two AS vins, the two Aivms from Dadhyann Atharvana, Dadhyann Atharvana from Atharvan Daiva, Atharvan Daiva from Mrtyu Pradhvamsana, Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi, Ekarsi from Vipracitti, Vipracitti from Vyasti, Vyasti from Sana.ru, Sanaru from Sanatana, Sanatana from Sanaga, Sanaga from Paramesthin, Paramesthm from Brahma, Brahma is the self-existent Salutation to Brahma

the line of tradition' Udyotakara defines sampradaya as uninterrupted succession of pupils and teachers by which scriptural knowledge is conserved and transmitted sampradtiyo narna sisyopadhyaya- sambandhasya avtcchedena sdstra-prdphh A Jiving culture preserves the treasures of the past and creates those of the future

V. 2. i. Brhad-Sranyaka Upani$ad

CHAPTER V

First Brahmana

BRAHMAN THE INEXHAUSTIBLE

I. piirnam aiah, piirnam idam, purnat purnam udacyate purnasya piirnam adaya piirnam eodvaiisyate. Aim kham brahma, kham puranam, vayuram kham, iti ha smdha kauravyayawl-putrah, vedo'yam brahmana viduh;vedamena yad vediiavyam.

i That is full, this is full. From fullness fullness proceeds If we take away the fullness of fullness, even fullness then remains. (The syllable) Aum is Brahman (who) is the ether, the primeval ether, the etherthat blows. Thus, verily, the son of KauravyayanI used to say This is the Veda which the knowers of Brahman know, through it one knows what is to be known.

that is full the reference is to the Absolute

this %s full the reference is to the manifested world presided over

by the Personal Lord

While this world in infinite, it has its roots m the Absolute The manifestation of this world does not take away from the fullness or integrity of the Absolute.

vedai the knowledge by which whatever is to be known is known vijanaty anena yad vedttavyam tasmad vedah. %

Second BrShmana THE THREE PRINCIPAL VIRTUES

x._ irayak prajapatyah prajdpatau pitari brahma-caryam usuh aevamanusya amrdh, u?itoa brahmaoaryam deva Hcuh; bravtiu, no bhavan itt; mhyo.haitad aksaram uvaca; da %t%, vyajnastsla tu; vyajnastsma iti Jiocuh, damyata, iti na atthett, aum Mi ftovaca, vyapiasistett.

r The threefold offspring of Prajd-pati, gods, men and

W t m ^ their ^ ather as students of sacred

knowledge Having completed their studentship the gods said

J3?S? l f mS i raCt) w ' SHr/ To ^ ottered the te L (a f f ke , d) * Have ^rstood?- They (said)

yo^eSHS%r ™i t0 ^nyatar ILSl yourselves . He said, Yes, you have understood.'

290

The Principal Upamsads V. 2 3.

The gods are said to be naturally unruly and so are asked to practise self-control adaniayHyam svabhdvatah ato ddnta bhavateli £ iisuh usitavanlah. R

aunt- yes, samyak S, anujndm eva vibhajate A, saiyam R

2. atha hainam manusya iicuk' bravitu no bhavan tti; tebhyo haitad evaksaram uvaca; da iti; vyajnasisfa iti, vyajndsisma iti hocuh, datta tti na dttheti; aum Hi hovdca vyajndstslett

2 Then the men said to him, 'Please tell (instruct) us, sir.' To them he uttered the same syllable da (and asked) 'Have you understood 7 ' They said, 'We have understood You said to us “give”.' He said, 'Yes, you have understood '

Men are naturally avaricious and so they should distribute their wealth to the best of their ability svabhdvato lubdhd yuyam, ato yathdiaktyd sathvtbhajaia £

3 atha hainam asurd ucuh, bravitu no bhavan tit, tebhyo haitad evaksaram uvaca; da tit, vyajMststa tti, vyajndsisma tti hocuh, dayadhvam tti na attheti, aum iti hovaca vyajnaststeh tad etad evaisa dawi vag anuvadah stanayitnuh — da, da, da tti, damyata, datta, dayadhvam tti tad etat trayam stkset, damam, danam, dayam iti.

3 Then the demons said to him, 'Please tell (instruct) us, sir.' To them he uttered the same syllable da and asked, 'Have you understood?' They said, 'We have understood, you said to us, “dayadhvam,” “be compassionate ” He said, 'Yes, you have understood ' This very thing the heavenly voice of thunder repeats da, da, da, that is, control yourselves, give, be com- passionate One should practise this same triad, self-control, giving and compassion

The demons are cruel, given to inflicting injury on others, they should have compassion and be land to all- hriird yuyam htmsddt- parah, ato dayadhvam prdntsu dayam kuruleli &

It is suggested that there are no gods or demons other than men If they are lacking in self-control while endowed with other good qualities, they are gods, if they are particularly greedy they are men; if they are cruel and given to inflicting injury on others, they are demons, Men themselves are distinguished into these three classes according to their lack of self-control and the possession of other defects or according to the tendencies of the three gunas na deva asurd va' nye kecana vidyante manusyebhyah manusydnam evddantd ye 'nyatr ullamatr gunats sampannah, te devdh, lobha- pradhdna manusydh, tathdhimsdpardh kritrdh asurdk la eva manusyd addtUalvddi-dosa4rayam apeksya devddi-Sabda-bhdjo bhavanli, ilardmi

V. 3 i Brhad-arayyaka Upamsad 291

ca gman sattva-rajas-tamamsy apeksya ato tnanusyair eoa hi stksitav- yam etai trayam itt. § SeeBG XVI 21. Cp Yaplavalkya Smrtu 1 4 122

ahimsa satyam asteyam saucatn tndriya-mgrahah danam dama daya iantih sarvesam Gautama the Buddha is described as the embodiment of com- passion, karuna, and non-injury, ahimsa. Matrceta in his Saia- pancaiatka says

kam m prathamato vande tvam maha-kamnam uta yayaivam apt dosajnas tvam samsare dhftas ciram Which shall I first extol, you or the great compassion by which you are held so long in samsira, though knowing its faults so well? 59 vinddhesu api vatsalyam pravrttth patttesvapi raudresv apt krPalutvam ka nameyam tavaryata You have affection even for the hostile, benevolence even to the fallen, tenderness even to the cruel, wonderful is your greatness 105. akrosiS.ro jitah ksantya drugdhah svastyayanena ca, satyena capavaktaras traya maitrya jighamsavah You overcame the revilers by forbearance, the malicious by blessing, the slanderers by truth, the wicked by kindness. 122

The three injunctions require us to go about doing good even though we find ourselves in a world of evil Self-control is necessary for we must not be elated by success or deterred by failure. Daya or compassion is more than sympathy or intellectual and emotional feeling It is love m action, fellowship in suffering It is feeling as one s own the circumstances and aspirations to self-perfection which we find in others The practice of these virtues will preserve, promote and enhance the values of life.

Third Brahmana BRAHMAN AS THE HEART

I esa praja-patir yad hrdayam, etai brahma, etai sarvam, tad etat try-aksaram; hr-da-yam iti hr ity ekam aksaram; abhiharanty amai svai canye ca, ya evam veda, da ity ekam aksaram, dada- tyasniai sva£ canye caya evam veda; yam, ity ekam aksaram; eti svargam hkam ya evam veda.

It'is l^T^X^ ^ heart. It is Brahman,

it * all It has three syllables, hr, da, yam. Hr is one syllable His own people and others bring (presents) to whfw S this. Da is one syllable His owrl% 0 pl e ^andThers pve 7o

29 2 The Pnnctpal Upanisads V. 5 1.

him who knows this Yam is one syllable He who knows this goes to the heavenly world

hrdayam- heart, that is the seat of intelligence, hrdayastha buddhr ucyate §

Fourth Brahmana

BRAHMAN AS THE TRUE OR THE REAL

I tad vat tat, etad eva tad dsa, satyam eva sayo hattan mahad yaksam prathamajam veda, satyam brahmeh, jayatimaml lokdn. jita in wo asav asat, ya evam etan mahad yaksam prathamajam veda; satyam brahmett satyam hy eva brahma

1 This, verily, is that This indeed was that, the true. He who knows that wonderful being, the first bom as the Brahman, conquers these worlds, and conquered likewise may that (enemy) be and become non-existent he (for him) who knows that wonderful being, the first born as the true Brahman

salya the true, the real, sat and tyat, the formed and the formless elements

jtiah conquered, vaslkrtah S and R asau. of the enemy, iatrur upasakasya R

Fifth Brahmana THE REAL EXPLAINED

1 apa evedam agra asuh, td dpah satyam asrjanta, satyam brahma, brahma prajdpattm, prajapatir devan te devah satyam evopdsate, tadetat try-aksaram sa-ti-yam iti sa ity ekam aksaram, ti ity ekam aksaram, yam iti ekam aksaram. prathama ttttame aksare satyam, madhyato'nrtam, tad etad anrtam ubhayatah satyena pangrhUam satyabhiiyam eva bhavait naivam mdvdmsam amrtam hxnasti

I In the beginning this universe was ]ust water. That water produced the true (or the real), Brahman is the true Brahman (produced) Prajd-patt and Praja-pati (produced) the gods Those gods meditated on the real That consists of three syllables, sa, ti, yam' sa is one syllable, tt is one syllable, and

V. 5 3- Brhad-firanyaka Upanisad 293

yam is one syllable. The first and the last syllables are the truth; in the middle is untruth This untruth is enclosed on both sides by truth, it partakes of the nature of truth itself. Him “who knows this, untruth does not injure.

Water is the seed of the universe and in the beginning it is in an undifferentiated form: dpo bija-bhiUd jagato vyakrtatmana 'vas- thtah £

In commenting on Thales' choice of water as the first principle, Anstotle suggests that 'he got the notion perhaps from seeing that the nutriment of all things is moist, and that heat itself is generated by the moist and kept alive by it . and that the seed of all creatures has a moist nature, and water is the origin of the nature of moist things.' See W K C. Guthrie The Greeks and their Gods (1950), P 134

There is a play on the letter, so and ya have nothing in common with mrfyu and anrta whereas t occurs in the syllable ti. Untruth leads to death

2. tadyat tat satyam asau sa adttyah. ya esa etasmin mandate puruso yas” cayam dakstne'ksan purusah tav etav anyo'nyasmin pratisthtiau; raimibhir eso'smin praUsthitah prdnatr ayam amusmm, sayadotkramisyan bhavah iuddham evaitan mandalam paSyati nainam ete rasmayah pratydyanh.

2. Now what is the true that is the yonder sun. The person who is there in that orb and the person who is here in the right eye, these two rest on each other. Through his rays that one * m tfos one; through the vital breaths this one on that. When one is about to depart, he sees that orb as clear. Those rays no more come to him.

iuddham clear, raimv-prahghdta-ralvitam. R.

3- ya'esa etasmin mandate purusah, tasya bhur iti sirah; ekamiirah, ekam etad aksaram, bhuva Hi bahu; dvau bahu, dve ete aksare; svar th pratisthi; dve prathtsthe dve ete aksare lasyopamsad aliar th; hanti papmdnam jahatt ca,ya evam veda

f 3 «. x. the person m fl orb > the syllable bhM is the head- iot the head is one and this syllable is one. Bhuvak is the arms

w r ^ are two anns md are syllables Svah is the ™L 1 are r^° feet and these m t* 0 syllables. His secret Sd knows ^ destr °y s evil ««d leaves it

Pnttsiha feet, psda R

itpamsai. secret name, rahasya-nama. R.

294 The Principal Upanisads V 7 i.

4 yo'yam daksme'ksan purusah, tasya bhiir tti itrah, ekam itrah, ekam elad aksaram; bhuva ih balm, dvatt bahii, dve eie aksare, svar tit pratistha, dve pratisthe, dve ete aksare tasyo- pamsad aham tti; hanti papmanam jakdh ca ya evam veda

4 Of this person who is in the right eye, the syllable bhiih is the head The head is one and the syllable is one Bhuvah is the arms There are two arms and these are two syllables Svah is the feet There are two feet and these are two syllables His secret name is 'I * He who knows this destroys evil and leaves it behind

In some cosmogomc hymns Satyam or Skambha is represented as turned upside down, his head being bhiih, his arms bhuvas and his feet svah

Sixth Brahmana THE PERSON

1 manomayo'yam purusah, bhah satyah tasmmn antar-hrdaye yatha vrihtr vd ydvo vd sa esa sarvasyesanah, sarvasyddhtpatih, sarvam tdam pros' ash yad tddm kim ca

1 This person who consists of mind is of the nature of light, is within the heart like a gram of nee or of barley He is the ruler of all, the lord of all and governs all this whatever there is

of the nature of light bha eva satyam, sad.-bha.vah, svarupam yasya so'yam bhah salyah, bhdsvarah 5

By meditating on Brahman m the form of mind, we attain identity with Him as such, for one becomes what one meditates on tarn yatha y at hopasate tad eva bhavatt Satapatha Brahmana X V 2 20

Seventh Brahmana

BRAHMAN AS LIGHTNING

I. vtdyud brahma ity dhuh, viddndd vtdyut, vidyaty enam p&pmanah.ya evam veda, vtdyud brahmett, vtdyud hy eva brahma. 1. Lightning is Brahman, they say It is called lightning

V 9 i.

Brliad-aranyaka Upanisad

295

because it scatters (darkness). He who knows it as such that lightning is Brahman, scatters evils (that are ranged against him), for lightning is, indeed, Brahman

scatters destroys, avakhandayatt, vinaiayah Lightning cuts through the darkness of clouds as the knowledge of Brahman cuts through the darkness of ignorance and evil

Eighth Brahmana

SPEECH SYMBOLISED AS A COW

1 vacam dhenum upasita tasydi catvdrah stanah; svaha-ka.ro vasat-kdro hanta-kdrah svadlid-kdrahj tasyai dvau stanau dead upapvanh, svaha-karam ca, vasat-karam ca; hanta-karam manu- syah, svadhd-kdrampitarah tasydhprana rsabhah, mano vatsak

1 One should meditate on speech as a milch cow. She has four udders which are the sounds, svaha, vasat, hanta and svadha . The gods live on two of her udders, the sounds svaha and vasat, men on the sound hanta, and the fathers on the sound svadha. The vital breath is her bull, and rmnd the calf.

Ninth Brahmana

THE UNIVERSAL FIRE

I. ayam agnir vaiivanaro yo'yam antah puruse, yenedam annam facyate yad tdam adyate; tasyaisa gltoso bhavah yam stat karnav apidhaya irnoti, sa yadotkramisyan bhavati, nainam gnosam irnoh.

Tlus fire w Wch is here within a person is the Vaisvanara

rn ITTf saI fire ) bv means of wluch the food tha * « eaten is cooked (digested) It is the sound thereof that one hears by covering the ears thus When one is about to depart (from this me) one does not hear this sound.

thus by closing with the fingers, angulibhyam aptdhanam krtva S.

296 The Principal Upantsads V. 11 i.

Tenth Brahmana THE COURSE AFTER DEATH

1 yada vat puruso'smal hkat praih, sa vdyum agacchah, tasmai sa tatra vtphite yatha ratha-cakrasya kham, tena sa urdhva akramate, sa adityam agacchah, tasmai sa tatra viphite yatha lambarasya kham, tena sa urdhva akramate, sa candramasam agacchah, tasmai sa tatra viphite yatha dundubheh kham, tena sa urdhva akramate sa hkam dgacchaiy asokam ahimam, tasmm vasati sasvatih samdh.

1 Verily, when a person departs from this world, he goes to the air It opens out there for him like the hole of a chariot wheel Through that he goes upwards He goes to the sun It opens out there for him like the hole of a lambara. Through that he goes upwards He reaches the moon It opens out there for him like the hole of a drum Through that he goes upwards He goes to the world free from gnef, free from snow. There he dwells eternal years.

lambara a kind of musical instrument, vdditra-msesa £

aiokam free from gnef, free from mental troubles manasa duhkhena

mvarptam S.

ahimam free from snow, free from physical suSenngs, Sarira-duh- hha-varptam &

eternal years He lives there during the lifetime of Htranya-garbha' anantan samvatsaran R

Eleventh Brahmana THE SUPREME AUSTERITIES

1 etad vai ■paramam tapo yad vyahitas tapyate, paramam haiva hkam jayah, ya evam veda, etad vai paramam tapo yam fretam aranyam harantt, paramam haiva hkam jayati, ya evam veda etad vai paramam tapo yam pretam agnav abhyadadhatt. paramam Miva hkamjayah.ya evam veda.

I. Venly, this is the supreme austerity which a man laid up with illness suffers. He who knows this wins the supreme world Venly, this is the supreme austenty when they carry a dead person into the forest He who knows this wins the supreme world Venly, this is the supreme austenty when they lay a dead person on the fire He who knows this wins the supreme world.

V. 13- 1- Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad 297

laid ab with illness vydthitah, paradi-pangrhitas san. S.

Iffenng is to be' endured We do not condemn it, amndato 'mldcdah saesa.caUmwjmna-tapasad^dlu^kiltnsalt.'b.

Retirement to the forest from the village is ako an austerity, gwHiai aranya-gamanam paramam iapa ih hi prastddham. b.

Twelfth Brahmana

1. annam brahma ity eka ahuh, tan m tatha, puyah vd annam rie prdndt, prdno brahma tiy eka ahuh, tan na tatha, iusyatt vai pram rte'nnai, ete ha tv eva devote, ekadhdbMyam bhutva, paratnatdnl gacchatah tadd ha smaha pratrdah piiaram, htm swd evatvam viduse sadhu kttrydm, htm evdsma asadhu kuryat'l ih. so. ha smaha pdntna. ma pratrda, has tv enayor ekadha

bhuyam bhiitva paramatam gacchatfti tasrnd « haitad uvaca;

vi, iti; annam va% vi, anne himdni saroani bhiddni viftani; ram

ttt, prdno vat ram, prane himdni saroani bhutani ramanie;

sarvdm ha vd asmtn bhutani msanti, saroani bhutani ratnante,

ya evam veda

1 'Brahman is food' say some This is not so, for, venly, food becomes putrid without life 'Life is Brahman' say some. This is not so, for life dries up without food. But these two deities when they become united attain their highest state. So Pratrda said to his father: 'What good, indeed, can I do to one who knows this, or what evil, indeed, can I do to him?' The father said to him with (a gesture of) his hand, 'Oh, no, Pratrda, who attains the highest state (merely) by entering into unity with these two ?' Then he said to him this. 'This is vi. Food is vi, for all these beings rest m food This is ram. The vital breath is ram, for all these beings delight in life. Verily, indeed, all beings enter into him, all beings delight in him who knows this.'

The mutual dependence of life and matter, prana and anna, is brought out

Thirteenth Brahmana MEDITATION ON LIFE-BREATH

I tiktham. prano va tiktham, prdno hidam sarvam utthapayati. uidhdsmdd uktha-vtd vlras Usfkah, ukthasya sayuyyam salokatdm jayati.ya evam veda.

298

The Principal Upamsads V 13 4

1 The uktlta The life breath, venly, is the uktha for it is the life breath that raises up all this From him there rises up a son who knows the uktlta He who knows this wins union with and abode in the same world as the uktha.

uktha a hymn of praise, saslram S One should meditate on the hfe-breath as the uktha

For uktha as the principal part of the mahd-vrata sacrifice, see Attareya Aranyaka II 1 2 and K U III 3

No man without life ever rises na hy aprdnah kaSad utttsthati 5s

2 yajuh prdno vat yajuh, prune himam sarvdm bhutam yujyante, yujyante hdsmat sarvdnt bhutam sraisthydya. yajusah sayujyam salokatam jayah, ya evam veda

2 The Yajus The life-breath, venly, is the yajus for in life-breath are all beings here united United, indeed, are all beings for (securing) his eminence He who knows this wins union with and abode m the same world as the Yajus

One should meditate on the life-breath as the yajus It is the name of one of the Vedas, but here is used for the principle of union No one without life has the strength to unite with another na hy asati prime kenactt kasyaad yoga-sdmarthyam £

3 sama prano vat sama, prdne himam sarvdm bhutam samyanct, samyanct hdsmai sarvdm bhutam sraisthydya kalpante samnah sayujyam salokatam jay ah, y a evam veda

3 The Sdman The life-breath, venly, is the sdman for in life do all these beings meet All beings here me et for securing his eminence He who knows this wins union with and abode in the same world as the Sdman

kalpante samarthyante 5

4 ksatram prdno vat ksatram prdno hi vat ksatram, trayaie hainam prdnah ksamtoh pra ksatram atram dpnott ksatrasya sayujyam salokatam jayatt, ya evam veda

4 The Ksatra The life-breath, venly, is the rule, for venly, life-breath is rule The life-breath protects one from being hurt He attains a rule that needs no protection He who knows this wins union with and abode in the same world as the Ksatra

ksamtoh Life protects the body from wounds It has the property of self-repair sastrddi-himsilat punar mdtnsendpiirayali yasmdt S ksatram atram V ksatramdtram, obtains identity with the ksatra or becomes the life-breath, prdno bhavati S

V 14. 3 Brhad-dranyaka Vpanisad 299

Fourteenth Brahmana THE SACRED GAYATRl PRAYER

1 bhumir antariksam dyauh ity astav aksardni; astaksaram ha va ekam gdyatrym padam, etad u haivdsya etat, sa yavad esu tnsu lokesu, tdvaddha jayati, yo'sya etad evam padam veda.

1. The earth, the sky and heaven (make) eight syllables. Of eight syllables, verily, is one foot (line) of the Gdyatri. This (one foot) of it is that He who knows the foot of the Gdyatri to be such wins as far as the three worlds extend.

The Gayairi (or Samtri) is a sacred verse of the R. V. It reads: — tat savitur varenyam, bhargo devasya dhimahi, dhiyo yo nah praco- dayat 'We meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant sun; may he inspire our intelligence,' III 57. 10. There is a metre called Gayairi which has three feet of eight syllables each. The Gayairi verse is in this metre

2 rco yajiimsi sdmdni, ity astav aksardni; astaksaram ha va ekam gayatrai padam. etad u haivdsya etat. sa ydvatiyam trayivtdya, tdvad ha jayati yo'sya etad evam padam veda.

2 Rcah (verses) Yapahsi (sacrificial formulas) Sdmdni (chants) (make) eight syllables. Of eight syllables, verily, is one foot of the Gay air This (one foot of it) is that (series). He who knows the foot of the Gdyatrl to be such wins as far as this threefold knowledge extends

The three Vedas constitute the second foot of the Gdyatri

3 prdno'pano vydnah, %ty astav aksardni; astaksaram ha va ekam gayatrai padam etad « haivdsya etat. sa yavad idam prdni, tdvad ha jayati, yo'sya etad evam padam veda athdsya etad eva Uiriyam darSatam padam parorajd ya esa tapati; yad vai catur- tham tat iuriyam; darsatam padam Hi, dadria iva hy esah; parorajd iti, sarvam u hy evaisa raja ttpari ilpari tapati. evam hatva inya, yas”asd tapati, yo'sya etad evam padam veda.

3 Prdna (ui-breath), apdna (out-breath), vyana (diffused breath) (make) eight syllables. Of eight syllables, verily, is one foot of the Gdyatri This (one foot of it) is that series ne who knows the foot of the Gdyatri to be such wins as far as his breathing extends. Of this (the GdyatrT) this, indeed, K the fourth, the visible foot, above the dark skies (the sun)

called the visible foot because it has come into sight as it were.

300 The Principal Upantsads V 14 5

He is called above the dark skies, because he glows yonder far higher and higher than everything dark. He who knows that foot of it to be such, he glows with prosperity and fame

dariatam visible dadfsa iva, dfsyata iva

4. saisd gdyatry etasmims turiye darSate pade parorajasi pratisthttd, tad vat tat satye pratisthitam, caksur vai saiyam, caksur hi vat satyam, tasmad yad tddnim dvau vivadamdndv eyatam aham adariam, aham airausam iti ya evath brilyat; aham adarSam tit, tasmd eva iraddadhydma tad vat tat satyam bale pratisthitam, prdno vat balam, tat pr&ne pratisthitam, tasmad ahull balam satydd ogiya ttt, evam vesd gdyatry adhyatmam pratisthttd sd hatsd gaydms tatre, prand vat gaydh; tat prdndms tatre, tad yad gaydms tatre, tasmad gdyatri ndma saydm evdmum sdmtrim anvaha, esawa sd. sayasmd anvdha, tasya prdndms trdyate

4 That Gdyatri rests on that fourth, the visible foot, above the dark skies That again rests on truth Venly, truth is sight; for, venly, truth is sight Therefore, if now, the two persons come disputing, one saying, T saw,' and the other 'I heard,' we should trust the one who says, T saw' Venly, that truth rests on strength Life-breath, venly, is strength Truth rests on life- breath Therefore they say that strength is more powerful than truth Thus is that Gdyatri based with regard to the self The Gdyatri protects the gayas, the gay&s are the hfe-breaths and it protects the life-breaths Now because it protects the life- breath, therefore it is called the Gdyatri That Savitri verse which (the teacher) teaches, it is just this And whomsoever he teaches, it protects his life-breaths

The three-footed Gdyatri consisting of the gross and the subtle worlds, rests with its three feet on the sun yatha miirtamurtatmdkam jagat tn pada gdyatri aditye prahsthita ogiyah ojiyah, more powerful, ojastaram

gaydh life-breaths prandh or the organs such as that of speech which produce sound gdyantUt gaydh vag upalaksttdi caksur-adayab A gaya-tranat gayatri

5 tarn haitam eke sdmtrim anustubham anvahuh vag anustup; etad vacam amibruma ttt na tathd kurydt gdyatrim eva samlrim anttbruydt yadt ha vd apy evam-vid bahv iva pratigrhndti, na havaa- tad gdyatrya ekam cana padam prati

5 Some teach (to the pupil) this Savitri verse as an anustubh

V, 14 7- Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 301

metre (saying) that speech is anustubh and that we impart (teach) that speech to him One should not do like that One should teach the Sdvitri which is the Gayatri Verily, if one who knows thus receive very much (as gifts) that is not at all equal to a single foot of the Ga.ya.tn

There is no such thing as too much for him for he is identified with the universe na hi tasya sarvatmamo bahu-mmasti kim at. S.

6. sa ya imams trin lokdn pumdn praUgrhnvydt, so'sya dot frathamam padam apnuyat; atha yavatiyam trayi vidyd, yas tdvat prattgrhmydi, so'sya dad dvitiyam padam apnuyat; atha ydvai idam pram, yas tdvat pratigrhniyat, -so'sya etat trtiyam fadam apnuyat, athasya etad eva turiyam darsatam padam, •parorajd ya esa tapaU, naiva kenacandpyam; kuta u etdvat prahgrhmydt

6. If one receives these three worlds full (of wealth) he would accept the first foot of it (the Gayatri) If he receives as much as in this threefold knowledge (of the Vedas) he would receive the second foot of it If he receives as much as there is breathing here, he would receive the third foot of it But that fourth, the visible foot, above the dark skies, who glows yonder is not attainable by anyone whatsoever How could anyone receive such (a gift)?

The purport is that the Gayatri should be meditated upon in its entire form tasmdd gayairy evam-prakdropdsyely arthah £

7. tasyd upasthdnam- gdyatn, asy eka-padi dm-padl tn-padi oatus-pady a-pad ast, na ht padyase namas te tunyaya darsatdya ■padaya parorajase, asav ado ma prdpad iti, yam dvisydt, asdv “aw” ^ m Samr ^^ tt m hamdsmai sa kdmafr sam- radhyaU yasmd evam upatisthate, aham adahprdpam %h va

{ a sa ^ uta ^ 10n of it: 0 Gayatri, you are one-footed, two- looted, three-footed, four-footed You are footless for you do not go about Salutation to you, the fourth, the visible foot, aoove the dark skies May he not attain this (may the enemy never attain his object) (Should the knower of the Gayatri) 'm if tied towards anyone (he should) either (use this verse) fwfc Wsh not P ros P er -' Indeed that wish is not prospered fw m re S ard t0 whom one salutes thus or 'may I attain wat (cherished wish) of his '

“paslhSna salutation, upetya sthanam, natnas-karanam. S going near

302 The Principal Upamsads V. 15 1.

and staying or saluting The act of approaching the gods with a request The request may be imprecatory against another or auspicious for oneself dvi-mdham upasthdnam, abhicdnkam, dbhyu- dayikam ca A

footless m his own unconditioned form, ataJi param-parena mru- padhikena svenatmana'padast S

8 etadd ha vat taj janako vaideho budilam dsvatardsvm uvdca' yan nu ho tad gdyatri-md abruthah, atha katham hasti bhuio vahasiti mukham hy asyah, samrat, na vtddm cakdra, ih hovaca, tasya agmr eva mukham yadi ha va apt bahu ivagnau abhyadadhah, sarvam eva tat samdahaii, evam havoatvam-vii yady apt bahv tva papain kurute, sarvam eva tat sampsdya iuddhah p&to'jaro'mrtah sambhavah.

8 On this point, venly, Janaka (King) of Videha said to Budila AsvatarasVi. 'Ho, how is it that you who spoke of yourself as the knower of Gayatri, have come to be an elephant and are carrying?' 'Because, Your Majesty, I did not know its mouth,' said he Fire is, indeed, its mouth Venly, indeed, even if they lay a large quantity of fuel on the fire it burns it all Even so, (though) one who knows this commits very much evil, bums it all and becomes clean and pure, ageless and immortal

'Why then being a fool like an elephant dost thou carry (the burden of sin of accepting gifts) ? ' Madhva

Fifteenth Brdhmana

PRAYER TO ADITYA BY A DYING PERSON

1 hiranmayena patrena saiyasydpihitam mukham

tat tvam, pusan, apavrnu, satya-dharmaya drstaye 1 The face of truth is covered with a golden disc Unveil it, 0 Pusan, so that I who love the truth may see it

See Mattrl VI 35 apthttam hidden, for no one whose mind is not concentrated can see it, a-samdhita-cetasam adrsyatvdt S 'Venly, thou art a god that hidest thyself ' Isaiah XLV. 15

mukham face, essential nature, mukha-sadr&am mana ily arthah Kuranarayana

pusan' the sun, the god of light, who is the protector of the world

V 15 3 Brhad-ara^yaka Upanisad 303

jagatahposanatpusaramh. 6. airita-posana-svabhava, whose nature is the protection of those who seek refuge in him. Vedanta Deiika apavrnu remove the -cause of obstruction to the vision, dariana- praiibandha-kdranam apanayet 5 Reality, Heraclitus observed, likes to hide Fragment 123 Being remains essentially concealed and hidden It is the primary mystery. We are said to behold the truth when the real stands naked before us. When we break down the surface of appearances, reality is uncovered satyanlharmaya. . to me who have been worshipping truth or who have been practising virtue as enjoined S to me whose principle is truth The connection of truth with liberation is traditional m Indian thought

The many, if it is divorced from the one, becomes the obscuring veil of the one We must get nd of the opposition of the one and the many, look upon the one as the manifold one which is itself the expression of the Absolute One

2 pusam, ekarse, yama, siirya, fraja-patya, vyuha rasmin samfika-tejah

yat te rupam kalyanatamam, tat te pasyami yo sav asau purusas, so'ham asmt

2 0 Ptisan, the sole seer, 0 Controller, 0 Sun, offspring of Praja-pah, spread forth your rays and gather up your radiant light that I may behold you of loveliest form Whosoever is that person (yonder) , that also am I *

fftamh One who travels alone, eka eva rsati gacchati iiy ekarsih S

4 iif m ° VeS al ° ne ' Siirya ek&ki carail Tmttiri y a Samhtts V* 1 -

yma the controller, sarvasya samyamanad yamah. §. npam Myamtamam. of loveliest form St John of the Cross, ine soul prays to see the Face of God, which is the essential com- munication of His Divinity to the soul, without any intervening mecuum , by a certain knowledge thereof in divinity/ Dom Cuthbert Butler- Western Mysticism (1922), p. 72.

wflaw ami- refers to a form of worship in which the worshipper contemplates the immanent God as one with himself He who “weus m the Sun is one with the light in one's deepest nature. In “nse vet ses, the seeker wishes to have God-realization, a direct inception of the Reality. 'Like as a hart desireth the water-brooks, » longest my soul after thee, 0 God ' Psalm XLI.

3 vayuramfam atnrtam athedam bhasmantam sariranv

M W if 1 ' 0 smara ' totem smara, krato smara, krtam smara.

this b T life enter into the immortal Dreath ; thea ma y ot »y end in ashes O Intelligence, remember, remember

304 The Principal Upamsads V 15 4

what has been done. Remember, 0 Intelligence, what has been done Remember.

amriam anilam immortal breath

Now that I am dying, may my life (vayu) abandoning its bodily adjunct enter the immortal breath B U III 2 13 R V X 16 3 Satapatha. Brahmana X 3 3 8. Aitareya Brahmana II 6 According to his physician Eustochius, the last words of Plotmus which he heard were 'I was waiting for you, before the divine principle m me departs to unite itself with the divine in the universe ' krato O Intelligence — the Intelligence has purposes and plans: samkalpatmaka Cp ' Now venly, a person consists of purpose ' kratu-maya C U III 14 1 At the hour of death, we have to remem- ber our past and also meditate on the Supreme kftam what has been done, may mean the perfected 'Remember perfection '

kratu is also sacrifice The Supreme is the lord of sacrifice

By meditating on the Supreme who is the lord of sacrifice, by surrendering to Him, we pray for the revelation of His Supreme presence kraturiipinam bhagavantamjfiana-yajna-gocaram abhimukhi kurvann tad-anugralmm y Scale Vedanta Dehka

4. agne nay a supathd, raye asman, visvam, deva, vayunam vidvan,

yuyodhy astnaj juharanam eno bkuyislham te nama-uMim vidhema

4 0 Agni (Fire), lead us, along the auspicious path to prosperity, O God, who knowest all our deeds Take away from us deceitful sin We shall offer many prayers unto thee.

See R V I 189 1 who knowest all our deeds It is an expression of humility born of the sense that we are always in God's presence, that all our thoughts and actions are open to His sight He is at all times present with us take away from us deceitful sm It is an imploring or supplication concerning sms God is a searcher not of words but of hearts.

VI. r 4- Brhad-Sranyaka Upanisad

3°5

CHAPTER VI

First Brahmaya

THE SIX BODILY FUNCTIONS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF LIFE-BREATH

1. yo ha vaijyestham ca irestham ca veda, jyesfhai ca iresthas” ca svanam bhavati, prano vai jye4hai ca, sresfhai ca, jyesthas' ca SretfhaS ca svanam bhavati; apt cayesam bwbhusati, ya evam veda.

1. Venly, lie who knows the oldest and the greatest becomes the oldest and the greatest of his own people. Life-breath is, indeed, the oldest and the greatest. He who knows this becomes the oldest and the greatest of his own people as well as of those of whom he wishes so to become.

See CU V. 1, K U III 3, Prasna II. 3.

Oldest and greatest are the attributes of priority in age and excellence The oldest is not necessarily the greatest. The vital force is, however, the first m time as well as in importance.

2. yo ha vm vasistham veda, vasisthah svanam bhavati vdg ww. vasi&ha vasisfhah svanam bhavah. apt cayesam bubhusah ya evam veda.

z. Venly, he who knows the most excellent becomes the most excellent of his own people. Speech is, indeed, the most excellent. He who knows this becomes the most excellent of his own people as well as of those of whom he wishes so to become.

!T^i ktp^' that helpi one to dwell or covers one

splendidly. S ahsayena vasumattvath vasistkatvam R

3- yo ha vai prattsiham veda, pratitisthatt same, prahttsihati «wp caksur vat prahsiha, caksusd hi same ca iurge ca prati- mnah prahtitfkatt same, pratitisthatt durge, ya evam veda

eve ' 5×6 who ^ nows ^ ft™ 1 Dasis k as a fi™ 1 basis on J tt | r ? und » has a firm basis on uneven ground. The eye,

“weea, is the firm basis for with the eye one has a firm basis R even and on uneven ground. He who knows this has a firm on even ground, has a firm basis on uneven ground.

kkna 0 ^ Sttm P a ^^ v zda, sam Msmai padyate, yam kamam Mnii&h ram vai sompat; irotre hime sarve veda abhtsam- veda Sam ^ mai ptdyate, yam kamam kdmayate, ya evam

306

The Principal Upam$ads

VI i 8.

4 Venly, he who knows prosperity, for him, indeed is attained whatever desire he desires The ear, indeed, is pros- perity for in the ear are all these Vedas attained For him who knows this, whatever desire he desires is attained.

Only he who has the organ of hearing can study the Vedas

5 yo ha vd dyatanam veda, dyatanam svdndm bhavah, Syatanam jananam mam vd dyatanam, dyatanam svdndm bhavah, dyatanam jananam, ya cvam veda

5 Venly, he who knows the abode becomes the abode of his own people as well as of (other) people The mind, indeed, is the abode He who knows this becomes the abode of his own people as well as of (other) people

6 yo ha vat prajdtim veda, prajdyate ha prajayd pasubhth. reto vat prajdtih, prajdyate ha prajayd paiubhih, ya evam veda

6 Venly, he who knows procreation procreates himself with offspring and cattle Semen, venly, is procreation He who knows this, procreates himself with progeny and cattle

By semen is meant the organ of generation, relasa prajananen- dnyam upalaksyate §

7. ie heme prdndh, aham sreyase vivadamdndh brahma jagmuh, tadd hocuh, ko no vasi§tha th tadd hovdea, yasmm va utkrdnia tdam sarlram pdpiyo manyate, sa vo vasistjta th

7. These vital breaths, disputing among themselves about their self-supenonty went to Brahma and said, 'Which of us is the most excellent?' He then said, that one of you is the most excellent after whose departure this body is thought to be worse off.

vasisfha V, fresfha

8 vdg ghoccakrdma. sd samvatsaram pro$ya, dgatya, uvdea katham asakata mad rtejivttum itt, te hocuh, yatlid kaldh avadanto vded, prdnantah prdnena, pasyantas caksusd, irnvantah irotrem, vidvdmso manasd, prajdyamdndretasd, evam ajivipneit pravivesa ha vdk

8 (The organ of) speech departed and having remained absent for a year came back and said, 'How have you been able to live without me?' They said, 'As the dumb, not speaking with speech but breathing with the breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, knowing with the mmd, procreating with the semen Thus have we lived ' Then speech entered in

VI i 12. Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 307

9 caksur hoccakrdma. tat samvaisaram prosya, dgatya, uvaca katham asakata mad rte pvitum 1U te hocuh yathdndhdh, apaiyan- tii caksusa, pranantah prdnena, vadanto vdcd, irnvantah srotrena, vi&vamso manasd, prajdyamdnd relasd, evam ajivtsmeti pravi- veia ha cahul}

9 The eye departed and having remained absent for a year came back and said, 'How have you been able to live -without me They said 'As the blind not seeing with the eye, but breathing with the breath, speaking with the speecb, hearing with the ear, knowing with the mind, procreating with the semen Thus have we lived ' Then the eye entered in.

10 irotram hoccakrdma tat samvaisaram prosya, dgatya, uvaca, kaiham asakata mad rtejivttum iti. tehocuh;yathd badhrdh asrnvantah hotrena, pranantah prdnena, vadanto vdcd, paiyantai caksusa, vidvamso manasd, prajdyamdnd retasd, eoam afivtsmeh. prawveh ha irotram

10 The ear departed and having remained absent for a year came back and said, 'How have you been able to live without me?' They said, 'As the deaf not hearing with the ear, but breathing with the breath, speaking with the speech, seeing with the eye, knowing with the mind, procreating with semen Thus have we lived ' Then the ear entered in

11. mano hoccakrdma tat samvaisaram prosya, dgatya, uvaca, katham aSakata mad rte fivitum tU. te hocuh yathd mugdhdJt avidumso manasd, pranantah prdnena, vadanto vdcd, pasyantalii caksusa, irnvantah srotrena, prajdyamdnd retasd, evam afivtsmeti fiavivda ha manah.

H The mind departed and having remained absent for a year came back and said 'How have you been able to live without me?' They said, 'As the stupid not knowing with the mind but breathing with the breath, speaking with the speech, seeing with, the eye, hearing with the ear, procreating with the semen Thus have we lived Then the mind entered in.

12. reto hoccakrdma tat samvaisaram prosya, dgatya, uvaca: «wum aiakata mad rte jiviHm %h te hocuh, yathd hlMb, itkP^ retas d, pranantah prdnena, vadanto vdcd, pasya-

Cfl ™««, irnvantah irotrena, vidvdrhso manasd, evam tyvismeh pravtveSa ha retah

ham ^ len 56111611 organ, of generation) departed and «”ng remained absent for a year came back and said- 'How

308 The Principal Upantsads VI 1. 14

have you been able to live without me?' They said, 'As the impotent not procreating with semen, but breathing with the breath, speaking with the speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, knowing with the mind Thus have we lived.' Then the semen entered in

13 afha ha prima utkramisyan, yathd maha-su-hayah satndha- vah pagwsa-s'ankhun samvrhet, evam hatvemdn pranan samva- varha te hoctth ma bhagavah utkramih, na vat saksyamas ivad rie fivitwm ttt, tasyo me bahm kuruteh, tatheh

13 Then as the life breath was about to depart, even as a large fine horse of the Sindhu land might pull up the pegs to which his feet are tied, even so did it pull up those vital breaths together They said. 'Venerable Sir, do not go out, venly, we shall not be able to live without you.' 'If I am such make me an offering ' 'So be it '

samdhavah sindhu-desa-prabhavah. R

to which his feet are tied pada-bandhana-sankhun R

14 sd ha vdg uvaca yad vd aham vasisthdsmt, tvam tad vasistho'sih yad vd aham pratisthasmi, tvam tat pratistho 'si h caksuh yad vd aham sampad asmi, tvam tat sampad asi, ih srotram yad vd aham dyatanam asmi, tvam tad dyatanam asi, th manah, yad va aham prajdttr asmt, tvam tat prajattr asi, ttt retah. tasyo me kith annam, kim vasa ttt. yad idam him ca, a ivabhyah, a krimtbhyah, a kita-patangebhyah, tat te annam, dpo vasa ttt na ha va asydn annam jagdham bhavah, nanannam pratigrhitam, ya evam etad anasydnnam veda tad vidvdmsah irotnyd aiisyanta dcdmantt, ahtvdcdmantt, etam eva tad anam anagnam kurvanto manyante

14 Speech said, 'Verily, that m which I am most excellent in that are you the most excellent ' 'Venly that m which I am a firm basis va that are you a firm basis,' said the eye 'Venly, that m which I am prospenty, in that are you prospenty,' said the ear. 'Venly, that in which I am an abode, m that are you an abode,' said the mind 'Venly, that in which I am pro- creation, m that are you procreation,' said the semen 'If such I am, what is my food, what my dwelling?' 'Whatever there is here, even unto dogs, worms, insects and birds, that is your food, water is your dwelling He who knows that as the food of breath, by him nothing is eaten that is not food, nothing is received that is not food ' Therefore wise men who are versed

VI 2.2

Brhai-dranyaka Upanisad

309

in the Vedas when they are about to eat, take a sip (of water) ; after they have eaten they take a sip. So indeed, they think they make that breath not naked (they remove its nakedness).

my excellence is yours mama vasisthatvam tvad-adhinam

even unto dogs whatever is food for the dogs, etc , is food for you.

yat km cttprambhir adyamdnam annum, tat sarvam tavannam §.

Second Brahmana

LIFE AFTER DEATH

1. ivetaketur ha vd druneyah pancdldndm parisadam ajagama. sa ajagdma javodhm pravdhanam paricdrayamdnam. tarn uiiksya, abhyuvada, kumdra iti. sa, bhoh, %ti pratituirdva amsisto no ast pitreti, aunt ih hovaca.

1 Venly, SVetaketu Aruneya went up to an assembly of the PaScalas He went up to Pravahana Jaivali who was having his servants wait on him. Seeing him, he addressed him, Young man' He answered, 'Sir.' Then (the King said) 'Have you been taught by your father?' 'Yes,' he said.

SeeCU V 3 10

2 vettJia yathemdh prajdh prayatyo viprahpadyante, iti na m hovaca vettho yathemam lokam punar dpadyanU, tit. na %ti f mv ^a vettho yathdsau loka evam bahubhih punah pundl} prayadbhir na sampuryate ttt na iti Jiaivovdca. vettho yatxthydm ttmyam hutdydm dpah purusa-vaco bhutvd samutthdya vadanti, «» «a ih havoovaca vettho deva-ydnasya vd pathah pratip'adam dv^^ V& ' yat ^ rtvS ' deva-ydnam vd panthdnam prattpa- tyante pitr-ydnam vd. api hi na rser vacah irutam.

ave srti airttavam pitrndm aham devdnam via martydndm; tabhyam tdam msvam emt sameh yad antard pitaram mdta- ramca

& nahatn ata ekam cana veda, iti hovaca. hfp y ° U know how P eo Pl e here on departing (from this how riP 81318 m Cerent-directions?' 'No,' said he 'Do you know vJ vT y Come back mt0 thls world?' 'No,' said he 'Do ?vhoT° W y ^ y° nder world 1S not me6 - U P mtil the man y

whirt w and agam ' s° there? ' ' N °/ said he - ' Do y° u ™

0Wat ”>n that is offered the water becomes the voice

3io The Principal Upantsads VI 2 4

of a person, rises up and speaks ?' 'No,' said he 'Do you know the means of access to the path leading to the gods or of the one leading to the fathers? 1 e by doing what the people go to the path of the gods or the path of the fathers? For we have heard even the saying of the seer I have heard of two paths for men, the one that leads to fathers and the one that leads to the gods By these two all that lives moves on, whatever there is between father (heaven) and mother (earth) ' 'Not a single one of them do I know,' said he

srli gati

vtsvam all, samastam £

This (earth) is the mother and that (heaven) is the father tyam vat mata asau pita” Satapatha Brahmana XIII 297, Tattttriya Brdhmana III 8 9 1 Heaven and earth are the two halves of the shell of the universe, dyavd-prttnvydv anda-kapale £

3 athatnam vasatyopamantraydm cahe anddriya vasalim kumdrah pradudrdva sa djagdma pitaram, tarn hovdca itt vdva hla no bhavan pttrdnusistdn avocad th, katham sumedha, ttt paiica via prasndn rdjanya-bandhur aptdksit, tato natkam cana vedelt katame ta th wui tit ha praiikdny uddjahdra

3 Then he (the King) gave him an invitation to stay Disregarding the invitation to stay the young man ran off He went to his father To him he said, 'Verily, you have, before, spoken of me as well instructed ' 'What then, wise one?' (said the father) 'Five questions, that fellow of the princely class asked me Not a single one of them do I know ' 'What are these (questions) ?' 'These,' and he repeated the topics

4 sa hovdca tathd nas tvam, tdta, janithd, yathd yad aham kim ca veda sarvam aham tat tubhyam avocam preht Ut tatra pratitya, brahmacaryam vatsydva itt bliavan eva gacchatu ttt sa djagdma gautamo yatra pravdlumasya jawaUr dsa tasmd dsanam dhrtya udakam dhdraydm cakdra, atlta hdsmd arghyam cakdra, tarn hovdca, varam bhagavate gautamdya dadma ttt

4 He (the father) said 'My child, you should know me as such, that whatsoever I myself know, all that I have told you But come, let us go there and live as students of sacred know- ledge ' 'You may go, sir,' said the son Then Gautama went forth to where (the place) Pravahana Jaivah was (The King) brought him a seat and had water brought for him He gave him a respectful welcome Then he said to him. 'A boon we offer to the revered Gautama '

VI 2 8 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 311

5. sa hovaca' pratijiiato ma esa varah; yam tu kumdrasydnie vaoam abhdsathdh, tarn me bruhth.

5 Then he said 'You have promised me this boon Please tell me the speech you uttered in the presence of the young man '

6. sa hovdva datvesu vat, gautama, tad varesu; manusdqam IriihUt

6 He (the King) said, 'Verily, Gautama, that is among divine boons Please state some human boon.'

7 sa hovaca vtjndyate ha ash htranyasydpattam, go-asvandm dasinam pravdrdndm partdhdnasya; ma no bhavdn bahor anan- tasydparyantasydbhyavaddnyo bhM ttt sa vat, gautama, iirthenec- c/wsa ttt upatmy aham bhavantam. tit vdcd ha smaiva purva upayanh sa hopdyana-ktrtyovdsa.

7 Then he said 'It is well known that I have abundance of gold, of cows and horses, maid servants, retinue and apparel Be not ungenerous towards me, sir, m regard to that which is the abundant, the infinite, the unlimited ' 'Then, verily, 0 Gautama, you should seek it m the usual form.' 'I come to you, sir, as a pupil ' With this declaration, verily, indeed, the ancients approached as pupils So with the announcement of coming as a pupil he remained

frawrmam retinue, panvardndm S

Mhena m the usual prescribed form, nydyena sdstra-vthttena S“ 1 irtlta is a place of pilgrimage generally on the bank of a sacred

ow^tk 1 near a holy spnng lt 1S denved from the root ' ' t0 cross over inose who cross over the stream wash their sms and become punned

According to the tradition, seekers belonging to higher castes have Decome pupus to teachers of a lower caste, by living with them tl*~A necessar y for them to touch the feet of the teacher or serve mem A simple declaration will do

. ?. M j ^wSca* tatha nas tvam, gautama, maparddhas tava ca

brih yaai& ' %yam Vld y etah purvam na kasmtmi cam aiwsna ttt,a Sttj tdm tv aham tubhyam vaksyamt ko ht toavoam trmnbm arhatt pratydkhydtum ttt

nsV he ( the Km §) said ” 'Please do not be offended with This S ^ your P aternal grandfathers did not (with ours). »C; ^ has never hitherto dwelt with any Brahmana vo 7«,?. eVer - But 1 staU teach it to you, for who can refuse }0Uwhen you speak like this.'

312 The Principal Upantsads VI. 2. 12

9. asau vat loko agmh, gautama tasyadttya eva samit, rasmayo dhtlmah, ahar arcih, dtso'ngdrah, avdntaradtio visphulingdh, tasmmn etasmmn agnau devah sraddham juhvati, tasyd ahutyai soma raja sambhavatt

9 'Yonder world, Gautama, is (sacrificial) fire The sun itself is its fuel, the rays its smoke, the day the flame, the quarters the coals, the intermediate quarters the sparks In this fire the gods offer faith Out of that offering King Soma arises

yonder world heaven dyu-loka

the fuel because of kindling, samtndlianat S Heaven is illumined by the sun

king, of the manes and brahmanas pttfndtn brdhmandnam ca S

10 parjanyo vd agmh gautama tasya samvatsara eva samit, abhrani dhumah, vidyud arcih, asamr angardh, hrddumyo visphulingdh, tasmmn etasmmn agnau devah somam rdjdnam juhvati, tasyd ahutyai vrstih sambhavatt

10 'Parjanya (the god of ram), Gautama, is fire The year itself is its fuel, the clouds its smoke, the lightning the flame, the thunder-bolt the coals, the thundering the sparks In this fire the gods offer the king Soma Out of that offering ram arises

parjanya ram god vrstt-pravartako devah R the clouds its smoke A quotes Kahdasa's Meghad&ta ash khalv abhrdndm dhiima-prabhavalve gdthd, dhuma-jyohs-salila-marutam sanmpdtah kva megliah

11 ayam vat loko'gmh, gautama. tasya prthtvy eva samit, agmr dhumah, rdtrtr arcih, candramd angardh, naksatrant visphulingdh, tasmmn etasmmn agnau deva vrsttm juhvati, tasyd dkutyd annam sambhavatt

11 'This world, venly, Gautama, is fire The earth itself is its fuel, fire the smoke, night the flame, the moon the coals, the stars the sparks In this fire the gods offer ram Out of that offering food anses

this world the abode where all creatures are born, experience the results of their past work, which consists of action, its factors and its results prdm-janmopabliogasrayah kriyd-karaka-phala-vtiisfah. S

12 puruso vd agtith, gautama tasya vydttam eva samit, prdno dhumah, vdg arcih, caksur angardh, irotram visphulingdh, tasmmn etasmmn agnau deva annam juhvati, tasya ahutyai retah sambhavatt.

VI. 2 15

Brhad-aravydka Vpanisad

313

12 'The person (man) verily, Gautama, is fire. The open mouth itself is its fuel, vital breath the smokes, speech the flame, the eye the coals, the ear the sparks. In this fire the gods offer food. Out of that offering semen arises.

open mouth vivrtam mukham. S.

13 yosa va agmh, gautama. tasyd upastha eva samit, lomani dhumah, yomr amh, yad antah Jtaroh U'ngarah, abhinanda msphuhngah, tasminn eUtsminn agnau deva reto juhvati, tasyd ahdyai purusah sambhavaii. sa jivah yuvaj jivati. atJia yada mnyate.

13 'The woman, verily, Gautama, is fire. The sexual organ itself is its fuel; the hairs the smoke, the vulva the flame, when one inserts, the coals; the pleasurable feelings the sparks; In this fire the gods offer semen Out of this offering a person arises He lives as long as he lives Then when he dies,

Sexual intercourse is treated as a kind of soma sacrifice, where the household fire is identified with the wife. The sacrificial fire is the divine womb into which one pours (siiicaii) himself and from which a solar rebirth ensues

mserts. antah-karanam, nmthuna-vyaparah §.

The question about the number of offerings before water rises up possessed of a human voice and speaks is answered.

14 athainam agnaye harantt, tasyagnir evagnir bhavati, samit samit, dhumo dhumah, arcir arcih, angdrd angdrdh, visphulvftgd vtsphdtngdh tasmmn etasmmn agnau devdh purusaih y'uhvah; tasya ahitiyai puruso bhdsvara-varnah sambhavaii.

14 'They carry him to (be offered in) fire. His fire itself becomes the fire, fuel the fuel, smoke the smoke, flame the fiame, coals the coals, sparks the sparks In this fire the gods offer a person Out of this offering the person, having the colour of light, arises

bhasvam-varnah having the colour of light, radiant, exceedingly bright, having been purified by the rites performed from conception to cremation- aiiiaya-diptiman msekadibhtr antyahtty anivaih karmabhis samskrtalvat §

15 te ya evam etad vtduh, ye cam! aranye iraddlidm satvam ufasak, icmr ablnsambhavanU, arciso'hah, ahna aMrvamd- m-paksam .dpuryamdna-paksad yan san masan udann Sditva eti mascbhyo dcm-hkam, deva-lokdd ddityam, ddUyU vSat' ian vardyntan puruso mdnasa etya frahma-lokdn gamlyat%

314

The Principal Upamsads

VI 2 16,

tesu brahtna-lokcsu parol} paravato vasanh. tcsam na punar avrttih

15 'Those who know this as such and those too who meditate with faith in the forest on the truth, pass into the light, from the light into the day, from the day into the half-month of the waxing moon, from the half-month of the waxing moon into the six months during which the sun travels northward, from these months into the world of the gods, from the world of the gods into the sun, from the sun into the lightning (fire). Then a person consisting (born) of mind goes to those regions of lightning and leads them to the worlds of Brahma In those worlds of Brahma they live for long periods Of these there is no return

who with faith meditate on the truth Sraddlid-yitktds santak Js

manasah consisting (born) of mind A person living in the world

of Brahma sent forth, created by Brahma, by the mmd brakma-

loka-vasi puruso hrahmana manasd srs(ah

pardh exalted mrattsaydnandai£varya-§dhnah R

paravato V pardvanto R

16 atka ye yajnena ddnena tapasd lokdii jayantt te dhilmam abkisambfiavantt, dhiimdd ratrvm, rdtrer apaksiyamdna-pak$am, apaksiyamdna-paksddydn san indsan dakswddttya ett, mdsebhyah pitr-lokam, pitr-lokdc candram, te candram prapydnnam bliavaiitt, tarns Mr a devd yathd somam rdjdnam apyayasva, apakstyasveti, evam endms tatra bhaksayanti, tesdm yadd tat paryavaiti, athemam evdkdSam abhimspadyante, dkd&dd vdyum, vdyor vrshm, vrsfeh prthivim; te prthivim prapydnnam bhavanh, te punah punisagnau huyante, tato yosdgnau jdyante lokdn pratyu- tthdymas ta evam evdnupanvartante atha ya etau panthdnau na viduh, te kitdh, patangdh, yad tdam dandaiukam

16 'But those who by sacrificial offerings, charity and austerity conquer the worlds, they pass into the smoke (of the cremation fire), from the smoke into the night, from the night into the half-month of the waning moon, from the half- month of the waning moon into the six months during which the sun travels southward, from these months into the world of the fathers, from the world of the fathers into the moon Reaching the moon they become food There the gods, as they say to king Soma, increase, decrease, even so feed upon them there When that passes away from them, they pass forth into this space, from space into air, from air into ram, from ram

VI 3 i. Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 315

into the earth Reaching the earth, they become food Again, they are offered in the fire of man Thence they are bom in the fire of -woman with a view to going to other worlds Thus do they rotate But those who do not know these two ways, become insects, moths and whatever there is here that bites.“

This Brahmana, CU III ro, KU I give different versions of the two ways after death, but they all agree that there is repeated return to rebirth in forms determined by the deeds of the past This process will continue until saving knowledge is attained, which frees the soul from the necessity of rebirth

Third Brahmaiia

THE MEANS FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF A GREAT

WISH

I sa yah kamayeta' mahat prapnuydm tit, ttdagayana apuryamdna-paksasya punyahe dvddasdham upasad-vrati bhutvd, audumbare kamse camasa va sarvausadham phalamh sambhrtya, pansamuhya, panlipya, agmm upasamadhaya, paristirya, aoria- jyatit samskrlya, puritsd naksatreqa, mantham sammya, julioh.

ydvanfo devas tvayt, jdta-vedah,

tiryanco ghnanti pimisasya kkmdn,

tebhyo'ham bhdga-dheyam jtihomt:

te ma irptdh sarvaih kdmais tarpayantu svdha

yd hrasci mpadyate

aham vidharamh

torn ivd ghrtasya dhdraya

yajc samrddhamm aham, svdhd

I Whoever may wish, “I would attain greatness in the northern course of the sun or on an auspicious day of the half- month of the waxing moon, having performed one upasad ceremony for twelve days, having collected in a dish made of the wood of the sacred fig tree or in a cup, all herbs and their fruits, having swept around, having smeared around, having built up a fire, having strewn it around, having purified the melted butter in the prescribed manner, having compounded the offering on a day presided over by a male star, makes an offering, saying 0 fire (aU-knower), to all those gods under

3i6

The Principal Upantsads VI 3 3

you who spitefully slay the desires of a person, I offer them a share Let them, being satisfied satisfy me with all desires Hail To that deity who turns out spiteful under your protec- tion, saying I support all, I offer this stream of melted butter. Hail

greatness mahatlvam §

all kerbs and their fruits sarvausadha-phala-vihstam S all-knowing jdtamjdlam vettt vdjatejate miyata iti

2 jyesthdya svahd, iresthdya svahd, ity agnau hutvd, manihe samsravam avanayatt

prdndya svahd, vaststhdyat svahd, ity agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayatt

vdce svahd, prattsfhdyat svahd, ity agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayatt

caksuse svahd, sampade svahd, tty agnau hutvd manthe sams- ravam avanayatt

irotraya svahd, dyatandya svahd, tty agnau hutvd manthe sams- ravam avanayatt

manase svahd, prajdtyat svahd, tty, agnau hutvd manthe sams- ravam avanayatt

retase svahd tty agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayatt

2 'To the oldest, hail, to the greatest, hail' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion To the vital breath, hail, to the richest, hail' saying this, he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion *To speech, hail, to the firm basis, hail (saying this) he offers an oblation m the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion 'To the eye, hail, to prosperity, hail' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion 'To the ear, hail; to the abode, hail' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder m the mixed potion 'To the mind, hail, to procreation, hail' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder m the mixed potion 'To the semen, hail' (saying this) he offers an oblation m the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion

3 agnaye svahd, tty agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayatt samaya svahd, tty agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayatt. bhuh svahd tty agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayatt. bhuvah svahd tty agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayatt svah svahd tty, agnau hutvd manthe samsravam

VI 3 4 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 317

avanayati bhur bhuvah svah svaha ity, agnau hutvd months samsravam avandyati brahmane svaha ity, agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayati ksatrdya svaha, ity, agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayati bhutdya svaha ity, agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayati bhavisyate svaha ity, agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayati. vihdya svaha ity agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayati. sarvdya svaha, ity, agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayati prajapataye svaha, ity, agnau hutvd manthe samsravam avanayati.

3 'To fire, hail,' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder m the mixed potion. 'To the moon, hail,' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder m the mixed potion. 'To the e”arth, hail,' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion 'To the atmosphere, hail,' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion. 'To the sky (heaven) hail,' (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion. 'To the earth, atmosphere and sky, hail/ (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion. 'To the Brahmanahood, hail/ (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion 'To the ksatrahood, hail/ (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion 'To the past, hail/ (saying this) he offers an oblation m the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion. 'To the future, hail/ (saying this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion. 'To the universe, hail/ (saying this) he offers an oblation m the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion. 'To all (things), hail/ (saying this) he offers an oblation m the fire and pours the re- mainder in the mixed potion. 'To Praja-pah, hail/ (saving this) he offers an oblation in the fire and pours the remainder in the mixed potion.

4- athatnam abhmrsah, bhramad asi, palad asi, pwrnam asi prasiabdham asi, eka-sabham asi, hmkrtam asi, hmkriyamdnam ast, udgttham ast, udgiyamdmm asi irdvitam asi, pratydirdvitam asi ardre samdiptam asi, vibhur ast, prabhur asi, annam ast, jyoiir ast, nidhanam ast, samvargo'sih.

4 Then he touches it (the mixed potion) saying- 'vou are the moving (as breath), you are the burning (JZ), you S

3*8 The Principal Upamsads VI 3. 6

the full (as the sky), you are the steadfast (as the sky), you are the one resort (as the earth), you are the sound hm that is made (at the beginning of the sacrifice by the prastotr) You are the making of the sound hm You are the loud chant (sung by the udgatr at the beginning of the sacrifice) You are the chanting You are recited (by the adhvaiyu) and are recited back (by the dgnidhra) You are the glowing m the moist (cloud) You are the pervading, you are the ruler You are food (as the moon) You are light (as fire) You are the end You are that m which all things merge.'

prastdbdham' steadfast, mskampam still A ardrc m the cloud, meghodare A nidhanam- end, layah A

5. athainam udyacchati amamsi, dmam hi te mahi, sa hi rdjesdno'dhipahh, sa mam rdjetano dhipatim karotv tti

5 Then he raises it (saying), 'You know all We too are aware of your greatness He is, indeed, the King, the Ruler, the Highest Lord May he make me the king, the ruler and the highest lord '

See C U V 2 6 amamsi You know all, tvam sarvam mjanasi A he the vital breath, pram rdjadi-gunah A

6 athainam dcamati tat savitur varenyam madhu void rtdyate, madhu ksaranh sindhavah, madhvir nah santv osadhth, bhuh svaha, bhargo devasya dhimahi, madhu naktam utosasah, madhumat pdrthwam rajah, madhu dyaur astu nah pita, bhuvah svaha, dhiyo yo nah pracodaydL madhumdn no vanaspatih, madhuman astu siiryah, madhvir gavo bhavantu nah, svah svaheti sarvam ca samtrlm anvaha, sarvds ca madhumalih aham evedam sarvam bhuydsam, bhur bhuvah svah svaheti, antata dcamya, panl praksalya, jaghanendgmm prdk-sirah samviiatt pratar adityam upatisthate dtsdm eka-pundankam asi, aham manusyandm eka-pundarikam bhuydsam iti yatheiam elya, jaghanendgmm asino vam&am japati

6 Then he sips it (saying) 'On that adorable light The winds blow sweetly for the righteous, the rivers pour forth honey May the herbs be sweet unto us To earth, hail Let us meditate on the divine glory May the night and the day be sweet May the dust of the earth be sweet May heaven, our father, be sweet to us. To the atmosphere, hail May he inspire

VI 3 10 Brliad-dranyaka Upamsad 319

(illumine) our understanding May the tree be sweet unto us May the sun be sweet, may the cows be filled with sweetness for us To the heaven, hail He repeats the whole Savitri hymn and all the verses about the honey (saying), May I indeed be all this, hail to the earth, atmosphere and heaven Having thus sipped all, having washed his hands, he lies down behind the fire with his head towards the east In the morning he worships the sun (saying) of the quarters (of heaven), 'you are the one lotus flower May I become the one lotus flower among men ' Then he goes back the same way (by which he came), sits behind the fire (on the altar) and recites the (genealogical) line (of teachers)

SeeRV III 62 10, 1 go. 6-8 varenyam adorable, varaniyam. A naktam rainh A idosasah divasah A

7 tarn hattam udddlaka drunir vdjasaneyaya ydjnavalkyd- yantevdsina uktvovaca, apx ya enam suske sthanau msvncet, jdyeran sdkhah, praroheyuh paldsdntti

7 Then Uddalaka Arum told this to his pupil, Vajasaneya Yapavalkya and said, 'If one should sprinkle this even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth '

leaves patrani R

8 clam u Jtavoa vdjasaneyo ydjiiavalkyo maihukdya pamgyd- ydnievdsma uktvovaca, apt ya enam suske sthanau msvncet jdyeran Sdkltdh praroheyuh paldidnitt.

jAJ* 1611 V& jasaneya Yapavalkya told this to his pupil Madhuka, the son of Paingi and said 'If one should sprinkle this even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth '

t 9 clam u haiva madhukah pamgyas ciildya bhdgavtttaye ntcvasma uktvovaca, apt ya enam suske sthanau msifoti jaycian SdkMh, ptaroheyuh paldsdntti

9 Then Madhuka Paingya told this to his pupil Cula Bhaea- vitti and said 'If one should sprinkle this even on a dry stump branches would grow and leaves spring forth '

Jlf- mi u J mva ciil ° ^dgavUhr jdnakdya dyasthund- yantcvaswa uktvovaca, apt ya enam Suske sthdmu nisifcet nycransakhdh praroheyuh paldidmti mstneet

320 The Principal Upamsads VI 3 13.

10 Then Ciila Bhagantti told this to his pupil Janaki Ayasthiina and said 'If one should sprinkle this even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth '

11 etam u Imva janakir dyasthmiah saiyakdmdya jabala yantevdsina uklvovdca, apt ya mam suske sthanau msiiicet, jdyeran Sakhah, pratoheynh palasaniti

11 Then Janaki Ayasthiina told this to his pupil Satyakama Jabala and said 'If one should sprinkle this even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth '

12 etam u haiva satyakamo jdbdlo'ntevastbhya nktvovdca, apt ya enam iuske sthanau msincet, jdycran sdklidh praroheyuh palasaniti tarn etam ndputraya vdnante'vdsme vd bruyat

12 Then Satyakama Jabala told this to his pupils and said 'If one should sprinkle this even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth One should not tell this to one who is not a son or to one who is not a pupil '

For a similar prohibition about teaching sacred knowledge, see SU VI 22, Mattri VI 29

S mentions that the two, the son and the pupil are declared to be eligible to receive sacred knowledge They are chosen out of the six_ qualified learners wdyddhtgame sat tirtham

A mentions the six, a pupil, a knower of the Vedas, an intelligent person, one who pays, a dear son and one who exchanges another branch of learning Stsyah irotnyo medhavi dhanadayi pnyah pxdro vidyaya vidya-dateti sat tirtham

13 catur auduvibaro bhavah, audumbarah sruvah, audum- barai camasah, audumbara idhmah,audttmbaryd upamanthanyau, dasa grdmydni dhdnyam bhavanti mht yavds ttla-mdsa anu- pnyamgavo godhiimdi ca masuras ca klialvdi ca khalakhtilds ca, tan pistdn dadhmi madhum ghrta upasiiicaU, ajyasya juhoti

13 Fourfold is the wood of the sacred fig tree (four things are made of it) , the spoon is of the wood of the sacred fig tree, the bowl is of the wood of the sacred fig tree, the fuel is of the wood of the'sacred fig tree and the two churning rods are of the wood of the sacred fig tree There are ten cultivated grams (used), viz nee and barley, sesasum and beans, millet, and panic seeds, wheat, lentils, pulse and vetches They should be ground and soaked in curds, honey and clarified butter And (he) offers melted butter as an oblation

VI. 4- 3

Brhad-dranyaka Vpanisai

321

Fourth Brdhmana

PROCREATION CEREMONIES

I. esdm vai bhutdndm prthim rasah, prthivyd dpah, apdm osadhayah, osadhindm puspdm, puspdndm phaldm, phaldndm purusah, puru$asya retah.

1. The earth, verily, is the essence of all these beings; of earth (the essence is) water; of water (the essence is) plants; of plants (the essence is) flowers, of flowers (the essence is) fruits, of fruits (the essence is) the man, of man (the essence is) semen.

The ceremony for obtaining a son of right qualities is given here

% sa ha pra.jarpa.tir iksdm cakre: hanta, asmai pratisihdm kalpaydniti; sa sfriyam sasrp; tarn srstvddha ttpasta; tasmat striyam adha updsita, sa etam prdncam grdvdnam atmana eva samudaparayat, tenaindm abhyasrjat

2. And Prajd-pah thought (within himself) 'Come, let me make a firm basis (abode) for him ' So he created woman. Having created her, he revered her below. So one should revere woman below. He stretched out for himself that which projects With that he impregnated her

gravanam- a stone for pressing out soma pice sonidbhtsavopala-sthdnlyam kathnya-samdnyat prajamnendnyam 5s

3. iasyd vedtr upasthah, lomdm barhih, carmddhisavane, samxddho madhyatastau muskau; sa ydvdn ha vat vajapeyena yajamdnasya loko bhavatt [tdvdn asyaloko bhavatt), ya evam vidvdn adhopahdsam carati, asdm strindm sukrtam vrnkte atha ya tdam avtdvS.11 adhopahdsam carati, dsya sinyah sukrtam wfyate

3- Her lower part is the (sacrificial) altar- (her) hairs the (sacrificial) grass, her skin the so»f«-press The two labia of the vulva are the fire in the middle Venly, as great as is the world of him who performs the Vajapeya sacrifice (so great is the world of him) who, knowing this, practises sexual inter- course he turns the good deeds of the woman to himself but £e, who without knowing this, practises sexual intercourse ms good deeds women turn into themselves '

vcdt- vedtka vttrama-sthanam, place of rest.

™f?”W sanau y°M-pdrsvayoh kathtnau md^a-kltandau A attttopahasam sexual intercourse matthunam. R.

322 The Principal Upamsads VI. 4 5

These passages indicate the intimate connection between the Alharva Veda and the Upamsads Some practices in the latter are treated m the manner of the Atharva Veda They include even love charms to compel a woman to yield her love, charms to prevent conception or bring it about when desired Even here the knowledge motive is dominant

The sexual act is explained as a kind of ritual performance, the elements of which are identified with the parts of the woman's body We are told that if a man practises sex intercourse with the know- ledge of this, he gains a world as great as he who sacrifices with the Vajapeya rite and takes to himself the merit of the women, but if he practises it without this knowledge, women take to them- selves his merit

4 etadd ha sma vai tad vidvdn uddalaka drumr aha, etadd ha sma vat tad vidvdn nako maudgalya alia, etadd ha sma vai tad vidvdn kumdra-hdnta aha, baltavo maryd brdkmandyand mrm- dnyd vmtkrto'smdl lokdt prayanti, ya tdam avidvdmso'dhopa- hasam carantiti, bahu va idam suptasya va jagrato va retail skandatt

4 This, venly, is what Uddalaka Arum knew when he said this, venly, is what Naka Maudgalya knew when he said this, venly, is what Kumara-hanta knew when he said many mortal men, Brahmanas by descent, go forth from this world impotent and devoid of ment, namely, those who practise sexual intercourse without knowing this If even this much semen is spilled of one asleep or of one awake,

wary ah mortal men, marana-dharmino manusydh £ brahmandyandh brahmanah ayanam yesdm R mrtndnydh impotent, mrvlrydh jnana-karma-bala-hinah. R

5 tad abhimr&et, ami va mantrayeta

yan me'dya retah prthivim askdntsit, yad osadhir apy asarat, yad apah,

tdam aham tad reta adade, punar mam aitu vndnyam, punas tejah, punar bhagah

punar agmr dhisnyah yathasthdnam kalpantam tty anamikdngustabhydm dddya, antarena stanau va bhruvau va mmrjyat

5. Then he should touch it or (without touching) recite 'Whatever semen of mine has spilt on earth, whatever has flowed to the plants, whatever to water, I reclaim this very semen, let vigour come to me again, let lustre (come to me) again, let glow (come to me) again. Let the fire and the altars

yj ^ g Brhad-dranyaka Upamsad 3 2 3

be found again in their usual place, (having said this) he should take it witL his rmg finger and thumb and nib it between his breasts or his eyebrows

6 atU yady udaka dtmdnam paiyet, tad abhmantrayeta:_ mam teia tndnyam yaio dravmam sukrtam th-snr U va esa sMnam yan malodvdsdh tasrndn malodvdsasam yasasvimm abkikramyopamantrayeta

6 Now if one should see himself (his reflection) m water he should recite (the following) hymn In me (may the gods bestow) lustre, vigour, fame, wealth and merit This, verily, is loveliness among women, when she has removed her soiled clothes Therefore when she has removed her soiled clothes and is lovely, he should approach and speak to her

7 sa ced asmai na dadyat, kdmam endm avaknmydt; sa ced asmai nawa dadyat, kmnam endm yaslyd vd pamnd vopahat- ydhkrdmet, vndnyeyia. te yaiasd yaia Made, ity ayaid eva bhavah

7 If she does not grant him his desire, he should buy her (with presents) If she still does not grant him his desire he should beat her with a stick or his hand and overcome her (saying) with (manly) power and glory, 'I take away your glory * Thus she becomes devoid of glory

buy her abharanadma vaSi-kurydt. R.

8. sd ced asmai dadyat. iiidnyena te yaiasd yasa ddadhami iti; ya&asvinav eva bJtavatah

8 If she grants (his desire), he says, 'With power and glory/ 'I give you glory ' Thus the two become glorious.

9 sa yarn icchet, kdmayeta met%, tasydm artham msthdya, mukhcna mukham samdMya, upastharn asyd abhtmrsya, japet:

angdd angat sambMvasi, hrdaydd adhijdyase sa tvam anga-kasdyo'si. digdha-viddhdm iva mddaya tmdm amfith mayt

th

9 If one desires a woman (with the thought) may she enjoy love with me, after inserting the member in her, joining mouth to mouth and stroking her lower part, he should recite, 'You that have come from every limb, who have sprung from the heart, you are the essence of the limbs Distract this woman here m me, as if pierced by a poisoned arrow ' artham member prajananendnyam S. kasayaJi essence, rasah. A.

324 The Principal Upamsads VI 4 12.

10 atha yam icchet na garbham dadhiteh, tasyam artham msthdya, mukJtena mukham samdhaya abhiprdnydpdnydt, mdrir yena te retasd reta ddada th, aretd eva bliavati

10. Now the woman whom one desires (with the thought) 'may she not conceive,' after inserting the member in her, joining mouth to mouth, he should first inhale and then exhale and say, 'with power, with semen I reclaim the semen from you ' Thus she comes to be without semen (seed)

Apparently, birth control is not a modern device

11 atha yarn tcchet, garbham dadhiteh, tasyam artham msthdya, mukhena mukham samdhaya apanydbhiprdnydt; mdrir yena te retasd reta ddadhdim, ity, garbhny eva bltavati

11 Now the woman whom one desires (with the thought) 'may she conceive', after inserting the member in her, joining mouth to mouth he should first exhale and then inhale and say 'with power, with semen I deposit semen in you.' Thus she becomes pregnant

12 atha yasya jdydyai jdrah sydt, tarn ced dvisydt, dmapdtre 'gmm upasamddhdya, pratilomam sarabarhis tirtvd, tasmmn etdh sarabhrstih pratilomdh sarpisdktd juhuydt, mama samiddhe 'hausih, prdndpdnau na ddadeasdv ih mama samiddhe' hausih, putra-pahlms ta ddadeasdv ih mania samiddhe'hausih tstd- sukrte ta ddade, asdv ih mama samiddhe'hausih dsd-pardkdiau ta adade asdv tti sa va esa mnndriyo visukrto'smdl lokdt praiti, yam cvam-vid brdhmamh sapati tasmdt evam-vit srotnyasya ddtena iiopahdsam icchet, uta hy evam-vitparo bhavatt

12 If a man's We has a lover and he hate him (wishes to injure him), let him put fire in an unbaked earthen vessel, spread out a layer of reed arrows in an inverse order, and let him offer (m sacrifice) in inverse order these reed arrows soaked m clarified butter, (saying) 'You have sacrificed m my fire, I take away your m-breath and out-breath, you so and so You have sacrificed in my fire, I take away your sons and cattle, you so and so You have sacrificed in my fire. I take away your sacrifices and meritorious deeds, you so and so You have sacrificed in my fire I take away your hope and expectation, you so and so Venly, he departs from this world impotent and devoid of merit, he whom a Brahmana who knows this curses Therefore one should not wish to play with the wife of one who is learned in the Vedas, who knows this,, for indeed he who knows this becomes preeminent

VI. 4 x 5- Brhad-aranyaka TJpamsad 3 2 5

See&fel B-JaUpaiha Brahmml 6 I 18; Paraskara Grhya SUtral ii. 6

Spells and incantations were familiar practices in the age when the Upamsadwas composed.

jo alha yasya jay am artavam vindet, try aham kamse no, fibel ahata-vasah, natnam vrsalah na vnaly updlumyat, trtra- tranta aplutya vrihin avagMiayet.

i<5 Now, when the monthly sickness comes upon one s wife for three days she should not drink from a bronze cup nor put on fresh clothes Neither a low-caste man nor a low-caste woman should touch her. At the end of three nights after bathing she should be made to pound rice

Sometimes it is interpreted kamsena ptbet, she should drink from a bronze cup

aplutya after bathing, snatva S

The nee is intended for the sihali-paka. ceremony.

After three nights she should bathe, put on new clothes and prepare the nee for the ceremony

14 sa ya tcchet, putro me iukto jayeta, vedam anubruvvta, sarvam ayur tyad ttt, ksiraudamm pacayitva sarpismantam ainiyaiam, tivarau janaytta vai

14 If one wishes that his son should be born of a fair com- plexion, that he should study the Veda, that he should attain a full term of life, they should have nee cooked with milk and eat it with clarified butter, then they should be able to beget (mm)

iharaie should be able to, samatihau R

15. atha ya icchet, putro me kapilah pmgalo jayeta, dvau ved&v anubruvita, sarvam ayur vyad Hi, dadhy-odanam pacayitva sarpismantam ainiyaiam, iivarau jamayiia vat.

15 Now if one wishes that his son should be born of a tawny or brown complexion, that he should study the two Vedas, that he should attain a full term of life, they should have rice cooked in curds and eat it with clarified butter, then they should be able to beget (him).

16 atha ya icchet, putro me iyamo hhit&kso jayeta, inn vedan anubruvita, saivam ayur iyad th, udodanam pacayitva, sarpismantam ainiyaiam, Tsvaraujanayjia vat

16 Now if one wishes that his son should be bom of a dark complexion with red eyes, that he should study the three Vedas, that he should attain a full term of life, they should have nee

326 Tlie Principal Upantsads VI 4. 19

cooked m water and eat it with clarified butter, then they should be able to beget (him)

17 atha ya iccket, duhtld me panditd jdyeta, sarvam ayur tydd iti, tilodanam pacayitva sarpismantam aintyatdm, isvarau janaytta vat

17 Now if one wishes that his daughter should be born, who is learned, that she should attain a full term of life, they should have nee cooked with sesamum and eat it with clarified butter, then they should be able to beget (her)

While the Upanisad seems to grant the privilege of learning and scholarship to women, § points out that this learning is limited to domestic affairs duhttuh pandttyam grha-tantra-visayam eva, vede' nadhikarat. £

The other commentators follow S whose view conflicts with ancient beliefs and practices

18 atha ya icchet putro me pandtto mgltah, samthm-gamak, iuirusitdm vacant bhdsttd jdyeta, sarvdn veddii anubrumta, sarvam ayur tyad iti, mamsodanam pacayitva sarpismantam asniyatam, isvarau janaytta vai, aiiksnma vdrsabhena vd

18 Now if one wishes that a son, learned, famous, a fre- quenter of assemblies, a speaker of delightful words, that he should study all the Vedas, that he should attain a full term of life, they should have nee cooked with meat and eat it with clarified butter, then they should be able to beget (such a son) — either veal or beef

mgltah famous, vividham gitah, prakliyatah £

susrusitam delightful, srotum islam, ramaniyam &

veal or beef uksa, secana-samarthah pungavah, rsabhah tato py

adhikavayah £

Evidently meat was permitted on certain occasions A points out that this permission was due to local conditions desa-msesapeksayd kala-visesapeksaya vd mdmsa-tnyamah

Prenatal conditioning of the child's character is advised

ig athdbhiprdtar eva stMli-pdkdvrtdjyam cestttvd, sthdli- pakasyopaghatam juhoh agnaye svahd, amtmataye svdka, devaya savitre satya-prasavdya svdhd, iti, hutvd uddhrtya prdsndti, prdsyetarasydh prayacchali, praksdlya pant, udapdtram purayttvd tenamam tnr abhyuksatt,

uttisthdto vtsvdvaso,

anyam iccka prapurvydm,

sam jdydm patyd saha, ttt.

VI 4- 2i. Brhad-drattyaka Upanisad 327

19 Now, toward morning, after having prepared clarified butter according to the mode of the sthalt-pdka he takes of the sihdli-pdka and makes an offering (saying), to fire, hail, to Anumati, hail, to the radiant sun, tie creator of truth, hail After having made -the offering, he takes up (the remnants of the cooked food) and eats Having eaten he offers (the rest) to the other (his wife). After having washed his hands and filled the water vessel, he sprinkles her thrice with it (water) (saying), 'Get up from here, Visvavasu; seek another young woman, a wife with her husband.'

slhaH-paka- literally, a pot of cooked food aorta- according to the mode, vidhina

anumati- the feminine personification of divine favour See RV X 59 6, X 167 3

vtSvdvasu gandharoa A God of love See R V X 25. 22 prapurvydm young girl, taruriim A

20 athamam abhipadyate 1

amo'ham astm, sd ivam; sd Ivam asv, amo'ham; sdmdham astm, rk vam; dyaur akam, prihivi ivam, lav ehi samrabhdvahat, saka reto dadhdvahai puthse pittrdya vittaye if*.

20. Then he embraces her, (saying), 'I am the vital breath and you are speech, you are speech and I am the vital breath I am the Sdman and you are the Rg. I am the heaven and you are the earth Come, let us strive together, let us mix semen that we may have a male child '

abhtpadyate. embraces abhpaUth dhnganam A amah vital breath prana A

SSman resb ion Rg while it is chanted rg-ddharamhsamagiyate A. samrabhavatot let us strive together, udyamam karavavahai K

21. alhdsyd m vMpayati- vijihith&m dydvdprthivi, iti tasyam ariliam nislhdya, mukhem mukham samdhdya, tnr endm

vtsmiryomm kalpayatu, tvastd rupdm pinisatu astiicatu prajd-pahh, dhdtd garbham dadhdtu te garbham dheht, smivdh; garbham dhehi, pHhustuke garbham te ahmurn devau ddhattdm puskdra-srajatt 21. Then he spreads apart her thighs, (saying) 'Spread your-

328 The Principal Upamsads VI. 4 22.

selves apart, Heaven and Earth After having inserted the member in her, after having joined mouth to mouth, he strokes her three times as the hair lies, (saying), 'Let Visnu make the womb prepared Let Tvastr shape the (various) forms Let Prajd-pati pour in Let Dhatr place the germ (the seed) for you. 0 Stntvah, give the seed; give the seed, 0 broad-tressed dame. Let the two Asvms crowned with lotus wreaths place the seed '

amdomaw as the hair lies, mfirdhanam drabhya pdddniam kalpayaitf make prepared, ptiiroipattt-samarihdm karotu_ A sit.ivdli the deity delightful to see. darsandrhd devoid A

'When the human father thus emits him as seed into the womb, it is really the sun that emits him as seed into the womb . . . thence is he bom, after that seed, that breath.' Jaimimya-Upamsad- BrdJimana III. 10 4 see also Pancavimsa Brdhmana XVI 14. 5 In Buddhist canonical literature three things are said to be necessary for conception, the union of father and mother, the mother's period and the presence of the gandharva. Majjhima Nikdya 1 265-266, see also Pahcavimsa Brdlimana IX 3 1 The gandharva corresponds to the divine nature which is the primary cause of generation, while the parents are only the concomitant causes See Philo: Seres 115 For Aristotle, 'Man and the Sun generate man ' Physics II 2 Rum! says 'When the time comes for the embryo to receive the vital spirit, at that time the sun becomes its helper This embryo is brought into movement b}- the sun, for the sun is quickly endowing it with spirit From the other stars this embryo received only an impression, until the sun shone upon it By which way did it become connected in the womb with the beauteous sun 7 By the hidden way that is remote from our sense-perception ' MathnarM I 3775- 3779 In a very real sense, the commandment is significant, 'Call no man your father on earth , for one is your Father, which is in heaven ' John VI 6 3

22 hiranmdyi ara>n yabhydm mrmantfiaiam asviiiau; lam tc garbham havdmahe dasaine mdsi sutaye' yatMgni-garbM prthivt.yathd dyaur tndrem garbhim vdyur dtsdmyathd garbliah, evam garbham dadhdmi U asdv iti

22 'The (two) Asvins twirl forth a flame with the (two) attrition sticks of gold It is such a germ that we beg of you to be brought forth in the tenth month As the earth contains the germ of fire and as the heaven is pregnant with the storm, as the air is the germ of quarters, even so I place a germ in you, so and so '

VI. 4 2 4 Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad 3^9

SeeRV X 184 also Afharoa Veda V Z5 3. Y“ 2 5 5- .

5 %ay«r vB mrtoiah A patnlmma grhmyat. ante bhartdsdvaham iti svdtmano tOma grhnaii, bharyaya va. K.

23 sosyantim adbhir abhyuksati; _

j«tM s£yM& puskannim sannngayati sarvatafi eva te garbha ejatu sahdvaitu jarayund • mdrasyayam vrajah krtah sdrgalah sapansrayah, tarn, xrdra, nirjahi garbliena sdvardm sahett. 23. When she is about to bring forth he sprinkles her with water (saying) . 'Even as the wind agitates a lotus pond on every side, even so let your foetus stir and come out along with its chorion This Indra's fold has been made with a covering enclosed around 0 Indra, cause him to come forth the after- birth along with babe.

See R V V 78 7-8 Paraskara Grhya Sutra 1. 16 f£ This hymn is uttered for successful parturition, prasava-kale sukha-prasavanartham.

5

jarayuna' with its chorion, gartha-vestana-mdtnsa-klia^dena. A come out ntrgacchatu. A.

24 jdte'gnim upasamadMya., anka ddhdya kamse prsad-djyam sammya, prsad-djyasyopaghdtam jukoti;

asmin sahasram pusyasam edhamdnah sve grhe asyopasandyam md chaitsit prajayd ca pasubhii ca, svdhd' may 1 prdndms tvayi manasd juhomi, svdhd' yat karma^diyarmcam, yad va nyunam ihakaram, agnisiat sv'istakrd mdvdn, svistam suhutath karotu nah' svdhd. 24 When (the son is) born, after having prepared the fire, after having taken (the baby) in his lap and having put curds and clarified butter in a bronze cup, he makes an oblation again and again with those curds and clarified butter (saying), 'May I increase in this (son) and nourish a thousand in my home. May fortune never depart from his line with offspring and cattle. Hail I offer to you mentally the vital forces that are in me. Whatever m my work I have done too much or whatever I have done here too little, let Agm the all-knowing, the bene- ficent, make it fit and good for us Hail.

See ASvalayana Grhya Sfdra I 13 fi: Paraskara Grhya Sutra I II f£ , SankJiayana Grhya Sutra I 19 fi

prsad-ajyam curds and clarified butter mixed, ghrta-misram dadln

•prsad-ajyam ity ucyate A

fmsyasam aneka-manusya-posoko bhfiydsam A.

33° The Principal Upanisads VI 4 28

25 atkdsya daksmam karnam abhtmdhdya, vdg vdg ttt tnh atha dadht madhu ghrtam samniya anantarhitena jata-upena prdiayah, bhus te dadhami, bhuvas te dadhami, svas te dadhami bhilr bhuvah svah sarvam tvayt dadhdmitt

25 Then putting his mouth near the child's right ear, 'he says thrice, 'speech,' 'speech ' Then mixing curds, honey and clarified butter he feeds him out of a spoon of gold which is not placed within (the mouth) saying, 'I place in you the earth, I place in you the atmosphere, I place in you the heaven I place in you everything, earth, atmosphere and heaven '

jata-rfipena hiranyena S

26 atkdsya noma karott vedo' sitt, tad asya tad gukyam eva nama bkavatt

26 Then he gives him a name (saying), 'You are Veda ' So this becomes his secret name

For a description of the two ceremonies, ayusya-kannan and medhd-janana, see, Paraskara Grhya Sutra 1, 16 3,1 17 1-4, Asva- layana Grhya SiUra I 15 1-8, Sdnkhdyana Grhya Sutra, I 24, Gobhila Grhya Sutra II 8 14-17, Mamt II 30-33

27 athatnam matre praddya stanam prayacchati,

yas te stanah iaiayo yo mayobhuh, yo ratnadhd vasuvtd yah sudatrah,

yena vtivd pusyast vdrydnt, sarasvatt, tarn tha dhatave hah

27 Then he presents him to the mother and gives him her breast saying 'Your breast which is unfailing and refreshing, wealthy, abundant, generous with which you nourish all worthy beings, Sarasvatt, give it here (to my wife for my baby) to suck from.'

See R V I 164 49 sasayah unfailing, sayah phalam, Una saha vartamdnah A

28 athdsya mataram abhtmantrayate ildsi maitrdvaruni, vire viram apjanat,

sa tvam vlravati bhava, ydsmdn viravato' karat tti. tarn vd etam dhuh, atipttd batabhuh, attpttdmaho batabhuh. paramdm bata kdstham prdpat, irtyd yaiasa brahma-varcasena, ya evam vtdo brdhmanasya putrojdyata itt

28 Then he addresses the mother (of the baby) 'You are lid, descended from Mitra and Varuna Being a heroine, you have brought forth a hero You who have given us a hero for a

VI 5 I- Brhad-dranyaka Vpamsad 331

son, be you the mother of (many) heroes.' Of such a son they say, 'You have gone beyond your father, you have gone beyond your grandfather.' Venly, he has reached the highest point in prosperity, fame and radiance of spirit, who is born as the son of a Brahmana who knows this

US' A identifies lid with Arundhati, the wife of Vasistha, the son of Mitra and Varuna* mitrd-vamnabhyam sambhuto maitra-varunah, vaststhah, tasya bhdryd mmtravaruni, sd carunihatl ila adorable stutydbhogydsi_ A viravati bahu-putrd bhava A

wre may be taken either m vocative or locative, mayi mmttttr IMte. brahmavarcasa radiance of spirit shining in the face No contempt for the body is indicated Porphyry's statement of his master- 'Plotmus, the philosopher of our time was like one ashamed of being in a body,' will not get the support of the Upanisads

Fifth Brahmana THE SUCCESSION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS

t atka vamiah. pauhmdst-ptitrah kdtydyam-putrat, katyayani- pilm gautami-putrat, gautamt-putro bhdradvap-putrdt, bhdra- dvafi-putrah pdrdiarT-putrdt, pdrdsan-putra aupasvastl-putrdt Mpasvasti-jmtrahpdrdtarT-putrdt, pdrdiari-putrah kdtydyani-ptt- irdt, katydyanl-putrah kauhki-putrai, kauiiki-putra alambt- futrac ca vaiyaghrapadi-putrdc ca, vaiydghrapadi-putrah kdnin- Pttirdc ca kdpl-putrdc ca, kdpT-putrah

1 Now the lme of teachers. The son of Pautimasi (received this teaching) from the son of Katyayani; the son of Katyayani jrom the son of GautamI, the son of Gautami from the son of flnaradvaji, the son of Bharadvaji from the son of PiraSari, uie son of Parasarl from the son of Aupasvasti, the son of Aupasvasti fr °m the son of Parasarl, the son of Parasarl from ™ son of Katyayani, the son of Katyayani from the son of Aausiki the son of KauSiki from the son of Alambi and the son of Vaiyaghrapadi, the son of Vaiyaghrapadi from the son 1 * anvi the son of Kapi, the son of Kapl- an m a ^. that the teacners are named after their mothers because siri 2 vl - r lds the “nportant place in the training of children. iesenn T ySi Sunaodn pulro bhavatUi ht praslutam; atah strim- wa Mra-vi&savad dcdrya-parampard kirtyaU.

332

The Principal Upanisads

VI. 5 3-

2. dtreyi-pidrdi, StreyT-puiro gautemtpirtrdf, gautamt-pidro bharadtdfrpidrdt, bharadvajf-putrdh pdrdsari~pidrdt, pdrdsari- ptiiro vd^^utrdt,vdts^idrahpdrdiari^utrM,pdrdsarJ-pidro var- kdrurp-pvtrdt, vdrkdrtint-pidro varkarum-putrdt, vdrteriaii-putra artabhagT-pidrdt, drtabhdguputraJi sauiigT-puirdt, saungt-pntrak sdr.krii-pidrdt, sdnkrtT-pidra dlambdyam-putrdt, dhmbdyam- puira dlamtn-ptdrat, dlainbi-pidro jdyanU-pidrdt, jdyanti-pulro mdndvkayam-ptdrdt, mandukdyam-pidTO mdndiiki-putrdt, mail- duki-putrah sdndili^pvtrdt, sdijdili-pidro rdfhitan-pxdrdt, rdihT- fari-pidro bhalvM-puirdi, bhalvM-puirah kraunciki-pidrdbhydm, hrauficila-puirau vaidabhrB-pidrdt, vaidabhrti-putrak kdriakeyi- pidrdt, tersakeyi-ptiirah pracinayogT-pidrdt, prdanayogT-pidrali sdnjim-pidrdt, sdnjtvT-pidrah prasm-pi'trdd dsurivdsimh, prdsr.T-puira dsurdyandt, dsurdyatja dsureh, dsurih —

2. from the son of Atreji, the son of Atreyi from the son of Gautami, the son of Gantami from the son of Bharadvaji, the son of Bharadvaji from the son of Parasari, the son of Parasari from the son of Vatsi, the son of Vatsi from the son of Parasari, the son of Parasari from the son of Variaruni, the son of Varkanmi from the son of Varkaruni, the son of Varkaruni from the son of Artabhagi, the son of Artabhagi from the son of Saungi, the son of £aungi from the son of SankrH, the son of Sankrti from the son of Alambayani, the son of Alam- bayani from the son of Alambi, the son of Alambi from the son of JayanrI, the son of JayanrI from the son of Mandukayam, the son of Mandukayam from the son of Mandoki, the son of HanduJd from the son of Sandili, the son of Sandfll from the son of Rathltari, the son of Rathltari from the son of Bhaluki; the son of Bhaluki from the two sons of KratmcikI, the two sons of Kraufiriki from the son of Vaidabhrfi, the son of Vaidabhrfi from the son of Karsakeyi, the son of Karsakeyi from the son of Pradnayogi, the son of PracTnayogl from the son of Sanjlvi, the son of Sanjivi from the son of Prasni, the Asurivasin, the son of Prasnl from Asarayana, Asurayana from Asuri, Asuri —

3. ydjr.atalkydt,yaj}~iavalkya udddlakdt, t'dddlako'ruijdi, aruna upavesek, upavesih kusreh, kitsrir vdja-sraiasali, vdja-iravd jihvdtato badhyogdt, jihvdvdn badhyogo'siidd vdrsagandt, asiio vdrsagaro haritdt kasyapdt, haritah kasyapah silpdt kasyapdt, silpah kaiyapak kasyapdn naidhruveh, kasyapo naidhnmr vdcah, vdg ambhinydh, amhkiny ddiiydt, dditydmmdm sufd&ni yaj&msi vdjasatteyena ydjnaodlkyendkhydyanie.

VI. 5 4- Brhad-dranyaka Upantsad 333

3 from Yajnavalkya, Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka, Udda- laka, from Aruna, Aruna from UpaveSi, Upavesi from KuSn, Kusri from Vajasravas, Vajasravas from Jihvavant Badhyoga, Jihvavant Badhyoga from Asita Varsagana, Asita Varsagana from Hanta Kasyapa, Hanta Kasyapa from Silpa Kasyapa, Silpa Kasyapa from Kasyapa Naidhruvi, Kasyapa Naidhruvi from Vac (speech), Vac from Ambnini, Ambhrni from Aditya (the sun) These white sacrificial formulas received from the sun are explained by Yajnavalkya of the Vajasaneyi school

hklam: white, because they are not mixed up (with Brahmanas), orderly, fresh avydmisrdni brdhmanena, aihava aydtaydmdnimdni yajiimst, tarn hiklam, toiddhdni £

4. samanam a sdHjm-putrdt, sdnjwl-putro mdndukdyaneh mdndukdyamr mdndavyat, mdndavyah kautsdt, kautso mahttheh, mahitthir vdma-kaksayanat, vania-kaksayanah vacasah rdjastambdyandt, ycynavaca rdjastambdyanah turat Mva$eydt, turah kdvaseyafy prajdpateh, prajdpatir brahmanah, brahma svayambhw brahmane namah

4 It is the same up to the son of Safijro, the son of Sanjivi from Mandukayam, Mandukayam from Mandavya, Mandavya from Kautsa, Kautsa from Mahitthi, Mahitthi from Vamakak- sayana, Vamakaksayana from Sandilya, Sandilya from Vatsya, Vatsya from Rusn, Kusri from Yajfiavacas Raja- stambayana, Yajfiavacas Rajastambayana from Tura Kava- §eya, Tura Kavaseya from Prajd-pah, Prajd-pah from Brahma. Brahma is the self-existent. Adoration to Brahma

Set Salapatha BrdhmanaX 659.

CHANDOGYA UPANISAD

The Chandogya Upani§ad belongs to the Sama Veda Chandoga is the singer of the Sanum. 1 The Upanisad that belongs to the followers of the Sama Veda is the Chandogya Upanisad. It is a part of the Chandogya Brahmana which has ten chapters. The first two chapters of the Brahmana deal with sacrifices and other forms of worship. The other eight constitute the Chandogya Upanisad.

The first and the second chapters discuss the problems of liturgy and doctrine such as the genesis and significance of Aum and the meaning and names of Saman

» chanda sama gayali ill chandogah

I i 2. Chdndogya Upamsad

337

CHAPTER I

Section i

THE SYLLABLE AUM AS THE UDGlTHA

i. aum xty etad aksaram u&githam updsita, aum iti hrd gdyati tasyopavydkhydnam.

i Aum One should meditate on this syllable, the udgitha, for one sings the loud chant beginning with aum. Of this (follows) the explanation.

The syllable aum, with which every recital of the Vedic chants begins, is here represented as the symbol of the Supreme and there- fore the means of the meditation of the Supreme: arcadivat para- sydtmanah pratlkam sampadyate, evam namatvena pratlkatvena ca paramaimopasana-sadhanam tresfham iti sarva-vedantesv avagatam S. Before we attain to the supreme vision of God, the contemplative realisation, we have to resort to prayer and meditation We may chant and sing with devout mind, with fervour of spirit, with an inmost longing for the things above, with a purity of soul We strive to keep the soul unembarrassed and at rest from all thoughts We direct our attention lovingly and continuously towards God

In meditation, the soul is furnished with a symbol on which we our gaze, on which we concentrate all our imagination and reasoning When meditation reaches its end, when there is no dis- traction or disquiet, when there is calm repose, sweet tranquillity, mere is the vision Any name may raise us to perfect contemplation, we start with prayer, we pass on to meditation When the discursive fn fL 06 ^ 6 ' we have contemplation The Upanisad opens with this instruction to concentrate on the syllable aum, to draw our thoughts w& i 251 other Ejects, to develop ekagrata or one-pointedness. jjymboi cannot be taken as final It has a number of aspects When and ttan jP°J® d 51110 the words of ordinary language it becomes dim HnL n F ^ e then tend t0 confine the meaning within narrow aogmatic frames Even though the syllable aum like all symbols wvers the reahty as by a veil, to those who know how to look, the yea becomes transparent.

osadJ CSim bhiitdndm Prtfavi rasah, prthvya dpo rasah, ap&m vac ° msaJ%> osa dhwfon puruso rasah, purusasya vdg rasah,

* Tgiasah, rcah sdma rasah, samna udgitho rasah. th P « %i essence of beings is the earth; the essence of of hhT 1S %Vater - Tb6 essence of water B P lants ; ^e essence esss™rV S a person The ess™ 0 * of a P^ 011 » speech The

338 The Principal Upanisads I I 9.

the Sdman (chant) The essence of the Soman (chant) is the udgitha

rasa essence, literally flavour Most of the hymns of the Sdma Veda are taken from the R V

3 sa csa rasanam rasatamah paramah parardhyo' stamo yad udgithah

3 That is the quintessence of the essences, the Supreme, the highest, the eighth, namely the udgitha.

pardrdhya highest, from -para highest and ardha place

4 katama katama rk, katamat katamat sdma, katamah kalama udgitha tti vimrstam bhavatt

4 Which one is the Rk? Which one is the Sdman 7 Which one is the udgitha? This is what is (now) considered

5 vdg eva rk, prdnah sdmomity etad aksaram udgithah, tad vd etan mtthunam yad vdk ca prdnai ca rk ca sdma ca

5 Speech, indeed, is Rk; breath is Sdman, the syllable aim is the udgitha Now, this is a pair, namely speech and breath, and also the Rk and the Sdman

6 tad etan mtthunam aum tty etasmtnn aksare samsrjyate, yadd vat mithunau samagacchata, dpayato vat tav anyo'nyasya kdmam

6 This pair is joined together in the syllable aum Verily, whenever a pair come together, they fulfil each other's desire

7 dpayita ha vat kdmdndm bhavatt ya etad evam vidvan aksaiam udgitham upaste

7 He, who knowing this thus, meditates on the syllable as the udgitha, becomes, venly, a fulfiller of desires

8 tad vd etad anujndksaram, yaddht kwi canttjandty aum tty eva tad aha, esa eva samrddhir yad anujnd, samardliayttd ha vai kdmdndm bhavatt ya etad evam vtdvdn aksaram udgithatn upaste

8 Venly, this syllable is of assent, for whenever one assents to anything he says simply 'aum ' What is assent is fulfilment. He, who knowing this thus, meditates on the syllable as the udgitha, becomes, venly, a fulfiller of desires

9 teneyam trayt vtdya vartata, aum tty dirdvayah, aum tti iamsati, aum tty udgdyatt, etasyawdksarasydpaciiyai mahimnd rasena

I 2 I

Chdndogya Upanisad

339

9 By this does the threefold knowledge proceed Saying aum, one recites - saying attm, one orders saying, aum, one sings aloud, in honour of that syllable, with its greatness and its essence

Threefold knowledge relates to the three orders of priests m the sacrificial ntes S thinks that the reference is to the Soma sacrifice

10 tenobhau kuruto yaicattad evam veda yai ca na veda: nana tu indyd cdvidya ca; yad eva vtdyaya karoti sraddhayo- pamsada, tad eva viryavattaram bhavatiti, klialv etasyaivaksara- syopavydkhydnam bhavah.

io He who knows this thus, and he who knows not, both perform with it. Knowledge and ignorance, however, are different What, indeed, one performs with knowledge, faith and meditation, that, indeed, becomes more powerful” This, verily, is the explanation of this syllable.

Vtiya is right knowledge, sraddhd is faith and upanisad is medi- tative insight upamsada yogena S.

We must perform the sacrifice with knowledge and not ignorantly We must understand what we are doing God is the inspector of our hearts as much as the judge of our acts Our acts must be accom- panied by the devotion of our minds

Section 2

LIFE (BREATH) AS THE UDGlTHA

I. devasura ha vaiyaira samyettra ubhaye prajd-patyds tadd ha leva itdgitliam djahrur anenamdn abhibhavisyama iti.

I When the gods and the demons, both descendants of uHF-vP*' contended Wltb - each other, the gods took hold of the “fgWia, thinking, with this, we shall overcome them

S_eeBU I 3 i.

™f 'J™' ? ods 311(1 demons Since the word deva is derived from a root denoting lUumination, the 'gods' stand for such functions of tndn^J* ^ ummated (regulated) by scriptures idstrodbhastta Sh^ r i ayah , And ' demon s.' opposed to the former, stand for obWf. ° ns of t he senses 325 deh e ht ™ activity towards all sensual darb,«^ P ? mmg t0 them md are naturally of the nature of ■^ess. tama atmtka vndnya-vrltayah Thus in the body of all

34° The Principal Upantsads I 2 7.

beings there is a perpetual fight between the two sarva-pramsu prati-deham devdsura-samgramo anddi-kdla-pravrtta tty abhiprayah

2 te ha ndsikyam pranam udgitham updsdmcaknre, tarn hdsurdh pdpmand mvidhuh, tasmdt tenobliayam pghrah surabht ca durgandhi ca, pdpmand hy esa viddhah

2 Then they meditated on the udgitha as the breath m the nose. The demons afflicted that with evil Therefore, with it one smells both the sweet smelling and the foul smelling, for it is afflicted with evil

3 atha ha vdcam udgitham updsdmcaknre, tarn hdsurdh, pdpmand vvmdhuh, tasmdt tayobhayam vadati satyamcdnrtamca, pdpmand hy esd viddhd

3 Then they meditated on the udgitha as speech The demons afflicted that with evil Therefore with it one speaks both the true and the false, for it is afflicted with evil

4 atha ha caksur udgttliam updsdmcaknre, taddhdstirdh pdpmand vimdhuh, tasmdt tenobhayam pasyati darianiyam cddarianiyam ca, pdpmand hy etad viddham

4 .When they meditated on the udgitha as the eye, the demons afflicted that with evil Therefore with it one sees both the sightly and the unsightly, for it is afflicted with evil

5 atha ha srotram udgitham up&sdmcakrire, taddhdstirdh pdpmand mvidhuh, tasmdt tenobhayam imoti sravamyam cdsravamyam ca, pdpmand hy etad viddham

5 Then they meditated on the udgTtJia as the ear The demons afflicted that with evil Therefore with it one hears both what should be listened to and what should not be listened to, for it is afflicted with evil

6 atha ha mana udgitliam updsdmcaknre, taddhdsurdh, pdpmand mvidhuh, tasmdt tenobhayam samkalpayate samkalr paniyam cdsamkalpamyam ca, pdpmand hy etad viddham

6 Then they meditated on the udgitha as the mind The demons afflicted that with evil Therefore with it one imagines both what should be imagined and what should not be imagined, for it is afflicted with evil

7 atha ha ya evdyam mukhyah prdnas tarn udgitham updsdm- caknre, tarn hdsurd rtva vidadhvamsur, yathdimdnam dkhanam rtvd vtdhvamseta

7 Then they meditated on the udgitha as the breath in the

I 2 13 Chdndogya Upamsad 341

mouth. When the demons hit against it they were destroyed, just as (a ball of earth) hitting against a solid stone is destroyed.

mukkya frana breath in the mouth or the principal breath a ball of earth, mrt-pinda

8 evam yathdimdnam dkhanam rtvd vidhvan'isate, evatn hatva sa vidhvamsate ya evamvidi pdpam kdmayate, yai catnam abhdasatt sa eso'smdkhaitah.

8 Just as (a ball of earth) striking against a solid rock is destroyed, so will one be destroyed who wishes evil to one who knows this, as also one who injures him, for he is a solid rock.

9 nawaitena surabhi 11a durgandhi vijdndty-apahata-pdpmd hy esa, tena yad asndti yat pibati teitetardn prdndn avail, dam u evantato'vit votkrdmati, vyddaddty evdntata ttt

9 With this (breath) one discerns neither the sweet-smelling nor the foul smelling for this is free from evil With this, whatever one eats or whatever one drinks, he protects the other vital breaths And, not finding this (breath in the mouth) one finally departs; one finally leaves his mouth open.

10 tarn hdngird udgltham updsdmcakra, eiam u evdngirasam manyante'ngdndm yad rasah

10 Angiras meditated on this as the udgitJia. People think that it is, indeed, Angiras, because it is the essence of the hmbs

11. tena tam ha brhaspatir udgltham updsdmcakra eiam u eva brfiaspatim many ante, vdgghi brhatltasyd esa patth

11 Brhaspatt meditated on this as the udgitha People think that it is, indeed, Brhaspatt, because speech is great and it is the lord thereof

12 tena tarn hdydsya udgltlmm updsdmcakra, eiam u evdvdsvam “wyantadsyddyatayate

12 Aydsya meditated on this as the udgitha. People think mat it is, indeed, Aydsya, because it comes from the mouth

} fowiamha bako ddlbhyo viddmcakdra, sa ha naimislydndm m S M a babhuva, sa ha smaibhyah kdmdn dgdyati thi? t ® s ® h y a kaew it He became the udgdir priest of w people of Naimisa. He sang out for them their desires.

samfi^^ aibhya . ls men tioned in the MB as having performed a Patv^i pmushm S Dhrta-rastra for his rude behaviour Salya

34 s The Principal Upanisads I 3 3

14 dgdta ha vat kdmdndm bhavah, ya etad evam vidvdn aksaram udgitham updsta ity adhydtmam.

14 He obtains wishes by singing, who knowing this thus, meditates on the udgitha as the syllable This, with regard to the self

These verses relate to the body and not the self

Section 3

VARIOUS IDENTIFICATIONS OF THE UDGITHA AND ITS SYLLABLES

1 athddhidaivatam ya evasau tapah tarn udgttliam updsito- dyaii vd esa prajdbkya udgdyati, udyams tamo-bhayam apahanh, apahantd ha vat bhayasya tamaso bJiavati ya evam vcda

1. Now, with reference to the divinities Hun who glows yonder (the Sun) one should meditate as the udgitha. Venly, on rising, he smgs aloud for creatures On rising, he dispels darkness and fear He, venly, who knows this, becomes the dispeller of fear and darkness

*As the sun arises, he removes the darkness of night and the fears of living beings consequent on it One who knows the sun with these qualities, becomes the destroyer of all fears of the self in the shape of birth, death, etc , and also of the cause of fear, darkness in the shape of ignorance ' S

2. samdna « evdyam cdsatt, cosno'yam, usno'satt, svara itTmam dcaksatc, svara ttt pralydsvara ity amum tasmdd vd etam wxam amuih codgTiham updsfta.

2 This (breath) in the mouth and that (sun) are alike This is warm That is warm This, they call sound and that, they call sound as the reflecting sound Venly, one should meditate on this and on that as the udgitha

3 aiha khalu vyatiam evodgitham updslta; yadvat prdnitt sa prano, yad apdmti so'pdr.ah, atha yah prdndpdnayoh sandhh sa vydno, yo vydnah sd vdk, tasmdd aprdnann anapdnaii vdcam abhivydharaii

3 But one should meditate on the diffused breath as the ttdgTlha That which one breathes in, that is the m-breath; that which one breathes out, that is the out-breath The

j 3 Chandogya Upamsad 343

amotion of the in-breath and the out-breath is the diffused ffi The diffused breath is the speech Therefore one utters speech, without in-breathmg and without out-breathing

When we speak, we neither breathe in nor breathe out

a yd vdk sd rk, tasmdd apranan anapananrcam abhivydharah;

ya rktat sama, tasmad apranan anapanan sama gayaU; yat sama

sa ttdsithas tasmad apranan anapanan udgayah

4 Speech is Rk Therefore one utters the Rk without in- breathing and without out-breathing The Rk is the Saman Therefore one sings the Saman, without m-breathing and without out-breathing The Saman is the udgitha Therefore one chants the udgitha, without m-breathing and without out- breathing.

5 ato yany anydrn viryavanti karmdm, yathdgner manthanam, cljeh saranam, drdhasyadhanusa dyamanam, apranan anapanams tarn karoli, etasya hetor vydnam ewdgitham updsita.

5. Therefore, whatever other actions there are that require strength, such as the kindling of fire by friction, the running of a race, the bending of a strong bow, one performs (them) without in-breathing and without out-breathing Therefore one should meditate on the diffused breath as the udgitha.

Whenever we do an action which involves effort and attention we hold our breath

6. atha khaliidgithdksardny updsitodgitha ih prana^ evot- pranena hy uttistliati, vdg gir vaco ha gvra ity dcaksate'nnam tham anne hidam sarvam sthitam

6 Now one should meditate on the syllables of the udgitlia, vt,gi,ilia ut is breath, for through breath one rises gi is speech, for speeches are called gvras, tha is food, for on food is all this established.

7 dyaur evot, aniariksam gih, prthivi tham, adttya evot, vdywr gir, ag7iis tham; samaveda evot, yajurvedo gir, rgvedas tham; dugdhe'smai vag doliam, yo vaco doho'nnavan annado bhavati, ya etany evam vidvan udgithaksarany updsta, udgitha tti.

7. Heaven is ut, atmosphere is gi and the earth, tha. The sun is ut, the air, gi and the fire, tlm The Samaveda is ut, the Yajurveda,gi and the Rg Veda, tha Speech yields milk and the milk is speech For him, he becomes nch in food, an eater of

344 The Principal Upamsads I 4 1

food, who knows and meditates on the syllables of the udgitha thus, tit, gi, tha

8 atha khalv ailh samrddhir upasarananity upasita yena samna stosyan syat tat sdmopadhdvet

8 Now then, the fulfilment of wishes One should meditate on the places of refuge One should reflect on the Samcm with which one is about to sing a praise

upasarandm places of refuge S means by it objects contemplated upasartavydm, upagantavydm, dhyeyam

9 yasyam rci tarn ream, yad drseyam tarn rstm, yam devatam abJnstosyan syat, tarn devatam upadhavet

9 One should reflect on the Rk in which the Saman occurs, on the seer by whom it was seen, on the divinity to whom he is about to sing a praise

10 yena chandasa stosyan syat tac chanda upadhavet yena stomena stosyamanah syat tarn stomam upadhavet

xo One should reflect on the metre m which he is about to smg a praise One should reflect on the hymn-form in which he is about to smg a praise

11 yam disam abhi?tosyan syat tarn diiam upadhavet

11 One should reflect on the quarter of space m the direction of which he is about to smg a praise

12 dtmdnam antata upasrtya stuvtta, kdmam dhydyann apra- matto'bhydio ha yad asmai sa kdmah samrdhyeta, yat-kdmah stuviteti, yat-kdmah stuvtteh

12 Finally, one should enter into oneself and smg a praise, meditating carefully on one's desire Quickly will be fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may smg the praise, yea, desiring which he may smg the praise

abhydia quickly Be sure, depend on it that it will be fulfilled.

Section 4

THE SUPERIORITY OF AUM

I aum tty etad aksaram udgttham upasitom tit hy udgdyatt, tasyopavyakhydnam

1. 4 5 Chdndogya Upanisad 345

1. Aum. One should meditate on the udgitha as this syllable, for one sings the loud chant, beginning with awn. (Now follows) its explanation.

2 deva vat mriyor bibhyalas trayim vidyam praviiams ie chandobhir acckddayan, yad ebhir acchddayams tac chandasam chaiidas tvam.

2. Verily, the gods, when they were afraid of death, took refuge in the threefold knowledge They covered themselves with metres Because they covered themselves with these, therefore the metres are called chandas.

trayim vidyam threefold-knowledge, the three Vedas

3 tan « tatra mrtyur yatha matsyam udake paripasyet, evam paryapaiyad ret samni yajusi, te nu vtdttvordhva rcah sdmno yajusah, svaram eva pravisan

3 Death saw them there in the Rg, in the Sdman and m the Yajus ]ust as one might see a fish in water When they found this out, they rose out of the Rg, out of the Sdman, out of the Yajus and took refuge m sound

svaram sound, the syllable aum

4. yadd va ream dpnoty aum ity evahsvaraty evam samaivam yaptresa u svaro yad etad aksaram etad amrtam abhayam tat pravisya deva amrta abhaya abhavan.

• 4 ,, Venly ' when one leams the Rk> one sounds out aum. (It is) the same with Sdman, (it is) the same with Yajus This sound is that syllable, the immortal, the fearless Having entered this, the gods become immortal, fearless.

5 sa ya etad evam vidvdn aksaram pranauty etad evdksaram svaram amrtam abhayam pravisah, tat pravisya yad amrta devas tad amrto bhavah

• 5 +'i, He ' Who kK^g xt thus . praises this syllable, takes refuge m that syllable, m the immortal, fearless sound, and having

Smortaf' beCOmes i™ 1 “* 4 * 1 . even ^ ^ gods become

goEXttS j£S£? I egree between the nmaort of the

346

The Principal Upamsads

I 5 5-

Section 5

THE UDGlTHA IDENTIFIED WITH THE SUN AND THE

BREATH

I atha kltalu ya udgtthah sa pranavo yah pranavah sa udgitha tiy asau va dditya udgitha, esa pranava, aum tit hy esa svarann eh

1 Now, venly, what is the udgitha is the Aum Whatis-4«?» is the udgitha And so venly, the udgitha is the yonder sun and the Aum, for (the sun) is continually sounding Aum

svarann sounding or going §

2 etam u evaham abhyagasisam, tasmdn mama tvam eko'siti ha kausitakih putram uvaca, rasmims tvam paryavartayad bahavo vai te bhavisyantity adhidaivatam.

2 'I sang praise to him alone, therefore you are my only (son) ' Thus said Kausitala to his son 'Reflect on the (various) rays, venly, you will have many sons ' This, with reference to the divinities

3 athadhyatmam ya evayam mukhyah pranas tarn udgitham updsitom lit hy esa svarann eii

3 Now with reference to the body One should meditate on the breath in the mouth as the udgitha, for it is continually sounding aum

4 etam u evaham abhyagasisam, tasmdn mama tvam eko'siti ha kausitakih putram uvaca, prandms tvam bhumdnam abhigdyatdd bahavo vat me bhavisyantitt

4 'I sang praise to him alone Therefore you are my only (son) ' Thus said Kausltaki to his son 'Sing praise unto the breaths as manifold, venly, you will have many (sons) '

5 atha khaluya udgtthah sa pranavah, yah pranavah sa udgitha iti hotr-sadanadd liatvapi durudgitam anusamaharatity anusamd- haratiti

5 Now, venly, what is the udgitha is the aum What is aum is the udgitha (If one knows this), venly, from the seat of the Hotr pnest, all wrong singing is corrected, yea is corrected.

ltotr-sadana the place from which the Hotr pnest gives instructions

16 6 Chdndogya Upanisad 347

Section 6

THE RG AND THE SAM A VEDAS

1 tyam eva rg, agnih sama, tad etad etasyam rcy adhyudham sama, tasmad rcy adhyudham sama giyata, iyam eva sagnir amas tat sama.

1 This (earth) is the Rk and fire is the Samoa This Saman rests on that Rk Therefore the Saman is sung as resting on the Rk. This (earth) is sa, and fire is ama and that makes saman.

2 antanksam eva rg, vaytth sama, tad etad etasyamrcy adhyud- ham soma, tasmad rcy adhyftdJiam sama giyate antariksam eva sa, vdyur amas tat sama.

2 The atmosphere is the Rk and the air is Saman. This Soman rests on that Rk Therefore the Saman is sung as resting on the Rk The sky is sa and the air is ama, and that makes saman

3 dyaur eva rg adityas soma, tad etad etasyam rcy adhyudham sama, tasmad rcy adhyudham sama giyate, dyaur eva sadityo'mas tat sama

3 The heaven is Rk and the Sun is Soman This Saman rests on that Rk Therefore the Saman is sung as resting on the Rk Heaven is sa and the sun is ama and that makes saman.

4 naksatrdny eva rk, candramah sama, tad dad etasyam ny adhyudham sama, tasmad rcy adhyudham sama giyate, naksatrany eva sa, candramd amas tat sama.

J b& StaiS are ^ ^ ^ mooQ 15 SSma SSma rests on that Rk. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting on the Rk.

ine stars are sa and the moon ama and that makes sama.

5 atha yad etad adttyasya suklam bhah saiva rg, atha van MJam $arah krsnam tat sama, tad etad etasyam rcy adhyiidhani sama, tasmad rcy adhyudham sama giyate,

5 Now, the white light of the sun is Rk; the blue exceeding darkness is Saman This Saman rests on that Rk, therefore uus baman is sung as resting on that Rk.

mum p a rah krsnam tad amas tat samatlia ya eso'ntar aditve

nSS/ Uri<? ° drfy 1 C > ^anya-smairur Lanya-kL ^l naRiiat sana eva smarnah. y

6^ Now, the white light of the Sun is sa and the blue,

34^ The Principal Upamsads 1. 7. 1.

exceeding darkness, is ama That makes Sdman Nowthat golden person who is seen within the sun, has a golden beard and golden hair All is golden to the tips of the nails suvaina gold, used to symbolise light, Me and immortality.

7 tasya yatha kapydsam pundankam evam aksmi, iasyodili noma, sa esa sarvebhyah pdpmabhya udtti;udeh ha vat sarvebhyal} papmabhyo ya evam veda

7. His eyes are even as a red lotus flower His name is high (uf) He has risen above all evil Venly, he who knows this, rises above all evil

The colour of the lotus is described by a comparison with the kapydsa or the seat of the monkey

8 tasya rk ca sama ca gesnau, tasmad udgithah, tasmdt tvevo- dgdtaitasya hi gata, sa esa ye camusmat paraiico lokas tesam cede deva kamanam ccty adhidawatam

8 His songs are the Rk and the Sdman Therefore (they are called) the udgitha Hence the udgatr pnest (is so called) for he is the singer of this He is the lord of the worlds which are beyond that (sun) and also of the desires of the gods This, with reference to the divinities

gesnau songs § means by it 'joints ' 'As the God is the self of all, in as much as He is the lord of the desires of all the worlds, high and low, it is only reasonable that He should haveRk and Sdman, in the shape of earth and fire, for his joints ' S

Section 7

THE RG AND THE SAMA VEDAS (continued)

1 athadhyatmam vdg eva rk, prdnah sama, tad clad ctasyam rcy adhyudham sama, tasmad rcy adhyudham sama giyalc, vdg cva sa prano'mas tat sama

1 Now with reference to the body Speech is the Rk' breath is the Sdman This Sdman rests upon -that Rk. Therefore the Sdman is sung as resting on that Rk Speech is sa and breath, ama and that makes sdman

I 7 6. Chdndogya Upanisad 349.

2. caksur eva ig atma sama, tad etad etasyam rcy adhyudham sama, tasmad rcy adhyudham sama gtyate, caksur eva sd'tmd'mas tat soma

2. The eye is the Rk, the soul is the Soman. This Soman rests on that Rk, therefore the Soman is sung as resting on the Rk The eye is so and the soul ama and that makes soman

3 irotram eva rn manah sama, tad etad etasyam rcy adhyudham sama, tasmad rcy adhyudham sama giyate, irotram eva sa mano'mas tat sama.

3 The ear is the Rk and the mind is the Soman This Soman rests on that Rk Therefore the Soman is sung as resting on the Rk The ear is sa and the mind ama and that makes soman

4 atha yad etad aksnah suklam bMh saiva rk, athayan ntlam farali krsnam tat sama, tad etad etasyam rcy adhyudham soma, tasmat rcy adhyudham sama giyate, atha yad evaitad aksnah iuklam bhah savoa sa'tha yan ntlam pardh krsnam tad amas tat sama

4 Now, the white light of the eye is Rk and the blue exceeding darkness is Saman This Saman rests on that Rk. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting on the Rk The white light of the eye is so and the blue, exceeding darkness, ama and that makes saman.

5 atha ya eso'ntai-aksxm puruso driyate saiva ik, tat sama, tad uktham, tad yajuh, tad brahma, tasyaitasya tad eva rupam yad amusya rupam, ywo amusya gesnau tau sesnau, van noma tan noma.

1 1 !1° W ' tms P erson who k seen within the eye is the hymn irk), the chant (the saman), is the recitation {uktJia), i S the sacrificial formula {yapts), is the prayer {brahman) The form oi this one is the same as the form of that (person seen in the sun} The songs of the former are the songs of this. The name oi the one is the name of the other.

6 sa esa ye cattasmdd arvanco lokds tesam ceste manusya- tclh^a-sataya^h^ lXni ^ Sm S«y««ty etamie gayantt, tasmat

nUn 5 6 1S * e l OT ? of the worlds wluch are und «- tlus one and him Therefore they are winners of wealth ' S

VtnS is a musical instrument which has had a long history in India

350

The Principal Upamsads

I.8.2

7 atha ya etad evani vidvdn sdma gdyaty ubhau sa gdyah, so'munaiva sa esa ye cdnwsmat pardnco lokds tarns cdpnoh deva-kamdmi ca

7 Now, he, who knowing this, sings the Sdman, sings of both Through the former (person in the sun) he obtains the worlds which are beyond that (the sun) as also the desires of the gods

8 athanenawa ye caitasmdd, arvdnco lokds tdmS cdpnoh manusya-kdmdmS ca tasmdd « hawam-vid udgdtd bruydt

8 And through this (person in the eye) he obtains the worlds which are under the latter and also the desires of men There- fore an ttdgdtr pnest, who knows this, should say (the following)

9 katn te kdmam agdydnity esa hy eva kdmdgdnasyesfe, ya evam vidvdn sdma gdyati, sdma gdyatt.

9 What desire may I win for you by singing? 'He, truly, becomes capable of obtaining desires by singing, he, who knowing this sings the Sdman, yea, sings the Sdman '

Section 8

THE IDENTIFICATION OF UDGlTHA

I irayo hodgithe kuiald babhilvuh, iilakah idldvatyai catkitd- yano dalbhyah, pravdhano jaivalir ttt, tehocurudgithevat kufalah smo hantodgithe kathdm vaddma tti

1 There were three persons well-versed in the udgitha, Silaka the son of Salavat, the son of Cikitana of the Dalbha clan, and Pravahana, son of JTvala They said 'We are, indeed, well-versed in the udgitha Well, let us have a discussion on the udgitha '

2 tatheti ha samupavvoiiuh, sa ha pravdhano jaivalvr uvdca, bhagavantdv agre vadatdm, brdhmanayor vadator vdcam iros- ydmiti

2 'So be it' said they and sat down Then, Pravahana, son of Jivala, said 'You two, sirs, speak first. I will listen to the words of the two Brahmanas discussing '

From this it appears that Pravahana was a Ksatnya See CUV 3 5, where he is said to t>e rdjanya-bandhuh Even though he is not a

I87 Chandogya Upamsad 351

Brahmana, he happens to be the one who knows the true meaning of vdgltha

3 sa ha itlakah sdldvatyas” ' catkitayanam dalbhyam uvaca, hanta tod prcchdmti, prcchett Iiovdca

3 Then, Silaka, son of Salavat said to the son of Cikitana of the Dalbha clan, 'Well, may I question you?' He replied, 'Question,'

4 kd samno gahr tit, svara iti hovaca, svarasya kd gahr ttt, prdna ttt hovaca, prdnasya kd gahr ity, annam iti hovaca annasya ka gahr ity, dpa lit hovaca

4 He asked, 'What is the goal of the Sawian?' He replied, 'It is sound ' He asked, 'What is the goal of sound He replied, 'Breath ' He asked, 'What is the goal of breath?* He replied, 'Food' He asked, 'What is the goal of food?' He replied, 'Water.' y

gahh goal substratum or basis or final principle gatir asrayah parayanam Uy dot §

5 apam ka gatir iti, asau loka lit hovdcdmusya lokasya kd gatir itx, na svargam lokam atmayed iti hovaca, svargam vayam lokam sdmdbhisamsthdpaydvuih svarga-satnstavam hi sdmeti.

5. (He asked) 'What is the goal of water?' He replied, Yonder world ' (He asked) 'What is the goal of the yonder world?' He replied, 'One should not lead beyond the heavenly world ' We established the Saman in the world of heaven, for the Saman is praised m heaven.

wo* ah* Sdma Veia K the W ° rId ° f heaven svar S° vai sama

6 tarn ha silakah idldvatyas caikitdyanam dalbhyam uvaca apratistfniam vat ktla te, ddlbhya, sama, yas tv etarht bruv&n

a tt. v # atls y ami miirdhd U vipatcd iti.

6 Then Silaka, son of Salavat said to Cikitana of the Dalbha

1 M>& ^ d yf' y ° Ur SSman ' ° f y° u of the Da3bha ^n, « ^established If now, someone were to say, your head will fall off, surely your head would fall off.*

head uinSS °/ thC e 5° r K “SBMted by the statement that your “eaa vui fall off if one utters a curse hke that

masya ka galtr ity ayam loka Mi hovdcdsya lokasya kd gahntt

352 The Principal Upamsads I 9 2

na pratisthdm lokam atmayed itt hovdca prahsfhdm vayam loham samdbhisamsthdpaydmah pratistha-samstdvam hi sdmeti

7 He said, 'Well, I would like to know this from you, sir, 'Know it,' said he (He asked) 'What is the goal of the yonder world?' He replied, 'One should not lead beyond this world- support We establish the Sdman on the world as support for the Sdman is praised as the support '

8 tarn ha pravdhano jaivahr uvdcantavaddhai kila te idldvatya sdma-yastvetarhi brwydn mitrdhd te vipatisyatiti murdhd te vtpated iti hantdham etad bhagavato veddniti viddhiU hovdca.

8 Then Pravahana, son of Jivala, said to him, 'Verily, indeed, your Sdman, O son of Salavat, has an end If someone now were to say, “Your head will fall off,” surely your head would fall off ' He said, 'Well, I would like to know this from you, Sir ' He replied, 'Know it '

Section 9

THE UDGITHA IDENTIFIED WITH SPACE

1 asya hkasya kd gattr ity dkdsa th hovdca sarvdm ha vd imam bhiitdny dkdsdd eva samutpadyante, akasam pratyastam yanty dkdio hy evaibhyo jydydn, dkdiah pardyanam

1 'What is the goal of tins world?' He replied, 'Space, for all these creatures are produced from space They return back into space For space is greater than these Space is the final goal'

See VII 12 1

Space is said to be the origin, support and end of all The theory that space is the ultimate ground of the world is regarded as more satisfactory than the view which traces it to sound, breath, food, water, yonder world or this world

2 sa esa paro-variydn udgithah, sa eso'nantah, paro~vanyo hdsya bhavati, paro-varlyaso ha lokdn jayatt ya etad evam vtdvdn parovariydm sam udgitham ttpdste

2 This is the udgitha, highest and best This is endless. He who, knowing this, meditates on udgitha, the highest and best, becomes the highest and best and obtains the highest and best worlds

I. io. 3.

Chdndogya Upanisad

353

3. tarn haiiam ahdhanva iatmaka udara-idndilydyoktvovdca. ydvatfaenamprajdydmtidgitkatnvedtsyante,paro-vanyo haibkyas tavad asmvmlloke jtvanam bJiamsyah.

3. When Atidhanvan Saunaka taught this Udgttha to Udara Sandilya, he also said: 'As long as they shall know this Udgitha among your descendants, so long their life in this world will be the highest and best

4. tatha'mitsmimlloke loka iti; sa ya etad evam vidvan ttpdste parovariya eva hdsydsmiThl loke fivanam bhavati, tatha'musmiml loke loka %ti, loke loka iti.

4 And so will their state in that other world be. One who thus knows and meditates — his Me in this world becomes the highest and best and so his state m that other world, yea, in that other world '

Section 10

THE DIVINITIES CONNECTED WITH THE SACRIFICES

1. mafacT hatesu kumsv dttkyd saha jayayosastir ha cakrayana tbhya-gr&me pradrdnaka uvasa

1 Among the Kurus, when they (crops) were destroyed by hailstorms.nhere lived in the village of the possessor of elephants a very poor man, Usasti Cakrayana, with his young wife, Atiki,

The story is intended to make the comprehension easier. tbhya-granie— in the village of the possessor of elephants or in the village belonging to Ibhya

2. sa hebhyam ktilmdsdn kliadantam bibhikse, tam hovaca mto nye vidyante yac ca ye ma tma upamhitd %U

2. He begged (food) of the possessor of elephants, while he was eating beans. He (the possessor) said to him: 'I have no otner than these which are set before me '

he^ S man f& th , at the beans were fa 46 Pkte from which ne was eating and therefore they were impure

«v, vcchstham vai me pttam syad iti hovaca.

•wrtS°&^ K rf 5^ ttel i sug , gests 016 aIternat »ve explanation of

354 TJ' e Principal Vpamsads 1, 10. S.

3 He said 'Give me some of them ' He gave them to him and said, 'Here is water (to drink).' He replied, 'That would be for me to drink something left by another (and hence impure) '

4 na svid ete'py iicchisthah itt, na vd ajivisyam iman akhadann th hovaca, kamo ma itdaka^pdnam itt.

4 Are not these (beans) also left over (and so impure)? 'Verily,' said he, 'I could not live if I did not eat these The drinking of water is at my will '

'One who is endowed with knowledge and fame and capable of helping himself and others, if such a one, falling into a state of distress should do such a thing (eat unclean food), no dement touches him A wrong action is faulty only when it is performed while other courses that are not wrong are open and would as easily save one's life ' §

5 sa Ya kltdditvd'ttsesdn jdydyd djaharti, sagra eva siibhiksa babhilva, tan pratigrhya mdadhau

5 “When he had eaten, he gave what still remained to his wife She had eaten well even before. After taking them, she kept them safe

6. sa ha prdtah samphdna uvdca, yad batdnnasya Jabhemaht, labhemaln dhana-matram rdjdsau yaksyatc, sa via sarvair drtvij- yatr vrmtdt

6 Next morning, he arose and said, 'Oh, if I could get some- thing to eat, I might make a little money. The king over there is having a sacrifice performed for himself He might choose (select) me to perform all the priestly offices '

7 tarn jayovaca, hania eta vma eva kulmasa itt. fan hhaiit- vamum yajnam vitatam eydya t

7 His wife said to him 'Here, my lord, are the beans Having eaten them, he went over to the sacrifice that was being performed

In addition to personal religion, the Vedas advocated public worship by means of sacrifices In the period of the Veda, there were no temples Public worship was needed m view of the social nature of man In a crowd, emotions are more easily excited In every religion, social worship of God is recognised, in which music, smguig and ntual are employed to evoke religious feeling and actions Yajiias or sacrifices are solemn and stately soaal acts

8 Mroigatrn dstave sto?yamSndn fipopavivcsa, sa ha frasto- taram uvdca

I. II. 2.

Chandogya Upanisad

355

8 Then he sat down near the Udgdtr priests as they were about to sing the hymn in the place (assigned) for singing. Then he said to the Prastotr priest:

9 prastotar yd devatd prastdvam anvdyaUd, tam ced avidvan frasfosyast, murdhd U vipatisyatiti

9. '0 Prastotr priest, if you sing the introductory praise •without knowing the divinity that belongs to it, your head will fall oft?

10 evam evodgdtdram uvdcodgdtar yd devatodgitham anvdyaUd tam ced avidvan udgdyasi, murdhd te vipaUsyaMt.

10 In the same manner he said to the Udgdtr priest, 'Oh, Vdgdtr priest, if you chant the udgiiha without knowing the divinity that belongs to it, your head will fall off '

11. evam eva pratihartdram uvdca, pratihartar yd devata prati- haram anvdyaUd, tam ced avidvan pratiharisyasi, murdhd te vtpatisyalUi te ha samdratds tusnim dsdmcaknre.

11. In the same manner, he said to the Pratihartr pnest, 'Oh, Pratihartr pnest, if you take up the response without knowing the divinity that belongs to it, your head will fall off ' They stopped and sat down in silence

In performing sacrifices we should have a knowledge of their meaning

Section 11

THE DIVINITIES CONNECTED WITH THE SACRIFICES (continued)

x. atha hainam yajamdna uvdca, bJiagavantam vd aham vwidimiUi, mastir ami cdkrdyana xti hovdca.

1 Then, to him, the institutor of the sacrifice said, 'Verily, y^^wish to know you, sir.' He replied, 'I am Usasti

2 sa hovaca, bhagavantam vd aham ebhify sarvair drtmjyaih paryavstsam, bhagavato vd aham amUyd-anydn avrsi.

offi v n ' he said ' 1 looked for y° u for these priestly unices Verily, not finding you, sir, I have chosen others.'

356 The Principal Upantsads I n. 7.

3 bltagavdms to eva me sarvatr drtvtjyatr ttt, tatheti, atha tarhy eta eva samattsrstah sluvatdm, ydvat tv ebhyo dhanath dadyds, tdvan mama dadya ttt tatheti ha yajamdna uvdca.

3 But now, sir, please take up all the priestly offices. 'Sc be it/ he said, 'let these with my permission, sing the praises But as much wealth as you give to them, so much give to me also ' The institutor of the sacrifice said, 'So be it '

4 atha hatnamprastotopasasdda • prastotaryd devoid prastdvam anvayatta, tarn ced avidvan prastosyasi, murdha te vtpatisyatttt. ma bhagavan avocat. katamd sd devatett

4 Then the Prastotr pnest approached him (and said), 'You, sir, said unto me, “Oh Prastotr pnest, if you sing the introductory praise without knowing the divinity that belong: to it, your head will fall off ” Which is that divinity

5 prana tti hovdca, sarodni ha vd tmdm bhiitdm prdnam evabhtsamviiantt, prdnam abhyujphate, satsa devatd prasldvam anvayatta tarn ced avtdvdn prdstosyo murdha te vyapattsyat tathoktasya mayeh

5 'Breath,' said he 'Verily, indeed, all beings here enter (into life) with breath, and depart (from life) with breath This is the divinity belonging to the Prastava If you had sung the Prastava without knowing it, after you had been told so by me, your head would have fallen off '

SeeTU III 3

6 atha hainam udgdtopasasddodgdlar yd devatodgitham anvd- yaiid, tarn ced avidvan udgdsyasi, murdha te mpahsyatlti ma bhagavan avocat katamd sd devateti

6 Then the Udgatr pnest approached him (and said), 'You, sir, said unto me “0 Udgatr pnest, if you sing the udgttha without knowing the divinity that belongs to it, your head m fall off ” Which is that divinity?'

7 dditya ih hovdca, sarvdm ha vd tmdm bhutdny adityam uccaih santam gdyantt, saisd devatodgitham anvayatta, tarn ced avidvan udagdsyah, murdha te vyapatisyat tathoktasya mayeh

7 'The sun,' said he 'Venly, indeed, all bemgs here sing of the sun, when he is up This is the divinity connected with the udgitha If, without knowing this, you had chanted the udgttha, after you had been told so by me, your head woulc have fallen off '

I 12 I.

Chdndogya Upanisad

357

8 atha hainam ■pratihartopasasada, praiihartar yd devatd pratt- haram anvayattd, tam ced avidvan pratihansyasi, miirdha te mpatisyahtt; ma bhagavdn avocat. katamd sa devateti.

8. Then the PraUhatir pnest approached him (and said), 'You sir, said unto me, “Oh Pratihartr pnest, if you take up the response without knowing the divinity that belongs to it, your head will fall off.” Which is that divinity?'

9 annam iti hovaca, saroani ha va iniSni bhutdny annam eva pratiharamanani jlvanti, saisa devatd pratihdram anvayattd, tam ced avidvan pratyahansy ah, miirdha. te vyapatisyat taiJwkiasya mayeh, tathoktasya mayeti.

9 'Food/ said he 'Verily, indeed, all beings here live, when they partake of food This is the divinity that belongs to the Prahhara, and if, without knowing this, you had taken up the Prahhara, after you had been told so by me, your head would have fallen off '

' Cp TU III. 2 Meditation without knowledge is barren of results

Section 12

A SATIRE ON PRIESTLY RITUAL

1 atkatah Sauva udgithah tadd ha iako ddlbhyo gldvo va maxtreyah soadhyayam udvavrdja.

1 Now, next, the udgitJia of the dogs Baka Dalbhya or Wava Martreya went forth for the study of the Veda.

Here are two names for one person. svadhyaya- study of the Vedas

Cp Patafi]ali's definition of niyama- sa ^-santosa-tapah-svddhydye^ara^ranidhanani. Yoga Siitra, II. 32. 1 * 3 s *” e study of the scriptures and recitation of mantras which lead to punty of mind

vedania-iatamdriya-pranavadi japam budhah sattva-suddhi-haram puriisam svddhyayam paricaksate Mrthyaya is the study of the scriptures dealing with hberation or «e repetition of the pranava

“Mhyayo moksa&aslranam adhyayanam pranava-japo va.

358

The 'Principal Upamsads

I 13 2

2 tasmai ivd ivetah prddur-babhuva tarn anye ivdna Upa- sametyocur annam no bhagavan dgdyatv asandydma vd ih

2 Unto him there appeared a white dog Other dogs gathered round this (one) and said, 'Obtain food for us by singing Venly we are hungry '

3 tan hovdcehawa ma pratar upasamiydteh, tadd ha bako ddlbhyo gldvo vd maitreyah prahpdlaydm cakdra

3 Then he said to them 'Come to me here tomorrow morning ' So Baka Dalbhya or Glava Maitreya kept watch

4 te ha yathaivedam bahispavamdnena stosyamdndh samrdb- dhdh, sarpantity evarrt dsasrpus te ha samupawiya htm cakruh

4 Just as the pnests, when they are about to chant with the bahispavamdna hymn of praise, move along, joined to one another, so did the dogs move along Then they sat down together and made the noise 'him '

5 aim addma, aum pibdma, aum devo varunah prajdpaUl savitdnnam ihdharat anna-pate annam ihahara, dhara, aum ih

5 (They sang), 'Aum, let us eat, Aum, let us dnnk, Aum, may the god Varuna, Prajd-pati and Savitr bring food here 0 Lord of food, bring food here, yea, bring it here Aum '

This section is a satirical protest against the externahsm of the sacrificial creed, in the interests of an inward spiritual life

Madhva attributes the hymn to Vayu, who assumed the form of a dog

Section 13

THE MYSTICAL MEANING OF CERTAIN SOUNDS

I ayam vdva loko hdu-kdrah, vdyur hdi-kdrai candramd atha- kdrah, dtmeha-kdro'gmr i-kdrak

1 This world is the syllable hau The air is the syllable hdi, the moon is the syllable atha The self is the syllable iha The fire is the syllable t

The syllables mentioned are the sounds used in the recitation of Saman hymns

2 dditya U-kdro mhava e-kdro viivedevd au-ho-yi-Mrah, prajd-palir him-kdrdh, prdnah svaro'nnam yd, vdg virdt

1 13.4

Chandogya Upanisad

359

2 The sun as the syllable « Invocation is the syllable e. The Visvedevas is the syllable au-ho-t Prajd-pah is the syllable hm Breath is sound Food is ya. Viraj is speech.

yavagvirdt Cp RV X 189 3 trimsad-dhatna vtrayak vak

Her character is prajna or prajnatman, only partially actual in the individual self-consciousness, distinguishing the I from the not-I, the inner world from the outer one In ordering life, the potential all-consciousness lies asleep m the depths of the human body It may be awakened by the discipline of yoga

3 ummktas irayodasah stobhah samcaro hwh-k£mh.

3 The undefined is the variable, thirteenth, rnterjectional sound hum

4 dugdhe'smai vdg doham, yo vaco doho'nnavan annado bhavati: ya etam evam samnmn upam§adam vedopamsadam veda

4 Speech yields to him the milk, which is the milk of speech itself He becomes rich m food, an eater of food — one who knows thus this mystic meaning of the Sanians, yea, who knows the mystic meaning

36o

The Principal Upanisads

II 2 I

CHAPTER II

Section i

THE CHANT IS GOOD IN VARIOUS WAYS

I. avm samastasya Phalu sdmna updsanam sddhu, yat khalu sddhu tat samety dcaksate, yad asad.hu tad a-sdmeti.

1. Aim, Meditation on the entire Soman is good “Whatever is good, people call Saman and whatever is not good a-saman

2. tad utapy ahi'h samnaimm iipdgdd iti sddhunainam apdgda ity eva tad ahuh asdmnainam updgdd %ty asddhvnainam updgdd ity eva tad dhvh.

2. So also people say, 'He approached with Saman' '; that is they say, 'he approached him in a kindly way/ They say, 'He approached him with no Saman,' i e they say 'he approached him in no kindly way/

Saman is understood as the good, as the dliarma.

3 athotapy ahuh soma no bateti yat sddhu bhavati sddhu baiety eva tad, ahuh, asdma no bateti yad asadhu bhavaty asadhu batety eva tad ahuh

3 And they say 'this, verily, is Saman for us ' Where they say 'this is good for us' when an3'thing is good And they say 'this is a saman for us,' where fhey say, 'this is not good' when anjihing is not good.

4. sa ya etad caath vidvdn sadhu samety updste'bhydso ha yad enath sddhavo dliarma a ca gaccheyur upa ca nameyuh

4. He who, knowing this, meditates on the Saman as good, all good qualities would quickly approach him and accrue to him.

Section 2

SOME ANALOGIES TO THE FIVEFOLD CHANT IN THE

WORLDS

1. lokesu panca-vidliah sdmopdsTta. prthivt him-kdrah, agnth prastdvo'ntariksah udgfthah, adityah pratiharo dyaur mdhanam ity urdhver.c.

II 3. 2 Chandogya UpanisaA 361

1. In the worlds, one should meditate on the Soman as fivefold; the earth as the syllable him, fire as the prastava, the atmosphere as the udgitha, the sun as the pratihara and the sky as the mdhana (conclusion) This, among the higher (ascending).

The sky is said to be mdhana, inasmuch as those that depart from this world are deposited [nidhiyante) in the sky.

2 athavrttesu, dyaur hvm-kara, adityah prastdvo'ntanksam udgitho'gnih pratiharah, prthim mdhanam

2. Now in the reverse (descending order) the sky as the syllable htm, the sun as the prastava, the atmosphere as the udgitha, the fire as the pratihara and the earth as the nidhana

The earth is the mdhana as the people that come back to the earth are deposited here.

3 hdpante hasmai lokd urdhvds cavrltas ca ya etad evam vidvaml lokesu panca-vidham samopaste.

3 The worlds, in the ascending and reverse orders, belong to him, who, knowing this thus, meditates on the fivefold Soman in the worlds

In different ways the importance of the meditation is indicated

Section 3

IN THE RAINSTORM

1. vr^iau panca-vidham samopasita, puro-vato hvnv-M.ro, megho jayate sa frastavdh, var?ati sa udgWiah, vidyotate stanayah sa prahterah

1 One should meditate on the fivefold Soman in the rain, ine preceding wind as the syllable him; the formation of the cloud is the prastava What rams is the udgitha; the lightning and the thunder as the pratihara

2 udgrhnah tan mdhanam, varsah hasmai varsayati ha ya cww vidvan vrstau panca-vidliam samopaste.

2 The cessation as the nidhana. It rams for him and he causes it to ram, he, who knowing this thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman in rain.

362

The Principal Upamsads

II 6 1

Section 4

IN THE WATERS

1 saruasv ajisu paiica-vidham samopdstta, meglw yat sampla- vate sa him-karo yad varsatt sa prastdvo, yah prdcyah syandante sa udgithah, yah piattyah sa pratiMrah, samudro mdhanam

1. One should meditate on the fivefold Saman in all the waters When a cloud forms, that is the syllable htm, when it rains, that is a prastava; when (the waters) flow to the east, they are udgitha When they flow to the west they axepratihara The ocean is the mdhana

2 na hdpsn praity apsuman bliavah ya etad evdm vidvan saroasv apsu panca-vidluan sdmopaste

2. He does not die rn water, he becomes nch in water, he, who knowing this thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman m all the waters

Section 5

IN THE SEASONS

I rtustt panca-vidham samopaslta vasanto htm-karo, grismah prastavah, varsa ndgitJiah, sarat praUharah, hemanto mdhanam

1 One should meditate on the fivefold Saman, among the seasons, the spring as the syllable htm, the summer as the prastava, the rainy season as the udgttha, the autumn as the pratthdra and the winter as the mdhana

2 kalpante hasmd rtava riuman bhavatt ya etad evath vidvan rtusit panca-vidham sdmopaste.

2 The seasons belong to him and he becomes nch in seasons, he, who knowing this thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman in the seasons

Section 6

IN THE ANIMALS

1. pasusu paiica-vidham samopasTta, ajd htm-kdro'vayah pras- tavah, gdva udgitho'Svdh pratihdrah, purttso mdhanam

II. 7 2. Chandogya Upanisad 363

1 One should meditate on the fivefold Soman among the animals, the goats as the syllable him, the sheep as the prasidva, the cows as the udgitha, the horses as the pratihdra and the human being as the mdhana

The human being is the culmination of animal development

2. bhavantt Msya paiavdh paiumdn bhavah ya etad evam vdva.11 pa&usu panca-vidham sdmopdste

2 Animals belong to him and he becomes rich in animals, he, who knowing this thus, meditates on the fivefold Soman among the animals.

Section 7

AMONG THE VITAL BREATHS

1. pranesu panca-vidhamparo-variyah samopdsita, prdno him- karo, vak prastdvah, caksur udgtthah, irotram pratiharah, mono nidhanam paro-variyamsi va etam

1 One should meditate on the most excellent fivefold Sdman among the vital breaths, breath as the syllable htm, speech as the prastava, the eye as the udgltha, the ear as the frahhara and the mind as the ntdhana. These, venly, are the most excellent.

pram, breath It is used to include the senses also pram is also explained as ghram, smell

That which is higher than the high is called paro {para «) . He who is higher than this is paro-varam He who is higher than Hasparo-varam is called paro-variyah Madhva

2 paro-variyo hasya bhavah paro-vanyaso ha lokan jayatiya clad evam vidvdn pranesu panca-vidliam paro-variyah samopasta, mi tit panca-vidhasya

2 The most excellent belongs to him, he wins the most excellent worlds, he, who knowing this thus, meditates on the most excellent Sdman among the vital breaths.

364

The Pnnapal Upanisads II 9 2

Section 8

SOME ANALOGIES TO THE SEVENFOLD CHANT SPEECH

1 atha sapta-vtdhasya, vdci sapta-vidham samopasita, yat kim ca vaco hum iti sa himkaro, yat preti sa prastavah, yad eh sa ddth

1 Now for the sevenfold One should meditate on the seven- fold Soman in speech Whatsoever of speech is hum, that is the syllable him, whatsoever is pra, that is prastava, and the syllable a as the first (or the beginning)

2 yad udih sa udgithah, yat pratih sa pratthardh, yad upeh sa upadravah, yan niti tan nidhanam

2 Whatsoever is ut, that is an udgtiha, whatsoever is pratt, that is a praiihdra, whatsoever is upa, that is an upadrava (or approach to the end), whatsoever is m, that is nidhana (or conclusion)

3 dugdhe'smat vag doham yo vaco doho'nnavdn annado bhavah, sa etad evam vidvan vaci sapta-vtdham samopaste

3 For him speech yields milk, which is the milk of speech and he becomes rich m food and eater of food, he, who knowing this thus, meditates on the sevenfold Saman m speech

Section 9 THE SUN

1 atha khalv amum adityam sapta-vtdham samopasita, sarvada samastena sama, mam prati mam pratih saruena samastena sama.

1 One should meditate on the sevenfold Soman in the sun He is Sama because he is always the same He is the same with everyone smce people think 'He faces me ' 'He faces me '

2 tasmmn imam sarvani bhiitany anvdyattamh vtdyat tasya yat purodayat sa htm-kdras tadasyapaiavo'nvayattds tasmat te him kurvantt him-kdra-bhapno hy etasya sdmnah

2 One should know that all beings here depend on him What he is before rising is the syllable him On this depend the animals. Therefore they utter the syllable him Truly they are partakers in the syllable htm of the Soman.

II 9 8. Chdndogya Upanisad 365

3 atha yat prathamodite sa prastavas tad asya manusyd anvayattas, tasmat te prastuti-kdmdh praSamsa-kdmdh prastdva- Ihapno hy etasya samnah.

3. Now when xt is just after sunrise, that is a prastava. On this men depend Therefore they are desirous of praise, desirous of laudation Truly they are partakers in the prastava of that Soman

Men are generally lovers of name and fame.

4. atha yat sangava-veldydm sa ddih tad asya vaydmsy anvdya- Mm, tasmat tany antankse'ndrambandny dddyd'tmdnam pan- patanty ddi-bhdfini hy etasya samnah.

4. Now when it is the sangava (cowgathering) time, that is adi On this depend the birds. Therefore they hold themselves without support, in the atmosphere and fly about Truly, they are partakers in the adi of the Soman.

5. atha yat samprati madhyan-dine sa udgithah, tad asya devd anvayattaJf, tasmat te sattamdhprdjdpatydndmiidgitha-bhdpno hy etasya samnah.

5 Now, when it is just midday, that is an udgitha. On this the gods depend Therefore they are the best of Prajdpaii's offspring Truly they are partakers in the udgitha of that Saman

6. atha yad urdhvam madkyan-dindt prdg apardhndt sa pratv- naras, tad asya garbhd anvayattas, tasmat te pratthrtd ndvapady- anU, paiihdra-bhdpno hy etasya samnah

6 Now when it is past midday and before the afternoon— tnat is a prahhdra On this all foetuses depend. Therefore they are held up and do not drop down. Truly, they are partakers in the prahhdra of that Sdman

7 atJtayad urdhvam apardhndt prdg astamaydt, saupadravah, to*Waranya anvdyaltdh, tasmat te purusam drstva kaksam svabhram ily upadravanty iipadrava-bhdjino hy etasya samnah

7- rvow when it is past afternoon and before sunset, that is an upadrava. On this the wild animals depend Therefore when « e y see a man, they run to a hiding-place as their hole. Truly “ley are partakers in the upadrava of that Saman.

fa-fun yat $ ra{ha mastamite tan nidhanam, tad asya pitaro' tna 1? , iasmSt mn mdadhati mdliana-bhdjino hy etasya samnah eww khalv amum ddityam sapta-vidham sdmopdste.

366 Tlte Principal Upantsads II 10 5

8. Now when it is just after sunset, that is the nidltana On this the fathers depend Therefore the people lay aside the fathers Truly they are partakers of the ntdliana of that Saman. Thus does one meditate on the sevenfold Saman in the sun

Section 10

THE MYSTICAL MEANING OF THE NUMBER OF SYLLABLES IN THE CHANT

X. atha khalv attna-sammitam ativirlyu sapta-vidham samo fasita, him-Mra Ui try-aksaram prastava ih try-aksaram tat samam

1. Now, then, one should meditate on the sevenfold Saman which is uniform in itself and leads beyond death The syllable him has three letters, prastava has three letters That is the same.

Though in English they are syllables, in Sanskrit each English s}'llable is represented by one letter

2. ddir iti dvy-aksaram pratihara th catur-aksaram tata lhaikam, tat samam.

2. Adt has two letters Pratthara has four letters (If we take one) one from there here, that is the same

3 vdgitha iti try-aksaram upadrava-ih catur-aksaram tnbhs tribhih samam bhavati aksaram attsisyate, try-aksaram tat samam

3 Udgitha has three letters; upadrava has four letters Three and three, that is the same, one letter left over Having three letters, that is the same

'What is left over is supposed to have three letters

4 ntdhanam iti try-aksaram, tat samam eva bhavati tdm Jm va etam dva-vimsatir aksardni.

4 Nidhana has three letters That is the same too. These indeed, are the twenty-two letters.

5. eka-vnhsaiy ddtiyam dpnott, eka-vimio vd ito'sdv ddttyo, dvd-viiiisena param ddtiyaj jdyati; tan ndkam s tad vtiokam

5 With the twenty fust, one obtains the sun Venly, the sun is the twenty-first from here With the twenty-second he

II, i2. i. CMndogya Upanisad

367

conquers what is beyond the sun That is bliss. That is sorrow- less

£ quotes 'The twelve months, the five seasons (taking the whole of winter as one) and the three worlds (earth, atmosphere and sky) (make up twenty) and the sun is the twenty-first '

6 apnati hddityasya jayam, paro hdsydditya-jaydj jayo bhavah, ya etad evam vidvdn dtma-sammitam ati-mrtyu sapta-vidham samopaste, samopaste

6 He obtains the victory of the sun, indeed a victory higher than the victory of the sun is his, who, knowing this thus, meditates on the sevenfold Sdman, uniform m itself, which leads beyond death, yea, who meditates on the (sevenfold) Saman.

Section 11

GAYATRA CHANT

1. mano hm-karo vak prastdvah, caksur udgUhah, irotram fraiilidrah, prano mdhanam, etad gayatram pranesu protam.

1. The mind is the syllable him, speech is the prastava, the eye is the udgttha, the ear is the pratihara, the breath is the mdhana This is the Gdyatra-chzat woven in the vital breaths

2. sa ya evam etad gayatram pranesu protam veda pram bha- vah, sarvam dyur eh, jyog jivati, mahdn prajaya pasubhir bhavah, mahdn Mrtya mahdmandh sydt, tad vratam

2 - He who knows thus this Gdyatra chant as woven in the 1 „ reaths > becomes the possessor of vital breaths, reaches the full length of life, lives well, becomes great m offspring and in cattle, great in fame One should be great-minded. That is the rule.

Sf great - mmded He w” 1 not be petty-minded ahsudra

Section 12 RATHANTARA CHANT

1 J/ f hma l lthati sa htm kdrah, dhumo jayate sa prastdvah, j man sa udgttho'ngdrd bhavanh sa pratihdrah, upaidmyah tan

368

The Principal Upamsads

II 13 2

mdhanam, samidmyati tan mdhanam, etad rathantaram agnan protam

x One rubs the fire-sticks together— that is the syllable him Smoke is produced, that is the prastava It blazes. That is the udgfflui Coals are produced, that is thepratihdra. It becomes extinct, that is the rndhana This is the Raihantara as woven on fire

2 sa ya evam etad rathantaram agnail protam veda, brahma- varcasy annddo bhavati, sarvam ayur eh, jyog jivati, mahdn prajaya pa&ttbhtr bhavatt, mahdn klrtya; na pratyann agnvm aca- men na msthtvet, tad vratam

2. He who knows thus this Raihantara chant as woven on fire becomes radiant with sacred wisdoms, an eater of food, reaches the full length of life, lives well, becomes great in off- spring and in cattle, great in fame One should not take a sip of water or spit before the fire That is the rule

Section 13 VAMADEVYA CHANT

1 upamantrayate sa him-karah, piapayate sa prastavah, stnya saha iete sa udgtthah, prati strlm saha iete sa pratihdrah, kdlam gacchah tan mdhanam, param gacchah tan mdhanam' etad vama- devyam tmthune protam

1 One summons, that is the syllable Mm He makes request, that is a prastava Along with the woman, he lies down, that is the udgitha He lies on the woman, that is the prahhara He comes to the end, that is the rndhana He comes to the finish, that is the rndhana This is the Vamadevya chant woven on sex intercourse

2 sa ya evam etad vamadevyam mithune protam veda mtthum bhavatt, mtthunan mithunat prajdyate, sarvam ayur ett. Jyog jwatt, mahdn prajaya pasubhtr bhavati mahdn kirtyd, na hancana partharet, tad vratam

2. He who knows thus this Vamadevya chant as woven on sex intercourse, comes to intercourse, procreates himself from every act, reaches a full length of life, lives well, becomes great in offspring and in cattle, great in fame One should not despise any woman That is the rule

U l5 2 , Chdndogya Upanisad 3 6 9

Section 14 BflJLir CHANT

1 udyan htm-kdrak, udttah prastdvah.madhyan-dimj^itho' parahnah praUMro'stam yan nidhanam etad brhad aditye

has risen, it is the prastdva; when it is midday, it is the udgitha. When it is afternoon, it is the prahhdra. When (the sun) is set, it is the mdhana This is the Brhat chant as woven on the sun.

2. sa ya evam etad brhad aditye protam veda, tejasvt annado bhavah, sarvam ayur eh, jyog jivah, mahdn prajaya pasubhtr bhavah mahdn kirtyd' tapantam na mndet, tad vratam.

2 He who knows thus this BM chant as woven on the sun becomes refulgent, an eater of food, reaches a full length of life, lives well, becomes great m offspring and m cattle, great in fame. One should not decry the burning sun That is the rule.

Section 15 VAIRUPYA CHANT

1 abhram samplavante sa himkarah, meghojdyate saprastdvah, varsah sa udgithah, vtdyotate stanayah sa pratihdraJt, udgrhnati tan mdkanam, etad vairupam parjanye protam

1 The mists come together, that is the syllable him. A cloud is formed, that is the prastdva. It rams, that is the udgttha It flashes and thunders, that is the pratihdra It holds up That is the mdhana. This is the Vairupya chant woven on ram.

2 say a evam etad vairupam parjanye protam veda, virupdms' ca suriipami ca paiunavarundhe, sarvam ayur eh,jyogjivah, mahdn prajaya paiublar bhavah, mahdn kirtyd, varsantam na mndet, tad watam

2 He who thus knows this Vairupya as woven on ram, acquires cattle, of various form and of beautiful form, reaches a full length of life, lives well, becomes great in offspring and in cattle, great in fame One should not decry when it rams That is the rule

370

The Principal Upanisads

II 17 2

Section 16

V A IRA J A CHANT

1 vasanto him-kdrah, grismah prastavah, varsd udgitliah, iarat pratthdrah, hemanto mdhanam, etat vairdjam rtttsu protam

1 Spring is the syllable htm, summer is the prastava, rainy season is the udgitha, autumn is the pratihara, winter is the ntdhana This is the Vairaja chant as woven on the seasons

2 sa ya evam etad vairdjam rtusu protam veda, virdjatt prajaya paiubhtr brahma-vatcasena, sarvam ayur eh, jyog jivati, maMn prajaya patubhtr bhavah maMn kirlyd, rtiln na mndet, tad vratam

2 He who knows thus this Vairaja chant as woven on the seasons shines with children, cattle and the lustre of sacred wisdom, reaches a full length of life, lives well, becomes great m offspring and cattle, great m fame One should not decry the seasons That is the rule.

Section 17

SAKVARI CHANT

1 prthtm htm-karo'ntanksam prastavah, dyaur udgtthak, diiah pratthdrah, samudro mdhanam, etah sakvaryo lokesu protah

1 The earth is the syllable him The atmosphere is the prastava The sky is the udgitha, the quarters of space are pratihara. The ocean is the mdhana These are the verses of the Sakvarl chant woven on the worlds

2 sa ya evam etah iakvaryo lokesu protd veda, loki bhavati, sarvam ayur eti, jyog jivati, mahan prajaya pasubhtr bhavati mahdn kirtyd; lokdn na mndet, tad vratam

2 One who knows these verses of the Sakvan chant as woven on the worlds becomes possessed of the worlds, reaches a full length of life, lives well, becomes great m offspring and cattle, great in fame One should not decry the worlds That is the rule

II 19 z. Chandogya Upanisad 371

Section 18

REVATl CHANT

I aja Hm-kdro'vayah prastawh, gava udgitho'ivah pratiharah, pwuso mdhanam, eta revatyah pasusu protdh.

1. The goats axe the syllable htm The sheep are tiieprastava. The cows aTe the udgUha. The horses are the praUhara. The human being is the nidhana. These are the verses of the Revatt chant woven on the animals

2. saya evam eta revatyah paiusuprotd veda,pasumdn bhavati, sarvam ayur dx, jyog jivati, mahan prajaya paiubhir bhavati mahan ktrtya; paiun na mndet, tad vratam

2. He who knows thus these verses of the Reuatl chant as woven on the animals becomes the possessor of animals, reaches the fall length of life, lives well, becomes great in offspring and cattle, great in fame One should not decry animals. That is the role

Section 19

YAjftAYA JNlYA CHANT

1. lomahm-karak, tvakprastdvah, mamsam udgitho'stht prati- harah, mafia mdhanam, etad yajMyajmyam angesu protam.

1 Hair is the syllable him. Skin is the prastdva. Flesh is the v^l?” ^° ne * s ^ e pratihara. Marrow is nidhana. This is the xafiidyatfnya chant woven on the members of the body.

2 sa ya evam etad yajnayajiiiyam angesu protam vedangl vnavati^ vdngena vihwchatt, sarvam ayur eti, jyogfivati mahan prajaya pahbhr bhavati mahan kirtyd, samvatsaram majjiio nainlyat, tad vratam; matfno ndiniyat iti va.

2 He who thus knows this YajMyaymya chant as woven on ine members of the body becomes equipped with limbs; does not become defective in any limb, reaches the full length of V e< lives w ell, great in offspring and cattle, great in fame One snouid not eat of marrow for a year. That is the rule. Rather, one should not eat of marrow at all.

The plural number mayno is used to include fish also. S.

372 The Principal Vpamsads II 21

Section 20

RA J AN A CHANT

1. agmr htm-Ttarah, vdyuh prasiavah, aditya vdgithah, nak- satrdm prahhdrah, candramd mdhanam dad rdjanam devatdsu protam

x Fire is the syllable him', Air is the prastdva Sun is the ttdgitha Stars are the pratiMia and moon is the mdhana This is fiie Rdjana chant woven on the divinities

2. sa ya evam dad rdjanam devaidsii protam vcdaitdsdm evi devatdndm salokatam sarshtdm sdyujyam gacchati, sarvam dyur eh, jyog fivatt, median piajayd paiubhir bhavati mahdn kirtyd, brahmanan na mndet, tad vratam

2 He who knows thus this Rdjana chant as woven on the divinities goes to the same world, to equality and to complete union with these very divinities, reaches the full length of life, lives well, becomes great m offspring and cattle, great m fame. One should not decry the Brahmanas. That is the rule.

He is lifted to the region of the deity whom he has loved and worshipped during life Salvation does not consist in absorption with the Absolute or assimilation to God but in getting near His presence and participating m His glory

Serfion 21

THE SAMAN REGARDING THE ALL

1 trayl vidyd htm-karah, tray a tme lokdli sa prastavo'gmr vdytir ddityah sa udgithah, naksatrdm vaydmsi ma) Tcayah sa praithdrah, sarpd gandharvah pitaias tan mdhanam, etat sdma sarvasmm protam

1 The threefold knowledge is the syllable htm. The three worlds here are the piastdva Fire, air and sun are the udgttha; stars, birds and the light rays are the praUhdra, serpents, gandharvas and the fathers are the mdhana. This is the chant as woven in all

2. sa ya evam etat sdma sarvasmm ptotam vcda, sarvam ha bliavaU.

2 He who knows thus this chant as woven on all becomes all

II. 22 3

Clidndogya Upanisad

373

3. tad esa ilokah yam p&ncadha trim trini tebhyo na jydyah param anyad, ash.

3. On this, there is this verse There are triple things which are fivefold. Greater than these, there is nothing else besides.

4. yas tad veda sa veda sarvam sarva di&o baltm asmai haranh, sarvam asmtty upasita, tad watam, tad vratam.

4 He who knows that, knows all All the quarters of space bring him gifts. One should meditate (on the thought) 'I am the All' That is the rule, yea, that is the rule

Section 22

DIFFERENT MODES OF CHANTING

1 vmardi samno vrye pasavyam tiy agner udgitho'ntruktah prajdpaieh, niruktafi somasya, mrdu slak$nam vayoh, ilaksnam balavad wdrasya, krauncam brhaspateh, apadhvantam varu^asya: tan sarvan evopaseveta, vdrunam tv eva varjayet.

1 Of the Sdman, I choose the high-sounding one as good for cattle, this is the song sacred to Fire The undefined one belongs to Praja-pati, the defined one to Soma; the soft and the smooth to Vayu, the smooth and strong to Indra; the heron-like to Brhaspati, the ill-sounding to Varuna. Let one practise all these but one should avoid that belonging to Varuna.

2 amrtatvam devebhya dgdyamty agayet svadham pitrbhya aitim manusycbhyas trpodakam patubhyah svargam lokam yajamanaydnnam dtmana dgdyamty etam manasd dhvdvann apramattah sttmta.

2. 'Let me secure immortality for the gods by singing' thus should one sing 'Let me secure offerings for the fathers oy singing hope for men, grass and water for the cattle, the world of heaven for the sacnficer and food for myself ' Thus

SreftSy m ^ ° n aU thCSe ' ° ne Sh ° uld Sing the praises

3. _«»m svard tndrasydtmdnah sarva nsmSnah prajaialer

tZ ! arVe Spmi& mrt y°rM»*™h, ton y*U svare^dlabhe- tcndram iaranam prapamio'bhiivam sa tvi prati vahsyaiy enam

374

The Principal Upanisads

II. 23 r

3 All vowels are the embodiments of Indra, all spirants are the embodiments of Prajd-pah, all consonants are the embodi- ments of Death If one should reproach a person for his vowels, he should tell that one, 'I have taken my refuge in Indra He will answer you '

4 atha yady cnam iismasupalabltcta, prajapatim iaianam prapanno' bhftvam, sa tvd pratt peksyatity cnam bhftydt atha yady enam sparsesupdlabhcia. mrtyum iaranam, piapanno'bhtlvam sa tvd ptati dhaksyatity enam btiiydi

4 So if one should reproach a person for his spirants he should tell that one 'I have taken refuge in Prajd-pah He will smash you ' And if one should reproach a person for his consonants he should tell that one, 'I have taken refuge in Death He will burn you up.'

5 sarve svard glwsavanto bahvanto vaktavyd indre balam daddnTh, sarva iismano'grastd anxrastd vtvrtd vaktavyah prajd- pater dtmanam partdaddniii, sarve spuria Icienambhimhttd vaktavyd mrlyor dtmanam panhardmh

5 All the vowels should be pronounced resonant and strong, (with the thought) 'May I impart strength to Indra ' All the spirants should be pronounced well open, without being slurred over, without being elided, (with the thought) 'May I give myself to Prajd-pah.' All the consonants should be pro- nounced slowly, without merging them together (with the thought) 'May I withdraw myself from Death '

Section 23

DIFFERENT MODES OF VIRTUOUS LIFE

I trayo dharma-skandhdh, yapw'dhyayanam danam ih, pra- tJtamas tapa eva, dvitiyo brahmacdrydcdrya-kttla-vdsi, MTyo'- tyantam dtmanam dcdiyakttlc'vasddayan sarva etc punya-lokd bhavanh, brahma-samstho'mrtatvam eh

1 There are three branches of duty, sacrifice, study and almsgiving — Austerity, indeed, is the first The second is the pursuit of sacred wisdom, dwelling m the house of the teacher Absolutely controlling his body in the house of the teacher, is the third All these attain to the worlds of the virtuous He who stands firm in Brahman attains life eternal.

11.23 3

Chandogya Vpanisad

375

tapah' austerity It is used sometimes to comprehend all forms of the pursuit of self-control

flam tapas, satyam tapas, irutam taped, santam iafio, danam tapo, yajnas tapo bhur bhwvas svar brakmaitad upasyaiiat tapah. N&rayantya 8.

brahmacarya the practice of continence

Brahman is also used for tapas or austerity Cp bhagavan ha&yapah iasvate brahmam vartate. Kahdasa: Sakuntala Act I. The commen- tators interpret Brahman as tapas brahma-samstha' He who stands firm in Brahman.

£ suggests that this refers to the parivrai or the monk who alone obtains eternal life, while others who practise active virtues obtain the worlds of the virtuous He, however, points out that there is another view held by the Vrttikara, that anyone who stands firm in the eternal obtains the life eternal He need not be a samnyasin. S argues that the true brahma-samstha is the samnyasin who gives up all actions - karma-mvrtti-laksanatnpanvrajyam brahma-samsthat- vam. S.

THE SYLLABLE AUM

2. praja-patir lokan abkyatapat; tebhyo abhtiaptehhyas trayi vtdya samprasravat, torn abhyatapat, tasya dbhttaptaya etdny aksarayi samprdsravanta bhur bhuvah svar tit.

z. Praja-pah brooded on the worlds From them, thus brooded upon, issued forth the threefold knowledge He brooded on this. From it, thus brooded upon, issued forth these syllables, bhith, bhuvah, svah.

threefold knowledge three Vedas.

bhah, earth; bhuvah, atmosphere, svah, sky

3 ian abhyatapat, Ubhyo'bhrtaptebhya aunikarah samprasravat taetyaUiasanhma sarvant panjam saiht m dny evam aumkarena sarva vak samtrnnanmkara evedam sarvam, aumkara evedam

3- He brooded on them and on them, thus brooded unon

syllable Mm is all this, yea , the syllable Aw™ ail thif'

37^ The Principal Upamsads II 24 7

Section 24

THE DIFFERENT REWARDS FOR THE OFFERERS OF OBLATIONS

1 brahmavadmo vadanti yad vasundm pratah savanam, rudranam mddhyan-dmam savanam, dditydnam ca visvesdm ca devandm trtiya-savanam

1 The expounders of sacred wisdom declare that the morning offering belongs to the Vasus, the midday offering to the Rudras and the third (evening) offering to the Adityas and the Visve-devas

2 kva iarln yajamanasya loka ih, sayas tarn na vidyat katham kttrydd, atha vtdvdn kurydt

2. Where then is the world of the sacnficer? If he knows not (this), how can he perform (sacrifices) ? So, let him, who knows, perform

3 pnra pratar annvdkasyopakaranaj jaghanena garhapa~ tyasyodanmukha upavisya sa vasavam samabhigayah

3 Before the commencement of the morning litany, he sits behind the garhapatya fire, facing the north and sings the chant sacred to the Vasus

In Srattla sacrifices, three fires are recognised, ahavaniya, daksma and garhapatya, corresponding to heaven, sky and earth. They are dedicated to the worlds of gods, ancestors and men respectively

4 loka-dvaram apavrmi, pa&yema tva vayam rajyaya ttt

4 Open the door of this world, that we may see thee for the obtaining of the sovereignty

5 atha piholi namo'gnaye prlhwi-hsite loka-ksiie lokam me yajamandya vmdaisa vat yajamanasya loka etasmi

5 Then he makes the offering (reciting) 'Adoration to Fire, who dwells on earth, who dwells in the world Obtain the world for me, the sacnficer To this world of the sacrificer, I will go '

6 atiayajamdnah parastdd dynsah svdhd'pajahi pangham ity ukvolhslhati, tasmai vasavah pratah savanam samprayacchantt

6. Thither will the sacnficer, after life, go Hail, take away the bolt Having said this, he rises For him the Vasus fulfil the morning offering

7. purd mddhyan-dinasya savanasyopdkarandj jaghanena agmdhriyasyodanmitkha upaviiya, sa raudram sdmdbhigdyati

II 24 15 Chdndogya Upanisad Z77

7. Before the commencement of the mid-day offering, he sits behind the Agnidhriya fire, and facing the north, he smgs lie chant sacred to the Rudras.

8 loka.-dva.ram apdvrnu, paiyema tva vayam vairdjyaya %ti.

8. Open the door of this world that we may see thee for the obtaining of sovereignty.

9. athajuhott, namo vdyave'ntanksa-kstte loka-ksite bkam, me yajatndndya vxnda, esa vat yajamdnasya lokah, etasmi

9. Then he makes the offering (reciting) 'Adoration to Air, who dwells in the sky and dwells m the world Obtain the world for me, the sacrificer To this world of the sacnficer I will go '

10. atra yajamdnah parastad ayusah svaha'pajahi parigham tiy uMvoihsthati, tasmai rudrd madhyan-dmam savanam sampra- yacchanti.

10. Thither, will the sacnficer, after life, go Hail, take away the bolt. Having said this, he rises For him, the Rudras fulfil the midday offering.

11. pura Miya-savanasyopaharanaj jaghanmahavanvyasyo- damnuklia upavisya sa adityam sa vaiivadevam sa.mabhtga.yati.

11. Before the commencement of the third offering, he sits behind the Altavaniya fire, facing the north, he smgs the chant sacred to the Adityas and Visve-devas

12. loka-dmram apavmu, paiyema tva vayam svdrdjydya tit. 12. Open the door of this world that we may see thee for the

obtaining of sovereignty

13 adityam, atha vaiivadevam, loka-dvaram apavmu paiye- ma iva vayam samrajydya iti

f 3 ' , Thus ft” 5 cbant t0 the Adityas now the chant to the Visyed-evas Open the door to this world that we may see thee lor the obtaining of sovereignty

j^^JlVl 10 ! 1 ' , mma sdli y el >hyaS co vthebhyas ca devebhyo dwi-kydbhyo loka-kstdbhyah lokam mc yajamanaya vindata

A&J^^J5^ t ^ 0B ^ (1 ?^ 'Adoration to the Adityas andto the Visve-devas, who dwell in heaven and dwell m the world, obtain the world for me, the sacnficer.'

ayusah svaha pahata parigham My uklvottistliati. '

378 The Principal Upamsads II 24 16

15 'Venly, to this world of the sacnficer will I go Thither will the sacnficer afterlife go Hail, take away the bolt.' Having said this, he rises

16 tasma adityas ca vt£oe ca devas trliya-savanam samfira- yacchanh, esa ha vai yajiiasya matram veda, ya evath veda, ya evam veda

16 For him, the Adityas and the Visve-devas fulfil the third offering He, who knows this, knows the fulness of the sacrifice, yea, he who knows this

Ill 2. I.

Chandogya Upani$ad

379

CHAPTER III

Section i

THE SUN AS THE HONEY OF THE GODS: RG VEDA

i. aum. asau va adityo deva-madhu; tasya dyaur eva hrai- atia-vamio'ntanksam apupah, maricayah putrafy.

1. Venly, yonder sun is the honey of the gods. Of this the sky is the cross-beam, the atmosphere is the honeycomb; the particles of light are the brood.

The sun is treated as the object of meditation. The sky is the crossbeam from which the honeycomb hangs

2. tasya ye pranco rahnayah t& evasya pracyo madhunadyah fca eva madhukrtah rgveda eva pu$pam, ta amrta apah to, va. eta rcah

2. The eastern rays of that sun are its eastern honey cells. The Rks are the producers of honey The Rg Veda is the flower and those waters are the nectar and those very Rks indeed (are the bees)

'Just as the bees produce honey by extracting the juices of noweis, so do the rks make their honey by extracting the mices of actions prescribed in the Rg Veda ' S.

3 etam rg vedam abhyatapams, tasyabhitaptasya ya&as teia vndriyam viryam annadyam raso'jdyata.

3. These brooded on the Rg Veda; from it, thus brooded upon, issued forth as its essence, fame, splendour, (vigour of the) senses, virility, food and health.

4 tad vyaksarat, tad ddttyam abhto'Smyat, tad va etad yad elad adityasya rohttath mpam.

4. It flowed forth; it went towards the sun. Venly that is what the red appearance of the sun is.

Section 2

YAJUR VEDA

va^ht^Jt^^'^^^^^j^ raitnayas to. evasya dakswa tnadhu~nadyo y*jmy eva madhu-krto yajur veda eva puspam, ta amrta dplT

380 The Principal Upamsads III 3 3

1 Now its southern rays are its southern honey-cells The Yajus formulae are the producers of honey The flower is the Yajnr Veda and these waters are the nectar

2 tarn va etam yajiimsy ctamyajurvedam abhyatapams, tasya- bhtaptasya yasas, tcja, vndnyam, viryam, annadyam, iaso' jdyata

2 Venly, these yajus formulae brooded on the Yajur Veda; from it, thus brooded upon, issued forth as its essence, fame, splendour, (vigour of the) senses, virility, food and health

3 tad vyaksat at, tad ddityam abhito'sj ayat, tad va etadyad etad ddttyasya suklam tiipam

3 It flowed forth, it went towards the sun Venly, that is what the white appearance of the sun is

Section 3

SAMA VEDA

1 athaye'sya pratyanco ra&mayas ta evasya pi attcyo madlm-na- dyah samany em madhtt-krtah sama veda eva puspam, ta amrta apah

1 Now, its western rays are its western honey-cells The Soman chants are the producers of honey The flower is the Sama Veda and these waters are the nectar

2 torn va. etam samany etam sama vedam abhyatapams tasyabhtaptasya ya§as, teja, mdriyam, viryam, annadyam, raso'jayata

2 Venly, these Saman chants brooded on the Sama Veda] from it, thus brooded upon, issued forth, as its essence, fame, splendour, (vigour of the) senses, vinhty, food and health

3 tad vyaksarat, tad adttyam abhito'b ayat, tad va etadyad etad ddityasya krsnam rvpam

3 It flowed forth It went towards the sun Venly, that is what the dark appearance of the sun is

Ill 5 2 CMndogya Upamsad 381

Section 4

ATHARVA VEDA

1 atha ye'syodanco rabnayas ta evasyodicyo madhu-nadyo' tharvangirasa eva madhu-krtah, itilidsa-piirfinam puspam, ta amrta dpah

1 Now its northern rays are its northern honey-cells (The hymn of the) Aiharvans and the Angirasas are the honey producers The flower is legend and ancient lore These waters are the nectar

The stones from the Epics and the Puranas were repeated at some sacrifices They are mentioned in the Brahmanas, and later collected m the MahabMrata and the Puranas

2. te va ete'tftarvdngirasa etad ttihdsa-purdnam dbhyatapams, • iasySbhtaptasya yaias, teja, mdnyam, viryam, annddyam, raso' jayata

2 Verity, these (hymns) of the Athaivans and Angirasas brooded upon that legend and ancient lore. From them, thus brooded upon, issued forth, as their essence, fame, splendour (vigour of the) senses, virility, food and health.

3 t«d vyaksamt, tad ddityam dbhito'irayat, tad va etad yad etad adUyasya param krsnam rupam.

3 It flowed forth. It went towards the sun Verily, that is what the extremely dark appearance of the sun is

Section 5 BRAHMAN

J, J ^yiynttot *«im*yas ta evasyordhvd madhu-nadyo guhyacuadeia madlm-Mo, hahmaiva puspam, ta amrta apj

teihm JVftT ard T T, are l1: l up P er hone y celk - T1 * hidden Jrahman, according to S, here sigmfies the pranava.i e thesyllable

382 The Principal Upamsads III 6 3

2 These hidden teachings brooded on Brahman, and from it thus brooded upon, issued forth, as its essence, fame, splendour, (vigour of the) senses, food and health

3 tad vyaksarat, tad adityam abhito'srayat, tad va etadyad etad ddityasya madhye ksobhata iva.

3 It flowed forth It went towards the sun. Verily, that is what seems to be the trembling m the middle of the sun

4 te va ete rasandm rasah veda hi rasah, tesdm ete rasdh, tarn va etany amrtandm amrtam, veda hy amrtah, tesdm etany amrtam

4 Venly, these are the essences of the essences, for the Vedas are the essences and these are their essences Venly, these are the nectars of the nectars for the Vedas are the nectars and these are their nectars

According to $ all these are meant to emphasise the importance of eulogised actions karma-stuhr esah

Section 6

THE KNOWER OF THE COSMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE VEDAS REACHES THE WORLD OF THE VASUS

1 tad yat prathamam amrtam tad vasava upafivanty agnmd mukhena, na vat deva aSnanti na pibanty etad evamrtam drtfvd trpyanti

1 That which is the first nectar, on that live the Vasus, through fire as their mouth Verily the gods neither eat nor dnnk They are satisfied merely with seeing that nectar

2 ta etad eva rupam abhtsammSanty etasmad rupad udyanti.

2 They retire into this form (colour) and come forth from this form (colour)

3. sa ya etad evam amrtam veda, vasunam evatko bhutvagmn- aiva mukhenattad evamrtam drsivd trpyati, sa etad eva rupam abhisamvisati, etasmad rupad udett

3 He who knows thus this nectar becomes one of the Vasus and through the fire as his mouth is satisfied merely with seeing the nectar He retires into this form (colour) and comes forth from this form (colour)

III. 8 i

Chdndogya Upanisad

383

4. sa ydvad ddttyah purastad udeta paicad astam eta, vasunam eva tavad adhtpatyam svarajyam paryeta

4 As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so long does he attain the worship and sovereignty of the Vasus.

Section 7

OF THE RUDRAS

1. atha yad dvtiiyam atnrtam, tad rudrd upajlvantindrena inukJiena, na mi deva ainanh, na pibanh, etad evdmrtam drstva trpyanti.

1. Now that which is the second nectar, on that live the Rudras, through Indra as their mouth, Venly, the gods neither eat nor dnnk They are satisfied merely with seeing that nectar.

2 ta etad eva rupam abhtsamvtiantt, etasmad rupad udyanti.

2 They retire into this form (colour) and come forth from this form (colour).

3 sa ya etad evam amrtam veda rudrandm evaiko bhutven- drenaiva mukhenaitad evdmrtam drstva trpyatx, sa etad eva rupam abhsamviiati, etasmad rupad udeti.

3 “Who knows thus this nectar becomes one of the Rudras and with Indra as his mouth is satisfied merely with seeing the nectar He retires into this form (colour) and comes forth from this form (colour).

4 sa yavad-adityaJ} purastad udeta, paicad astam eta, dvis tavad daksinata udetotiarato'stam eta, rudranam eva tavad adhi- patyam svarajyam paryeta.

4 As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, twice as long does it rise in the south and set in the north and just that long does he attain the lordship and sovereignty of the Rudras

Section 8 OF THE ADITYAS

1

atha yat trtTyam amrtam, tad ddityd upajlvanh varunena

384

The Principal Upamsads III. 9 3

_ 1 Now, that which is the third nectar, on that live the Adityas through Varuna as their mouth Verity, the gods neither eat nor dnnk They are satisfied merely with seeing that nectar

z. ta clad eva rupam abhitamvisanty dasmad rupad udyanti. 2. They retire into this form (colour) and come forth from this form (colour)

3 sa ya dad evam amrtaih vcdadityanam cvaiko bhutvfi varun- enaiva mukhenattad cvamrtam drstva trpyah, sa dad eva rupam abhisanms'att, dasmad 1 iipdd uddi

3 He who knows thus this nectar, becomes one of the Adityas and with Varuna as his mouth, is satisfied merely with seeing the nectar He retires into this form (colour) and comes forth from this form (colour).

4 sa yavad adiiyo dakstnata udetottatato' stain da, dvts tavat paicad udda purasiad asiam da, adityanam eva tavad adhpatyam svarajyam parycta

4 As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west twice as long does it rise m the west and set in the east and just that long does he attain the lordship and sovereignty of the Adityas.

Scclwn 9

OF THE MARUTS

j alha yac caturtham amrtam, tan maiuta vpajivanU somcna viukhena, na vai deva asnantt, 11a pibanti, dad cvamrtam drstva trpyanix.

1 Now that which is the fourtli nectar, on that lnc the Maruts, through Soma as their mouth, Venly, the gods neither eat nor dnnk The} are satisfied merelj with seeing that nectar

2 ia dad ci'a rupam abhisamvisauti, dasmad rupad udyai.tt

2 They retire from tins form (colour) and come forth from this form (colour)

3 sa ^a dad a am amrtam veda, marutam eiatho bhulva sovet nta tnikLa.aiiad cvawriam dritxa trpyalt, sa dad eva rupaw. abhsamvshti dastrad rupad tidcti

Ill 10 4 Chandogya Upanisad

385

3 He who knows thus this nectar, becomes one of the Maruts and through Soma as his mouth, is satisfied merely with seeing the nectar He retires into this form (colour) and comes forth from this form (colour)

4. sa ydvad ddityah pascdd udetd, purastdd astam eta, dvis tavad uiiarata udetd, daksinato'stam eta, marutdm eva tavad adhipatyam svardjyam paryeta.

4 As long as the sun rises m the west and sets m the east, just that twice as long does the sun rise in the north and set in the south just that long does he attam the lordship and sovereignty of the Maruts.

Section 10 OF THE SADHYAS

1 atha yat paiicamam amrtam tat sddhyd upajivanh brahmanu mukhena, 11a vat devd ainanti, 11a pibanti, etad evdmrtam drslvd trpyanti.

_i Now, that which is the fifth nectar, on that live the Sadhyas, through Brahma as their mouth Venly, the gods neither eat nor drink They are satisfied merely with seeing that nectar

2. ta etad eva rupam ablnsnmvisanii, etasmad rupad udyanti

2 They retire into this form (colour) and come forth from this form (colour).

3 sa ya etad evam amrtam vcda, sadhyandm evaiko bh&ivd brahmanaiva mukltenaitad evdmrtam drstva trpyanti, sa etad eva rupam abhtsamvisatt, etasmad rupad udeh

3 He, who knows thus this nectar, becomes one of the Sadhyas and through Brahma as his mouth, is satisfied merely with seeing the nectar. He retires into this form (colour) and comes torth from this form (colour).

4 sa ydvad dditya uttarata udetd, daksinato'stam eta, dvis tavaa urdhva udetdtvdn astam eta, sadhyandm eva tavad adhiba lyam svardjyam paiyctd

4- As long as the sun nses m the north and sets in the south twee as long does it rise in the zenith and set in the nadir',

386 The Principal Upamsads III. n. 5

just that long does he attain the lordship and sovereignty of the Sadhyas

Section 11

THE WORLD OF BRAHMA

1 atha fata iirdhva udetya nawodetd nastam eta, ekala eva madhye sthdtd, tad esa Mokah

1 Henceforth, after having risen in the zenith, he will no more rise nor set. He will stand alone in the middle On this, there is this verse

The movements of the sun are intended to help the creatures to experience the results of their actions, and when these experiences have ended the sun takes the creatures unto himself prdmndm sva-karma-pkala-bhoga-mmittam amtgraham tat karma-phalopabho- ga-ksaye tarn prdni-jdtdny dtmant samhytya S.

The question is raised whether the sun in the regions of Brahma moves along nights and days The reply is given in the next verse

2. na vat tatra na nimloca nodiydya kaddcana, divas tenaham satyena ma virddhisi brahmand tti.

2 It is not so there The sun has not set, nor has he ever risen. 0 ye gods, by this truth, may I not fall from Brahma

He calls the gods to bear witness to the truth of his statement

3 na ha va asmd udeh, na mmlocatt, sakrd diva Jtawdsinai bhavati, ya etdm evam brahmopamsadam veda

3 Venly, for him, who knows thus, this mystic doctrine of Brahma, the sun neither rises nor sets For him it is day for ever

'The knower becomes the eternal inborn Braliman, unconditioned by time marked by the rising and setting of the sun ' vtdvan tida- ydsta-maya-kaldpanccliedyam mtyam ajam brahma bluzuati S

4 tadd haitad brahma prajapataya uvdca, prajdpatir wanave, manuh prajdbhyah, tadd haitad udddlakdyd'runaye jyesthdya putrdya pita brahma provaca

4 Brahma told this to Pra]d-pati; Praja-pati to Manu, Manu to his descendants To “Uddalaka Arum, the eldest son, his father declared this Brahma

5 tdam vdva taj jyesthdya putrdya pita brahma prabruydt prandyyaya vdntevdstne

II 12 4- Chdndogya Upanisad 387

5 Verily, a father may teach this Brahma to his eldest son or to a worthy pupil

6 ndnyasmai kasmax cam, yady apy asma imam adbhih .

dad eva taio bhuya i

6 And to no one else. Even if one should offer him the whole if this (earth) encompassed by water and rilled with treasure. He should say) “This, truly, is greater than that — yea, greater jmn that.'

Section 12

THE GAYATRl

1 gayairi va idaih sarvam bhiiiam yad tdam kvm ca, vag vai gayairi, vag va tdam sarvam bhiiiam gayah ca irdyate ca.

1. Verity, the Gayairi is all this that has come to be, what- soever there is here Speech, verily, is Gayairi. Verily, the Gayairi sings of and protects everything here that has come to be.

As Brahman is incomprehensible by itself, these symbols are employed For Madhva Gayatri is not the metre of that name but Vtsnu

2. yd vat sa gdyatriyam vdva sd yeyam prthivi, asyam hidam sarvam bhutam praiistkitam. dam eva n&tisiyate.

2. Verity, what this Gayairi is, that, verily, is what this earth is, for on it everything here that has come to be is established. It does not go beyond it

3_ yd vai sd prthviyam vdva sd yad tdam asmin puruse sanram, asmxn hime prdndh pratisthitdh, dad eva ■ndtiSiyante.

3- Verily, what this earth is, that, verily, is what the body in man here is for on it these vital breaths are established. Thev do not go beyond it.

4. yad vai tat puruse iariram idam vdva tad yad tdam asminn anWi pimise hrdayam, asmm hime prdnah pratisthitdh, dad eva natisiyante.

ihiZ^'-^ the bod y 111 man verily, is what

StaE-TS 11 “J 8 * here fa: fOT 011 a aese breatfa s are established. They do not go beyond it.

388 Tlie Principal Upanisads III. 13 r.

5 saisd catuspadd sadvidhd gayatri, tad dad rca'bhyanuklam.

5 This Gayatri has four feet and is sixfold This is also declared by a Rk verse

The Gayatri is a metre with four feet, each foot having four syllables It is sixfold in the shape of speech, creatures, earth, body> heart and vital breath §

6 etdvdn asya mahimd, tatojyayand ca purusah pddo'sya sarvd bhutdni, tnpdd asyamrtam dim

6 Its greatness is of such extent, yet Purusa is greater still All beings are one fourth of him The three fourths, immortal, is m the sky

The Purusa is so called because it fills everything and lies in the body sarva-fiuranat pun iayanac ca S

7 yad vai tad brahmetidam vdva tadyo'yam bahtrdhd purusdd dkdso yo vai sa bahtrdhd purusdd akasah

7 Venly, what is called Brahman, that is what the space outside of a person is Venly, what the space outside of a person is

8 ayam vdva sa yo'yam antah purusa dkaio yo vai so'ntah purusa akasah

8 That is what the space within a person is Venly, what the space within a person is

9 ayam vdva sa yo'yam antar-hrdaya akasah, tad etatpurnam apravarti, purnam apravartmim snyam labhate ya evam veda

9 That is the same as what the space here within the heart is. That is the full, the non-active He who knows thus, obtains full and non-active prospenty non-active unchanging

Section 13

THE FIVE DOORKEEPERS OF THE WORLD OF HEAVEN

T tasya ha vd etasya hrdayasya panca deva-susayah, sayo'sya pran susih sa prdnah, tac caksuh, sa adttyah, tad etat tejo' nnddyam ity upasita, tejasvy annddo bhavati ya evam veda

1 Venly, indeed, this heart here has five openings for the gods. Its eastern opening is the prdna (up-breath). That is

HI 13 6. CMndogya Upanisad 389

the eye, that is the sun. One should meditate on this as glow and as health. He who knows this becomes glowing and healthy.

2 aiha yo'sya daksinah susth sa vyanah, tac chrotram, sa candramah, tad etac chrti ca yaiai cety upastta iriman yaiasvt bhavatt ya evam veda

2 Now its southern opening is vyana (the diffused breath.) That is the ear that is the moon One should meditate on this as prosperity and fame. He who knows this becomes prosperous and famous

3 atlia yo'sya pratyan susth so'panah, sa vak so'gnth tad etad brakma-varcasam annadyam ity upastta brakma-varcasy annado bhavahya evam veda.

3 Now, its western opening is apana (downward breath) That is speech, that is fire One should meditate on it as the lustre of sacred wisdom and health He who knows this becomes possessed of the lustre of sacred wisdom and health.

4 aiha yo'syodan susth sa samanah, tan manah, sa parjanyah, tad etat kvriti ca vyusfis cety upastta, kiritman vyusttman bhavatt ya evam veda

4 Now, this northern opening is samana (equalised breath). That is mind, that is rain; one should meditate on it as fame and beauty. He who knows this becomes famous and beauteous

kirtih' fame, celebrity, due to the knowledge of the mind: rnanaso planasya kirtt-hetutvat, alma-paroksam vtirtdatoam kirtih, yaiah sva-karana-samvedyam vUrutatvam.

vymtih beauty, self-recognised beauty of the body, vyustik katttir ae/ia-gatam lavanyam

5 athayo'syordhvah susih sa udanah, sa vayuh, sa akdtah, tad etad ojai ca mahai cety upastta, oiasvt mahasvan bhavatt ya evam veda J

5. Now, the upper opening is udana (out-breath). That is air, mat is space One should meditate on it as strength and great- ness He who knows this becomes strong and great

6 tevd etepaUca brahma-puntsah svargasya lokasya dvara-pah, ya dan evam paOca brahma-purusan svargasya lokasya

veda, asya kwle vtro jayate, pratipadyate svargam dtira^dn $st ^ arica ” lbra]ma ^ u “^ Sn ^«rgasya lokasya

390

The Principal Upanisads III. 13 8

6. These, verily, are the five Brahma-persons, the door- keepers of the world of heaven He who knows these five Brahma-persons, the doorkeepers of the world of heaven, in his family a hero is bom He who knows these five Brahma- persons, title doorkeepers of the world of heaven, himself reaches the world of heaven

By controlling the eye, ear, speech, mind and breath through meditation, by checking their outward activities, we are enabled to reach the Brahma in the heart

THE SUPREME EXISTS WITHIN ONESELF

7. atlta yad atah paro dtvo jyottr dipyate vtsvatah prsthe$u, sarvatah prsfhefv anuttaniesuttatnesu loke$u> tdam vava tad yad idam astmnn antah purttse jyatth

7. Now the light which shines above this heaven, above all, above everything, in the highest worlds beyond which there are no higher, venly, that is the same as this light which is here within the person

8 tasyai$a drshh, yatrattad asmtn iarire samsparietwsm- manam vijanah, tasyatsa irviil} yatrattat karnav apigrhya mnadam tva nadathur tvdgner iva palata upa&rnott, tad etad drsiam ca srutam cety upaslta. cak$usyah iruto bhavah ya evant veda, ya evam veda

8 There is this seeing of it, as when, in this body, one perceives the warmth by touch There is this hearing of it, as when, on closing the ears, one hears as it were a sound, as it were a noise, as of a fire blazing One should meditate on this that has been seen and heard One who knows this becomes one beautiful to see and heard of in renown, yea, one who knows this

The writer here refers to visions and voices of which some mystic seers speak

Ill 14 3 Chandogya Upamsad 391

Section 14

THE INDIVIDUAL SOUL IS ONE WITH THE SUPREME BRAHMAN

1 sarvam kkalv idam brahma, tayaldn tti, iania updsita; atha Mrnlu kratumayah pwusah, yathd-kratur asminl lake puruso bhavait Mhetuh prdya bhavati, sa kratum kurvita.

1 Venly, this whole world is Brahman, from which he comes forth, without which he will be dissolved and in which he breathes Tranquil, one should meditate on it. Now verily, a person consists of purpose According to the purpose a person has m this world, so does he become on departing hence So let him frame for himself a purpose.

All this is Brahman Cp Maitrl IV 6 brahma hhah idam vava sarvam Brahman is prior to all this and produces all this

The word iayalfin is explained by § as 'beginning, ja, ending, la, and continuing, an,' in it. tasmat brahmano jdtam — atas tayam, tatha tenawa janana-kramena pratilomataya tasmmn eva brahmani liyate, iad-almataya. ilisyata ttt taUam; tatha tasmmn eva stfotikale'nih pranitt cesfata tit

As we will, so will our reward be. kratv-anurHpam phalam. S

_ i.mano-maydh prana-iariro bha-rupdh satya-samkalpa akdi- dtma sarva-karma sarva-kdmah sarva-gandhah sarva-rasah sarvam idam abhydtto'vdky anddarah.

2 He who consists of mind, whose body is life, whose form is light, whose conception is truth, whose soul is space, con- taining all works, containing all desires, containing all odours, containing all tastes, encompassing this whole world, being without speech and without concern.

§ means by prana-iarira, the subtle body. faiTI lin 8 stmS wjfiana-knya-SaMi-dvaya-sammilrchi.

3 «a ma atmdntar hrdaye'niydn vriher vd, yavdd vd, sarsapdd »« L syamdkad va, fydmaka-tandidad vd; esa ma atmdntar hrdaye hkeb%ih rthtVy * h ' Jy * ydn mtanksd 3 Jfy* n diva} h jydydn 'ebkyo

H?* sdf within the heart, smaller than a grain of

Sit? £ 6y , COm ' tb * a a mustard seed . than a gram of nmiet or than the kernel of a gram of a millet. This is myself

392

The Principal Upanisads

HI 15 2

within the heart, greater than the earth, greater than the atmosphere, greater than the sky, greater than these worlds

4 sarva-karma sarva-kamah sarva-gandhah, saroa-rasah, sar- vam tdam dbhyatto'vaky anadaialt, esa ma atmdntar hrdaye dad brahma, dam ltahpretyabhisambJtavitasmtti, yasya syat addha na vtcikitsastiti ha smaha idndtlyah, iandtlyah

4 Containing all works, containing all desires, containing all odours, containing all tastes, encompassing this whole world, without speech, without concern, this is the self of mine within the heart, this is Brahman. Into him, I shall enter, on departing hence Venly, he who believes this, will have no more doubts. Thus used to say Sandilya, yea Sandilya

This is the famous Sandilya vidya which affirms the oneness of the individual soul and the Supreme Brahman For Sandilya (1) the Absolute is that from which things are born, to which they repair and by which they live, (2) our next life depends on what we do in this life, (3) Atman is both the transcendent and the immanent, and (4) the end of man is union with the Self

Section 15

THE UNIVERSE AS A TREASURE CHEST

1 antartksodarah koso bhfimi budhno na jiryati, dtio hy asya sraktayo dyaur asyottaram Main, sa csa koio vasu-dhanas tasmm vtsvam tdam intam.

1 The chest, having the atmosphere for its inside, and the earth for its bottom does not decay. The quarters of space are its corners and its upper lid is the sky. This chest is one con- taining wealth and within it rests everything here

2 tasya praci dig juhiir ndma, sahamfina noma dafeina, rdjni iiama pratid, subhuta namodict, tasam vayiir vatsah, sa ya dam cvam vayttm diiatn vatsam vcda, na putra-rodam rodih, so' ham dam cvam vayum diiatn vatsam veda, ma putra-rodam rudatn.

2 The eastern quarter is named p<hu, its southern quarter is named sahamana, its western quarter is called rajm, its northern quarter is called subhuta The child of these is air He who knows this air thus as the child of the quarters of space weeps not for a son I here know this air thus as the child of the quarters of space, let me not weep for a son.

Ill 15 7. Chdndogya Upanisad 393

juhU is the sacrificial ladle

saltamana is 'the region of Yama in which people suffer the results of evil deeds ' S

rafiit is so called 'because it is lorded over by the king (rapan) Varuna or because it is red (raga) with the colours of evening.' S sitbhfda is 'the region presided over by Kubera, the god of wealth.' maputra-rodam rttdam May I not weep for the death of my son, may I have no occasion to weep for the death of my son- putra-inarana- nmittam pwtra-rodo mama mabhat §

If the promise made in III 13-16, in his family a hero is bom is to be fulfilled, this kosa-vipiana or knowledge of the treasure chest is needed

3 anstam koiam pmpadye 'mund'muna'muna, pranam prapadye, 'mun&'mvna'mma; bhuh prapadye'mund'mtaia'muna; bhuvah prapadye 'mund'muna'muna; svah prapadye'mund'muna 'vnma

3 I take refuge in the imperishable chest with this one, with this one, with this one I take refuge in the breath, with this one, with this one, with this one. I take refuge in bhiik, with this one, with this one, with this one. I take refuge in bhuvah, with this one, with this one, with this one I take refuge in svah, with this one, with this one, with this one

The son's name, 5 says, is to be uttered thnce, when praying to the different deities

4 sa yad avocam- pranam prapadya %ti prano va idam sarvam bhiitamyad idam kin ca, tarn eva tatprapatsi

4 When I said, 'I take refuge in breath,' breath, verily, is everything here that has come to be, whatsoever there is So it was in this I took refuge

5 aifia yad avocam' bhiih prapadya iti prthivim prapadye' utanksam prapadye, divam prapadya %iy eva tad avocam

5 So when I said, 'I take refuge in bhiih; what I said was 'I take refuge in earth, I take refuge in atmosphere, I take refuge msky' 5

6 atha yad avocam. bhuvah prapadya ity agmm prapadye, vayum prapadye, addyam prapadya tty eva tad avocam

0 So when I said, 'I take refuge in bhuvah; what I said was 1 take refuge in Fire, I take refuge in Air, I take refuge in Sun. J

7. aiha yad avocam svah prapadya ity rg vedam prapadye WJtrvcdamprapadyc,samavedam prapadya ity eva tad avocam w« avocam. '

394

The Principal Upamsads

III 16.3

7 So when I said, 'I take refuge m svah,' What I said was, 'I take refuge m the Rg Veda, I take refuge in the Yajur Veda,, I take refuge m the Soma Veda That was what I said '

This section points out how symbols are used for worship and the objects prayed for are this-worldly

Section 16

THE WHOLE LIFE IS SYMBOLICALLY A SACRIFICE

1 puruso vava yajnah, tasya yam catur-vimsati varsdm, tat pratah-savanam, catur-vims'aty-aksard gayatri, gayatram prdtah- savavam, tad asya vasavo'nvayattdh, prand vava vasavah, ete hidam sarvam vdsayanh

1 Verily, a person is a sacrifice. His (first) twenty-four years are the morning libation, for the Gayatri (metre) has twenty- four syllables and the morning libation is offered with a gayatri hymn With this (part of the sacrifice) the Vasus are connected Venly, the vital breaths are the Vasus, for they cause every- thing here to endure

2. tarn ced etasmm vayasi ktm ctd upatapet, sa bruyat, prana vasavah, idam me pratah-savanam madhyan-dtnam-savanam ami samtanuteh, maham prdndnam vasunam madhye yajfto vilop- siyeh, ttdd haiva tata ety agado ha bhavah.

2 If m this period of life any sickness should overtake him, let him say, 'O ye vital breaths, ye Vasus, let this morning libation of mine continue over to the midday libation Let not me, the sacrifice, be broken off in the midst of the vital breaths, of the Vasus ' He arises from it, he becomes free from sickness.

While the previous section dealt with the long life of the son, this deals with one's own long life

3 atha yam catus'catvdrimSad varsdm, tan madhyan-dtnam- savanam catui<atvanmiad-aksard tnsfup, traistubJtam madhyan- dtnam-savanam, tad asya rttdra anvdyattdh, prand vava rudrah, ete hidam sarvam rodayanti.

3 Now the (next) forty-four years are the midday libation for the Tnstubh (metre) has forty-four syllables and the midday libation is offered with a Trislubh hymn With this (part of the sacrifice) the Rudras are connected Venly, the vital breaths are

HI 16 7. Chandogya Upanisad 395

the Rudras for (on departing) they cause everything here to weep.

4. tarn ced etasmin vayasi Mm cid upatapet sa bruydt, prdnd rudrah tdam me mddhyan-dinam-savanam trtiya-savanam anu samtanuteti, mdham prdndndm rudranam madhye yajfio vilop- siyett, udd haiva tata ety agado haiva bhavatt

4. If, in this period of life, any sickness should overtake him, let him say, '0 ye vital breaths, ye Rudras, let this midday libation of mine continue over to the third libation. Let not me, the sacrifice, be broken off in the midst of the vital breaths, of the Rudras.' He arises from it; he becomes free from sickness.

5 atha yfiny asta-catvarims'ad varsani, tat trtiya-savanam, asta-catvdnms'ad-aksara jagati, jdgatam trtiya-savanam, tad asya dityd anvayattdh, prdnd vdvadityah, ete Mdam sarvam ddadate.

5. Now the (next) forty-eight years are the third libation for the jagatH (metre) has forty-eight syllables and the third libation is offered with a jagati hymn. With this (part of the sacrifice) the Adityas are connected. Verily, the vital breaths are the Adityas for (on departing) they take eveiything to themselves

_ 6. tarn ced etasmm vayasi him cid upatapet sa bruydt prdna adtpa idath me trtiya-savanam ayur aim samtanuteti, mdham prananam aditydndm madhye yajno vtlopsvyety, udd haiva tata dy agado Ixavoa bhavati.

6. If, in this period of life, any sickness should overtake him, jet him say, '0 ye vital breaths, ye Adityas, let this third liba- tion of mine continue to a full length of life. Let not me, the sacrifice^ be broken off in the midst of the vital breaths, the Adityas.' He arises from it; he becomes free from sickness.

7. etadd ha $ma vat tad vidvdn aha mahiddsa aitareyah; sa kith

»»« etad upaiapast, yo'Jtam anena na presyamUi; sa ha soiaiam

wrta-tatam ajivat; pa ha sodaiam varsa-Satam jivati, ya evam veda.

7- Verily, it was knowing this that Mahidasa Aitareya used to say, 'Why do you afflict me with this sickness, me, who am «?t going to die by it?' He lived a hundred and sixteen years, “e, too, who knows this lives to a hundred and sixteen years.

S5«l ahi ^ a Altareva was a or a iudra by birth. According to yana s ^traduction to the Aitareya Bralmana, he was the son of

396 The Prtnapal Upamsads III vj 6

a Brahmana seer by Itara, a low-caste woman As he was not given the same treatment as other sons, his mother prayed to Mahi or the goddess Earth, who granted her prayers The son was enabled to compose the Brahman as and the Aranyakas This story implies a protest against the injustice of the caste system

Section 17

MAN'S LIFE A SACRIFICE

1 sa yad asisisati yat pipasah, yan na ramate, ta asya diksah

1 When one hungers and thirsts and abstains from pleasures these constitute the initiatory rites

The writer gives an account of a sacrifice which can be performed without any ceremonial and m spirit even by hermits

Privation is equated with initiation, enjoyments with the sacrificial sessions and chantmgs, the virtues with the oifenngs, generation with regeneration and death with the last ntual the final bath

2 atha yad amah, yat pibatt, yad ramate, tad upasadair eh

2 And when one eats and dnnks and enjoys pleasures, then he joins in the Upasada ceremonies

upasada a particular class of sacnficers who are happy because they take only milk upasadam ca payo-vratatva-nmittam sukham asti S

3 atha yadd hasati yaj jaksah, yan maithunam carah, stuta- sastratr eva tad eh

3 And when one laughs and eats and indulges m sexual intercourse, then he joins m the chant and recitation.

4 atha yat tapo danam aryavam ahimsd satya-vacanam th, ta asya daksmah . i<,o«i~

4 And austerity, almsgiving, uprightness, non-violence, truthfulness, these are the gifts for the priests

5 tasmad dhuh sosyaty asosteh punar utpadanam evdsya, tan maranam evavabhrthah

5 Therefore they say 'He will procreate ' He has procreated — that is his new birth Death is the final bath (after the ceremony)

6 tadd haitad ghora angtrasah krsndya devaki-ptdrayoktvo- vdca, a-pipasa eva sa babhuva so'ntaveldydm etat trayam prati-

Ill 18 i. Chdndogya Upamsad

397

padyet' aksitamasi, acyntam asi, prdna-sams'itam asiti: tatraite dve rcau bhavatah

6 When Ghora Angirasa, after having communicated this to Krsna, the son of DevaK, he also said, as he had become free from desire, 'In the final hour, one should take refuge m these three (thoughts) Thou art the indestructible, thou art the un- shaken, thou art the very essence of life * On this point, there are these two Rg verses

S points out that the references are to the Yajus verses beginning with (1) aksitam asi, (u) acyutam asi, and (ui) prana-samsitam asi See Bhagavad-Gitd, p 28

7 ad itpratnasya retasak, ud vayam tamasas-pan jyohh pasyanta uttaram svah pasyanta uftaram,

devatn devatra suryam agamna jyohr uttamam iti, jyotir uttamam th.

7 Proceeding from the primeval seed, they see the morning light that shines higher than the sky Seeing beyond darkness, the higher light, seeing the higher light, we attain to the sun god among the gods, the highest light, yea, the highest light

In some texts, after retasah, we find jyohh pasyanli vasaram, paro yad idhyate diva.

'Those that know Brahman, with their eyes turned aside, with their hearts purged by the restrictions of the ascetic life like hralima- carya. see the light all round' mvrtta-caksiiso brahma-wdo brahma- caryadt-mvrth-sadhanaih itiddhdntahkarani a samantato wotih fasyanh S J '

Section 18

THE FOURFOLD NATURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE WORLD

* B ' aM0 brahmety updsitety adhydlmam, athddhidaivatam amo brahmety {updsita), uohayam Mtstam bhavaty adhydtmam cadhtdaivatam ca.

I lOne should meditate on the mind as Brahman— this with regard to the self) Now with reference to the divinities one snouid meditate on space as Brahman This is the twofold

Ef£ uc ? on * ^ whlch refers t0 bod y and that which refers «> the divinities

398 The Principal Vpamsads III. 18. 6.

akdia or space is used as it is 'all-pervading, subtle and free from limitations' sarva-gatatvat silksmaivat, upadhi-hinatvdt &

2 tad etac catuspad brahma, vak padah, pranah pddai caksuh padah irotram p&da liy adhyatmam; athddhidaivatam, agmh pado vdyuh padah, ddityah pado dtiah pada ity ubhayam evddistam bhavaty adhyatmam catvadhidawatam ca

2 That Brahman has four quarters Speech is one quarter, breath is one quarter, the eye is one quarter, the ear is one quarter This with reference to the self Now with reference to the divinities Fire is one quarter, air is one quarter, the sun is one quarter and the directions are one quarter This is the two- fold instruction with reference to the self and with reference to the divinities

3. vag eva brahmanai caturthah padah, so'gmna jyottsd bhati ca tapati ca, bhati ca tafiah ca kirtyd yaiasd brahma-varcasena, ya evam veda

3 Speech, verily, is a fourth part of Brahman It shines and warms with the light of fire He who knows this shmes and warms with fame, with renown, and with the radiance of Brahma-knowledge

4 prdna eva brahmanai caturthah padah, sa vayuna jyoh$d bhati ca tapati ca, bhati ca tapati ca kirtydyaiasd brahma-varca- sena, ya evam veda

4 Breath, verily, is a fourth part of Brahman It shmes and warms with the light of air He who knows this shmes and warms with fame, with renown, and with the radiance of Brahma- knowledge.

5 caksur eva brahmanai caturthah padah, sa ddityem jyotisd bhati ca tapati ca, bhati ca tapati ca kirtyd yaiasa brahma-varca- sena, ya evam veda

5 The eye, verily, is a fourth part of Brahman It shmes and warms with the light of the sun He who knows this shmes and warms with fame, with renown, and with the radiance of Brahma- knowledge

6 srotram eva brahmanai caturthah padah, sa digbhir jyottsd bhdtt ca tapati ca, bhati ca tapati ca kirtyd yaiasa brahma-varca- sena, ya evam veda, ya evam veda

6 The ear is a fourth part of Brahman It shmes and warms with the light of the directions He who knows this shmes and

III. 19 3. Chandogya Upanisad 399

warms with fame, ■with renown, and with the radiance of Brahma-knowledge.

Section 19

THE COSMIC EGG

1. adtiyo brahmety adeiah, tasyopavyakhyanam: asad evedam agra astt, tat sad dsit, tat samabhavat, tad andam niravartata, tat samvatsarasya matram aiayata, tan nirabhidyata, U andakapale rajaiam ca suvarnam cdbhavatdm.

1 The Sun is Br ahman— this is the teaching. An explanation thereof (is this). In the beginning this (world) was non-existent. It became existent. It grew. It turned into an egg. It lay for the period of a year. It burst open. Then came out of the egg- shell, two parts, one of silver, the other of gold.

SeeRV X i2g,M«»«I 12. asat' non-existent, it does not mean absolute non-being. It is a state in which name and form were not manifested: avyakia-nama-rUiam. S. See also TU. II. 7.

In C U. VI 2, the view that in the beginning there was only non- bemg is combated

2_ taiyad rajataih seyam prthtvl, yat suvarnam sa dyauh; yaj jarayu teparvat&h.yad ulbam sa megho niharah,ya dhamanayas ta na&yah, yad vasteyam udakath sa samudrah.

2. That which was of silver is this earth, that which was of gold is the sky. What was the outer membrane is the moun-

a' n ^kkk was ^ inner rambrane « the mist with the clouds. What were the veins were the rivers What was the auia within is the ocean

Iii the Orphic Cosmogony, Chronos and Adrastea produce a ff^ntic egg which is divided into two, the upper half forming the sicy and the lower the earth

ulh te< * a 3 & y«to so'sa» ddvtyah; tath jdyamdnath ghosa

umtavo nudahsthan, sarvaiyi ca hhutani, sarve ca kamah; iasrndt “syotoyam prahpratyayaiiamprati ghosa ululavo'nMihisfhantt, sarvaiji ca bhutdm sarve ca kamah

wat w? w M was bom fr( >ni it is the yonder sun When he as Dorn, shouts and hurrays as also all beings and all desires

400

The Principal Upanisads

IH 19 4.

arose Therefore at his rise and his every return, shouts and hurrays as also all beings and all desires arise

4 saya etam evam vidvan adityam brahmely upaste'bhyaso ha yad enavi sadhavo gJiosd a ca gaccheyur upa ca mmrederan mmrederan

4 He, who knowing thus, meditates on the son as Brahman, pleasant shouts will come unto him and delight him, yea, delight him.

IV i 5

Chandogya Upamsad

401

CHAPTER IV

Section 1

THE STORY OF JANASRUTI AND RAIKVA

1 aum janasndvr ha pautrdyanah sraddhddeyo bahuddyi bahu- pdkya asa, sa ha sarvqta dvasathdn mapaydm cakre, sarvata eva me'tsyantih

1 Aum There was the descendant of Janasruta, his great grandson, a pious giver, a liberal giver, a preparer of much food He had rest houses built everywhere, with the thought 'everywhere people will be eating of my food '

2. atha Ita liamsa miayam ahpetuh, tadd havoam kamso hmnsam abhyuvada ho ho'yi bhalldksa, bhalldksa, janasruteh pautrdya- nasya samatii diva jyotir dtatam, tan ma prasdnksTs tat tvd ma pradhaksid t

2 Then once at night, some swans flew past and one swan spoke to another thus, 'Hay, Ho, Shortsighted, Shortsighted. The light of Janairuti, the great grandson (of Janasruta) has spread like the sky Do not touch it, lest it bum you.'

» pradhaksir for pradhSMd

3 tarn 11 }ia parah praty uvaca kam vara enam etat santam sayugvanam voa raikoam dttheti Ko nu katham sayugva raikva til

3 To it, the other one replied, 'Who is that man of whom you speak, as if he were Raikva, the man with the cart?' 'Pray, now is it with Raikva, the man with the cart?'

S quotes Raikva m S B III 4 36 as one of the sages who attained orahma-jnana or divine wisdom though they did not observe the niles_ of castes and stages of life, atiairamttvem vartamano'ht vtayayam adhknyate, kutah tad, drsteh, raikva-vdcaknavl-prabhrtindm wm-bhutanam ap% brafonavitva&rutynpalabdheh

f J ^”y 0, wptdyddJiareyah samyanh, evatn enam sarvam MdabJtisameh.yat kill ca prajah sddhu kurvanti, yas tad veda yat s« veda, sa mayaitad ukta ih

ih* i?” T en 33 aU tltie * ower throws of dice g° to the winner with Hp 1 g v throw ' so whatever good men do, all goes to him. also who knows what he knows, is thus spoken by me

5- iad « ha janasruUh pautrdyana upaiuirdva, sa ha samji-

402 The Principal Upamsads IV 2. i.

hana eva ksattdram uvaca, angare ha sa-yugvanam iva raikvam dttheti, ko nu hatham sa-yugvd raikva iti

5 Now, Janasruti, the great grandson (of Janasruta) over- heard this Then when he rose, he said to the attendant, '0 fnend, you speak to me in the same way as to Raikva with the cart.' (He asked) 'How is it with Raikva, the man with the cart?'

He overheard the conversation of the swans and spent the night brooding over it When he woke up, listening to the eulogistic chants of the bards, he turned to his attendant and said, 'You speak of me as of Raikva with the cart ' S

6 yathd krtaya viptdyddhareydh samyanti, evam enam sarvam tad abhtsameti, yat kiH ca prajafy sddhu kurvantt, yas tad veda yat sa veda, sa mayaitad ukta tti

6 Even as all the throws of the dice go to the winner with the highest throw, so whatever good men do, all goes to him He also who knows what he knows is thus spoken of by me

7 sa ha ksattanvisya, navidam tit pratyeyaya, tarn hovaca yatrare brahmanasydnvesana tad enam arccheh

7 The attendant searched for him and returned saying 'I did not find him.' Then he said to him, 'O where a Brahmana is searched for, there look for him '

The Brahmanas are generally to be found in solitary places in the forests or on the banks of rivers ekante'ranye nadi-puhnadatt vivi- kte dese & The attendant was instructed to search m such places

8 so'dhastac chakatasya pdmanam kasamdnam upopaviveia, tarn habhyuvada, tvam nu bhagavah sa-yugvd raikva tti. aham hy are, Ut ha pratyajHe, sa ha ksatta, avidam itt pratyeyaya

8 He approached a man scratching the itch underneath a cart, and said to him, 'Pray, Sir, are you Raikva, the man with the cart?' He replied 'Yes, I am he ' The attendant returned saying, 'I have found him out '

Section 2 THE STORY CONTINUED

I. tad « ha jana&ruhh pautrayanah sat-iatdm gavdm mskam asvatan-ratham tad dddya praticakrame, tarn habhyuvada

IV. 2. 5. Chdndogya Upanisad 403

1. Then Janasruti, the great grandson (of Janairuta) took with him six hundred cows, a gold necklace, and a chariot 'with mules and said to him:

2 raxkoemdm sai satani gavam, ayam ni?ko'yam aimtan- rathah, comma dam bhagavo devatdm iadhi, yam devatdm updssa tit

2. 'Raikva, here are six hundred cows, a gold necklace and a chariot with mules. Now Sir, please teach me the deity whom you worship.'

3. tarn « ha parah pratyuvdca, ahahdre tvd, 4Mra, tavaiva saha gabhir astv iti, tad « ha punar eva jdmsrutih patitrdyayah sahasram gavam mskam ahatari-ratham duhitaram tad dddya praticakrame

3 And to him, then, the other replied, 'Oh, necklace and carriage along with the cows be yours, O Sudra.' And then again, Janasruti, the great grandson (of Janasruta) taking a thousand cows, a gold necklace and a chariot with mules, and his daughter too, went np to him

£&dra The king is not a Sitdra S explains it thus: 'The old teachers have explained this point thus: by addressing him asS&dra, the sage Raikva shows that he already knows what is passing in the king's mind: The word $ itilra meaning “one who is melting with sorrows at hearing the greatness of Raikva, as spoken of by the swans ” Or it may be that the king is addressed as Siidra because he comes for instruction with an offering of riches like a Sudra and not with proper obeisance and attendance as befits the higher castes, and it does not mean that the king is a $Gdra by caste. Others, however, explain that Raikva addressed him thus, because ne was enraged at his offering him so little, because it is also said Oiat riches are to be accepted when plenty of it is offered '

4- famMbhyuydda.ratkvedamsaliasramgavdmtayamnisko'yam asoatan-rathah.iyam jay ayam grdmo yastmnn dsse: am eva ma. bhagavah, iadhU%.

,4 He said to him- 'Raikva, here are a thousand cows, here 3S * 1 necklace, here is a chariot with mules, here is a wife and here is a village in which you dwell Pray, revered Sir, teach me.'

5- tasya ha mukkam upodgrhmnn uvdca- ahahdremah tudra anenatva muhhenalapaykyatha itt; te hatte raihia.-pa.rna ndma m <t«avKesuyaira$tnd uvdsa sa tasmat havdca.

5- Then, lifting up her (the daughter's) face toward himself

404 The Pnncipal Upamsads IV 3 2

he (1 e. Raikva) said, 'He has brought these (cows) along, Sudra, merely by this face you would make me speak ' These are the villages called Raikva-parna, among the people of the Mahavrsas, where he lived Then he said to him

£ quotes a verse to the effect that a life of studentship, gift of wealth, intelligence, knowledge of the Veda, love and knowledge are the six ways to the attainment of knowledge

brahma-corl dliana-ddyl tnedhavi sWotrtyah pnyah vidyayd va vidyam ptaha, tarn tirtham san mama

Section 3

RAIKVA'S TEACHING

1 vayur vava samvargah, yada va agntr udvayati, vayum evapyeti, yada suryo'stam eh vayum evapyeti, yada candro'stam eti vayum evapyeti

1 Air, verily, is the absorbent, for when a fire goes out, it goes into the air When the sun sets, it goes into the air, and when the moon sets, it goes into the air

For Anaximenes air is theos, it is the primary substance His follower, Diogenes of Apolloma (fifth century b c ) makes out that air is not only the one original and permanent substance but is also in its purest form the substance of all psyche in the universe It has special affinities with the soul m animals and human beings Simphcius quotes from his book, On Nature, 'Mankind and the other animals live on air, by breathing, and it is to them both soul and mind The soul of all animals is the same, namely, air, which is wanner than the air outside, in which we live, though much colder than that near the sun In my opimon that which has intelligence is what men call air, and by it everything is directed and it has power over all things, for it is just this substance which I hold to be God ' See W K C Guthrie The Greeks and ffteir Gods (1950), PP 135-36

The connection of hfe with breath and so with air seems obvious The Latin word for soul, amtna, means both air and breath

2 yaddpa ucchusyanii, vayum evdpvyantt, vayur hy evattdn sarvdn samvmkte, ity adhtdavoatam

2. When water dries up, it goes into the air For air, indeed, absorbs them all This, with regard to the divinities

IV. 3. 7. Chdndogya Vpanisad 405

3. , athadkyatmam: pra.no vava samvargah, sa yada svapiti pranam eva vag apyett, pranam caksuh, pranam &otram, pranam mandh, pra.no hy evaitan sarvan samvrnkie iti. • 3. Now, -with reference to the self: Breath, indeed, is the absorbent. When one sleeps, speech just goes into breath; sight goes into breath; hearing goes into breath; the rnind goes into breath For breath, indeed, absorbs all this.

4. tau vd etau dvau samvargau, vayur eva devesu, pranah prane$u.

, 4. These two, verily, are the two absorbents, air among the gods, breath among the breaths.

5 atha ha iaunakam ca kapeyam abhipratdrtnam ca kaksa- senim parivi$yamanau brahmacari bibhikse, tasma u ha na dadatuh.

5. Once upon a time, when Saunaka Kapeya and Abhipra- tann Ktksasem were being served with food, a student of sacred knowledge begged of them. They did not give to him aaything.

6. sahovdca.

mahatmanai caturo deva ekah

kah sajagdra bhuvanasya gopah.

tarn, kapeya, nabhxpasyantt martyah

abhipratdrin bahudha vasantam. yamai va etad annum, tasma etan na dattam tti.

0. Then he said, 'The one god has swallowed up four great ones, he who is the guardian of the world. Hun, 0 Kapeya,

do not see ' though he abides 111 manifold forms, O AWupratarm. Venly, this food has not been offered to him to whom it belongs.'

Bmltm^ y ° U haVe refused t0 me ' you have reaUv refas ed to The one god is said to be Prajd-pati.

7' tod u ha iaunakah kapeyah pratimanvdnah pratyeyaya • atma devanam jamta prajaitam, niraiiya-damsiro babhaso'nasurih: , mahaniam asya mahtmanam ahuh, … ' MMdyamano yad anannam aUi

flJ'Ji* « & ? Mka Kapeya. reflecting on this, replied. 'It is aBtt of gods, the creator of all beings, with golden teeth

406 The Principal Upanisads IV. 4 2.

the eater, the truly -wise one They speak of his magnificence as very great indeed, because he eats what is not food, without being eaten Thus, venly, O student of sacred knowledge, do we meditate on this ' (Then he said to his attendants) 'give him food.'

hiranya golden, undecaying, undamaged amjla, abhagna S anasurih' truly wise” siirir eva S

8. tasnia u ha daduh; te va etepancanye pailcdnye data santas tat krtam, tasmat sarvasu dtksv annam eva data krtam, saisa vtrad annadi, tayedam sarvam drstam, sarvam asyedam drstam Vhavati, annado bhavahya evam veda,ya evam veda

8. Then they gave (food) to him These five and the other five make ten and that is the highest throw in dice Therefore in all directions, these ten are the food and the highest throw. This is Vtraj, the eater of food Through it, this whole world becomes seen. One who knows this, sees all this and becomes an eater of food, yea, one who knows this.

The first five are air, fire, sun, moon and water The second five are breath, speech, eye, ear and mind

CHAPTER IV

Section 4

THE STORY OF SATYAKAMA

I. satyakamo ha jdbalo jabalam mataram dmantrayam cakre, brahmacaryam, bhavatt, mvatsyavit, km gotro nv dham astmti

1. Once upon a time Satyakama Jabala addressed his mother Jabala, 'Mother, I desire to live the Lie of a student of sacred knowledge. Of what family am I?'

2. sa hainam uvaca, nakam dad veda, lata, yad gotras tvam est, bahv dham carantl paricarmi yauvane tvam alaihe, saham etan na veda yad-gotras tvam asi, jabala-tu namaham asmt, satyakamo nama tvam asi, sa satyakama evajabalo bruvitha tti.

2. Then she said to him- 'I do not know, my child, of what family you are. In my youth, when I went about a great deal, as a maid servant, I got you So I do not know of what family you are. However, I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama

IV 4. 5» Chandagya Upanisad 407

by name. So you may speak of yourself as Satyakama Jabala (the son of Jabala).

S says that she had no time to ascertain about her gotta or family as she had to move about much in her husband's house, attending upon guests

3 sa ha haridriimatam gautamam etyovdca, brahmacaryam bhagavah vatsyami, upeyam bhagavantam iti.

3. Then he went to Gautama, the son of Haridrumat and said, 1 wish to become a student of sacred knowledge. May I become your pupil, Venerable Sir.'

4 tamlmdca, hm-gotro nu, saumya, asitt; sa hovaca, ndhametad vsda, bhoh, yad-gotro'kam asmi, aprccham mataram, sa ma fraiyabramt, boko aham carantl paricdrini yauvane tvam aldbhe, saham dan na vedayad-gotras tvam asi, jabala tti namaham asmi, satyakdmo noma tvam asiti, so' hath satyakdmo jabdlo'smi, bhoh, th.

4 He said to him 'Of what family are you, my dear?' He replied, 'I do not know this, sir, of what family I am I asked my mother. She answered me, “In my youth, when I went about a great deal as a maid-servant, I got you So I do not know of what family you are I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama by name.” So I am Satyakama Jabala, Sir.'

5- tarn hovaca, nattad abrdhmano vivaklum arhatt; samidham, smmya, ahara, wpa iva. nesye, na satyad aga Hi. tarn upamya krsanam abalandm catuh-iata ga mrakrtyovaca, itndh, saumya, anusamvraph, ta abhprasihdpayann uvaca, ntisahasrenavarte- yeti saha varsa-ganam provasa, tayadd sahasram sampeduh.

5 He then said to him, 'None but a Brahmana could thus explain Bnng the fuel, my dear, I will receive you, as a pupil. lHou hast not departed from the truth Having initiated him,

f P v rated out four hundred lean, weak cows and said, 'Go with these, my dear ' While taking them away, he said, 'I may not return without a thousand.' He lived away a number of years When they came to be a thousand.

408

The Principal Vpanisads IV 6 i.

Section 5

THE FOUR QUARTERS OF BRAHMAN

1 atha liainam rsabho'bhyuvdda, satyakama iti, bltagavah iti ha pratiiidrdva; prdptah, saumya, sahasram smah, prdpaya na dcdrya-kulam

i. Then the bull spoke to him, saying, 'Satyakama He replied, 'Revered Sir ' 'We have reached a thousand, my dear, take us to the teacher's house '

'him, thus equipped with faith and austerity, the deity of the air, connected with the directions, having become satisfied, entered into the bull' tarn etam iraddhd-tapobhyam siddham vayu-devata dtk-sa- mbandhmi tusfa saty rsabham anupravitya S

2 brahmanai ca te padam bravdnitt, bravitu me, bhagavdn, iti, tasmai hovdca prdci dik kola, pratici iih kala, daksim dik kalodici dik kalaisa vai, saumya, catus-kalah pado brahmanah prakaiavan ndtna.

2 'And let me declare to you a quarter of Brahman ' 'Tell me, Revered Sir ' To him, it then said, 'The east is one quarter, the west is one quarter, the south is one quarter, and the north is one quarter This, venly, my dear, is Brahman's four- quartered foot named the Shining

3 sa ya etam evam mdvami catus-kalam padam brahmanah prakaiavan ity upaste prakaiavan asmvml loke bhavati, prakdiavato ha lokdn jayati, ya etam evam vidvami catus-kalam padam brahmanah prakaiavan ity upaste

3 'He who, knowing it thus, meditates on this four quartered foot of Brahman named the Shining becomes shining in this world Then he wins shining worlds, who, knowing it thus, meditates on the fourquartered foot of Brahman, named the Shining '

Section 6

THE FOUR QUARTERS OF BRAHMAN {continued)

I agnis fe padam vakteti, sa ha ivo bhiite ga abhiprasthdpa- yam cakdra, id yatrdbhi-sdyam babhilvuh, tatrdgmm upasamdd-

IV 7 i Chandogya Upaniiad 4°9

haya, gd uparudhya, samidham adhdya, paicdd agneh pran

'^fS^u tQ the Qther quarter of Brah ,

He then when it was the morrow, drove the cows on When they came, at evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid on fuel, and sat down to the west of the fire, facing the east

2 tarn agntr abhyuvada, satyakdma itt; bhagavah, ih ha ThSe said to him, 'Satyakama.' He replied, 'Revered

Sir'

3. brahma^ah, saumya, te pddam bravamti, bravttu me, bhaga- van ttt; tasmat Jiovdca; prihvul kald'ntanksam Ma, dyauh kaM, samudrah kola, esa vm, saumya, catm-kalah pddo brahmano nantavdn nama. ,

3 'Let me declare to you, my dear, a quarter of Brahman. 'Tell me, Revered Sir.' To him, it then said, 'The earth is one quarter, the atmosphere is one quarter, the sky is one quarter, the ocean is one quarter This, verily, my dear, is Braliman s fourquartered foot, named the Endless.

4 sa ya etam evam vxdvdms catus-kalam pddam brahmano anantavdnttyupdde.amntavdnasmmllokebhavah, anantavato ha lokdiijayatt, ya etam evam vidvami catu?-kalam pddam brahmano anantavdn liy updste

4 'He, who knowing it thus, meditates on this fourquartered foot of Brahman as the Endless becomes endless in this world. Then, he wins endless worlds, who knowing it thus, meditates on the fourquartered foot of Brahman as the Endless.'

Section 7

THE FOUR QUARTERS OF BRAHMAN (continued)

1 hamsas te pddam vakteti, sa ha tvobhvte gd ab'nprastha- faydm cakdra, id yatrdbhisdyam babhuvuh, tatrdgmm upasa- mddhdya, gd uparudhya, samidliam ddltdya paiedd agneh prdn upopavivcia.

4io

The Principal Upanisads

IV. 8 i.

1. 'A swan will tell you (another) quarter.' He, then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows on. When they came at evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid on the fuel, and sat down to the west of the fire, facing the east

2. taiit haihsa upampatydbhyuvada, satyakama itt, bhagavah, iti ha pratiiuirdva

2 A swan flew down to him and said, 'Satyakama,' He replied 'Revered Sir.'

3. brahmamh, saumya, tepddam bravdnih, bravitu vie bhagavan, Hi, tasmai hovaca agnth kola, sttryah kala, candrah kala, vtdyttl kala, csavai, saumya, catus-kalah, pddo brahmano jyottsmdn ndma.

3 'Let me declare to you, my dear, a quarter of Brahman ' 'Tell me, Revered Sir.' To him, it then said, 'Fire is one quarter, the sun is one quarter, the moon is one quarter and the lightning is one quarter'. This, venry, my dear, is Brahman's four- quartered foot named the Luminous.

4 sa ya clam evavt vidvami catus-kalam padam brahmano jyotipnan tty npastc.jyoiisman asimritllokc bhavati, yyottsmaio ha lokan jayati ya clam cvam vtdvamS catus-kalam padam brahmano yyoitsman tly upastc.

4 'He, wno, knowing it thus, meditates, on this fourquartered foot of Brahman as the Luminous becomes luminous in the world. Then he wins luminous worlds, who, knowing it thus, meditates on the fourquartered foot of Brahman as the Luminous '

Section 8

THE FOUR QUARTERS OF BRAHMAN [continued)

1. madgus tc padam vakleti, sa ha dvobhiiic ga abhiprastha- payam cakdra, td yalrabht sayam babhuvuh, tairdgnttn upasa- mddhdya, gd uparudhya, samtdham adhaya, paiedd agnrh pran npopavivcs'a

1. 'A diver-bird will tell you (another) quarter He, then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows on When they came at evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid on the fuel and sat down to the west of the fire, facing the east.

IV p. 2, Chandogya Upanisad 411

2 tarn utadgur upanipaiydbhyuvdda, satyakama, iti bhagavalji, tti fia prahiuirdva.

2 A diver-bird flew down to him and said. 'Satyakama ' He replied: 'Yes, Sir'

3. brabnanah, saumya, te padam bravdntU, bravitu me bhagavdn tit, temat hovaea,prdnaJ} kala, caksuh kala sroiram kala, manalt, Ma esa mi, saumya, catus-hahl} pado brakmana ayatamvan noma.

3. 'Let me declare to you, my dear, a quarter of Brahman' 'Tell me, Revered Sir.' To him it then said, 'Breath is one quarter, the eye is one quarter, the ear is one quarter, and the mind is one quarter. This, verily, my dear, is the fourquartered foot of Brahman named Possessing a support.

4 sa ya etmn evam vidvams calus-kalam padam brakmana ayatanavdn tty upaste, ayaianavan asmiml Zofce bhavati, ayata- mvaio ha lokan jayah, ya etam evam vidvdmi catus-halam padam bralwiaqa ayatanavdn tty up&ste.

4 'He, who, knowing it thus, meditates on this fourquartered foot of Brahman as possessing a support, comes to possess a support in this world. Then he wins worlds possessing a support, who, knowing it thus, meditates on the fourquartered foot of Brahman as 'possessing a support.'

Section 9

SATYAKAMA RETURNS TO THE TEACHER

1 prapa. hdcarya-kulam, tarn acaryo'bhyuvada, satyakama tti; ohagavah, th haprahhiirdva.

1 Then he reached the teacher's house The teacher said, Satyakama.' He replied, 'Yes, Revered Sir.'

2. brahma-vid iva mi, saumya, bhdsi, ho «« tvamtSasaseti, anye imnusyebhya iti ha praiijajfie, bhagavdnts tv eva me kdme

wit ^ er ^y> m y dear, you shine like one knowing Brahman.

•t 0 taught y 011 ?' He replied, 'Others, than men. But I wish, Revered Sir, that you teach me.*

St. Bernard. 'What I know of the divine sciences and Holy

0

412 The Principal Upamsads IV 10 3

Scripture, I learnt in woods and fields I have had no other masters than the beeches and the oaks '

One who knows Brahman has his senses tranqudhsed, wears a smiling face, is free from anxiety and is of fulfilled purpose pra- samtendrtyah prahasita-vadanai ca miemtah kftartho brahma-vtd bhavah §

3 srutam hy eva me bhagavad-driebhyah, dcdryddd haiva vtdyd vtdttd sadhistham prdpatiti, tasmat hattad evovdca atra ha na kin cana viydyeti, vTydyeh

3 'For I have heard from persons like you, Revered sir, that the knowledge which has been learned from a teacher best helps one to attain his end ' To him, he then declared it In it nothing whatsoever was left out, yea, nothing was left out

Section 10

BRAHMAN AS LIFE, JOY AND ETHER

1 upakosalo ha vat kdmaldyanah satyakame jdbdle brahma- caryam ttvdsa, tasya ha dvddasa varsdny agmn partcacdra, sa ha smdnydn antevdstnaJi samdvartayams tarn ha smatva 11a samd- vartayatt.

1. Now, venly, Upakosala, the son of Kamala dwelt with Satyakama Jabala, as a student of sacred wisdom He tended his fires for twelve years But the teacher, though he allowed other pupils (after they learnt the sacred wisdom) to return to then” homes, did not allow him (Upakosala) to depart

2. tarn jdyovdca, tapto brahmacdrl, kuialam agmn paricacdrtn, md ivdgnayah panpravocan, prabrfihy asmd tti, tasntat ha aprocyaiva pravdsdmcakre

2 His wife said to him, '(this) student of sacred wisdom has performed his penance and tended the fires well Let not the fires blame you Give him the teaching ' But he went away without teaching him

3 sa ha vyddhindnaittum dadhre, tarn deary a-jdyovdca,brahm<i- cdrm, aidna, kwi nu ndsndsi tit. sa hovdea, baliava imesimn puruse kdmd ndndtyaydh, vyddhtbhth prahpurno'smi, ndiisyann itt

3 Then, on account of sickness (gnef), he resolved not to eat

IV II 2

Chdndogya Upanisad

413

The teacher's wife said to him '0 student of sacred wisdom, please eat. Why, pray, do you not eat?' Then he said, 'Many are the desires m this person which proceed in different directions. I am filled with sicknesses (griefs). I will not eat.'

4 atha hdgnayah samudire, tapio brahmacan, kusalam nah paryacdrit, Iianidsmai prabravdmetv tasmai hocuh, prano brahma, ham brahma, kham brahmeti.

4, Then the fires said among themselves: 'This student of sacred wisdom has performed his penance and tended us well. Let us teach him then. ' They then said to him 'Life is Brahman, Joy is Brahman, Ether is Brahman.'

Skasa ether or space

5 sa hovdca vijdndmy aham yat prano brahma, ham ca tu kham ca na vijdndmiti te hocuh, yad vava ham tad eva kham, yad eva kham tad eva ham ih, pranam ca hdsmai tad akaiam cocuh.

5. Then he said, 'I understand that life is Brahman But'joy and ether I do not understand.' They said (to him), 'Joy, venly, that is the same as ether. Ether, verily, that is the same as joy.' Then they explained to him life and ether.

Section 11

THE SAME PERSON IS IN THE SUN, AND IN THE HOUSEHOLD FIRE

1* atha hainam gdrhapatyo'nuhidsa, prthivy agnir annam Mrtya. it%, ya e?a adttye puruso drsyate so'ham asmt, sa evaham asmiti

•R I ^ The i 1 c the Gdrha P ai y a fire instructed him, 'Earth, Fire, *ood and Sun (are forms of me), the person that is seen in the 3un, I am he, I am he, indeed.

i&rtutpatya: the fire in the household.

bhmUr ya Ctam evam vidvdn «paste, apahaU pspa-krtydm, Ml vbaT' SarVam d y ureh 'Jy°SP”^hnasyavara-pHrtts'dhksiyanie, rnL V 1 ? tam Wj “«?a«io's»w}j!5 ca loke'musmtmi ca, ya eiam Wividvanupastc. 2 'He who knowing this meditates (on the fire) destroys

414 The Principal Upanisads IV. 13. 1,

sinful actions, becomes possessor of (this) world, reaches full life, lives brightly His descendants do not perish Both m this world and m the yonder we serve him who knowing this meditates (on the fire) '

jyog brightly, conspicuously ujjvalam §

Section 12

THE SAME PERSON IS IN THE MOON AND IN THE SACRIFICIAL FIRE (INTENDED FOR THE MANES)

1 atha hainam anvdhdryapacano'nuSaSasa: dpo diio nak- satrdm candramd itt, ya esa candramasi ptcruso driyate so' ham asmi sa evaham asmih.

1. Then, the anvdharyapacana instructed him 'Water, the quarters, the stars, the moon (are forms of me) , the person that is seen in the moon, I am he, I am he, indeed '

2 sa ya eiam evam viivan upaste'pahaie papakrtyam loki bhavah, sarvam dyur eh, jyog fivah, nasyavara purusah ksiyante, upa vayatn torn bhunjamo'smvmi ca loke'tmsmtmi ca, ya etam evam mdvan upaste

2 'He who knowing this meditates (on the fire) destroys sinful actions, becomes possessor of (this) world, reaches full life, lives brightly, His descendants do not perish Both m this world and m the yonder we serve him, who knowing this, meditates on (the fire) '

Section 13

THE SAME PERSON IS IN THE LIGHTNING AND THE

FIRE

1. atha hainam ahavaniye'nuiaiasa, prdna dkdio dyaur vidyud ttt, ya esa vidyutt puruso drsyate, so'ham asmi, sa evaham asmitt. 1. Then the ahavanlya (fire) instructed him Breath, space,

IV. 14 3-

Chdndogya Upanisad

4×5

sky and lightning (are forms of me) ; the person that is seen in the lightning. I am he, I am he, indeed.

While the anvakarya fire is that on the altar on the southern side, the ahavaniya fire is that on the altar on the eastern side.

2. sa ya etam evam vidvan upaste'pahate pdpakrtydm, lokl bhavafo, sarvam dyur eti, jyog fivatu, ndsydvarapurusdh ksiyante, upa vayam tarn bhunjdmo'smims ca lohe'musmtmi ca ya etam eoath vidvan updste.

2. *He who knowing this meditates (on the fire) destroys sinful actions, becomes possessor of (this) world, reaches full life, lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. Both in this world and in the yonder we serve him, who, knowing this, meditates (on the fire).'

Section 14 KNOWLEDGE OF THE SELF

_ I. tehocuh upakosala, e§a, saumya, te'smad-vidydtma-vtdyd ca. t^ as . * M ^ gntim vakteh. djagdma hasyacdryah, tarn dcdryo

1. Then they (the fires) said, 'Upakosala dear, you have this knowledge of our selves and knowledge of the self. But the teacher will tell you the way.' Then the teacher returned The teacher spoke to him 'Upakosala.'

2. lhagavah, ttt ha pratis”usrdva; brahma-vid iva, satimya, ie mhham bhdh, ho nu tvd'nuiasaseti, ko mt md'nusisyad blioh, ttt iha apeva mhmita, ime nunam tdrid, anyddrid ttihdgnin abhyu&e kim nu, saumya, Ma te'vocann th.

tw ^ vered Sir,' he answered. 'Dear, your face shines like <wl v° ne who lmows BraJi man. Who has instructed you?'

instruct me, sir/ said he. Here he conceals it as it were And he said (pointrng-to the fires), “They are of this form now, but they were of a different form ' The teacher said, wnat dear, did they indeed tell you?'

a/'L'f”' 1 ' ili prahjajiie, lokdn vdva kila, saumya te'vocan, •aw Ui t e tad vaksydmi yathd pttskara-paMa dpo na Slisyanfe,

416 The Principal Upamsads IV 15 5

evam evam-vidt papam karma na shsyata iti, bravitu me bhagavdn iti, tasmai hovaca

3 'This/ he replied 'They, dear, have indeed spoken to you about the worlds, but I will tell you this and as water does not cling to the lotus leaf, so evil deed does not cling to one who knows it ' 'Tell me, revered sir ' To him, he then said

Section 15

THE WAY TO BRAHMALOKA

1. ya eso'ksim puruso drsyate, esa alma tti hovaca, etad amriam abhayam, etad brahmeh, tad yady apy asmm sarpir vodakam va stficaii, vartmavi eva gacchah

1 He said, 'The person who is seen in the eye, he is the self This is the immortal, the fearless, this is Brahman So even if one drops melted butter or water into this (eye), it goes away by the sides

We can see the self in the eye, only if we are pure of heart nvartta-caksu-bhvr brahmacaryadi-sadhana-sampamiaih santath vivekt- bhvr drster drasta 5

2 etam samyad-vdma ity acaksate, etam hi sarvdni vamany abhtsamyantt, sarvdny enam vamany abhisamyanti, ya evam veda

2 This they call samyad-vdma for all desirable things go towards him All desirable things go to him who knows this

vamam desirable things vananiyam sambhajamyam Sobhandm S.

3 esa u eva vdmamh, esa hi sarvdni vamam nayati, sarvdni vamam nayati, ya evam veda

3 He is also Vamam for he brings all desirable things He Who knows this brings all desirable things

4 esa u eva bhdmanih, esa hi sarvesu lokesu bhdti, sarvesti lokesu bhati, ya evam veda

4 He is also bhdmani for he shines in all worlds He who knows this shines m all worlds

5 atha yad u caivasmin chavyam kurvantt yadi ca na arctsam evabhisambhavanh, arciso'har ahna dpfiryamdna-paksant, apur- yamana-paksdd ydn sad udann eh masams tan, masebhyah

IV i6 2 Chdndogya Upamsad 417

samvatsaram, samvatsarad adityain, adityac candramasam, amttramaso vidyutam, tat puruso'manavah, sa enaih braJana gmnayati, esa deva-pailw brahma-pathah, etena pratipadyamand imam mdnavam avartam navartanta iti, navartanta ih.

5 Now for such a one whether they perform the cremation obsequies or not, he goes to light, from light into the day, from the day into the half-month of the waxing moon; from the half- month of the waxing moon into the six months when the sun moves northwards, from the months into tie year, from the year into the sun, from the sun into the moon, from the moon into lightning. Then there is a person, not human. He leads them to Brahman This is the way to the gods, the way to Brahman. Those who proceed by it do not return to the human condition, yea they do not return.

The reference here is to Brahman who Tesides in the Tegions of satyr salya-loka-stkam. S”

The followers of the ceremonial code pass along the path called pilr-yana. and they return to this world Those who live in the forests practise austerities, go along the path called deva-yana and do not return to this world

Section 16

SILENCE AND SPEECH IN SACRIFICES

I esa ha vai yafiio yo'yam pavate, esa ha yann idam sarvam punah.yad esa yann %dam sarvam punah, tasniad esa eva yajfias wsyamanaicavakca variant.

1 Verily, that which purifies here (1 e the wind) is the sacrmce for he, moving along, purifies all this. And because niovmgalonghe purifies all this, he is the sacrmce. Of that mind an u speech are the ways.

2 tayor anyataram manasa sariiskarott- brahvia, vacd Jioia'- wtyur udgata anyataram; sa yatropakrte pratar-amivake iitrd

pttrtdliamyayd brahmd vyamvadaii,

hvS ^ ^ Braima priest performs one with his mind: oL? S th i ffo ^ A* Adhvaryu and the Udgatr priests the cm^'J he mornia S litany has commenced and before the concluding recitation, the Brahma priest has to speak

4i”8

The Principal Upanisads

IV. 17. 1

Generally the Brahma pnest follows the sacrifice with his mind,

1 e. in silence When he breaks the silence, then the mental exercise is interrupted, for he also resorts to speech. The performance of the Brahma pnest should be an act of meditation.

3 anyataram eva vartantm samskaroh, htyate' nyatard, sa yathatkapdd vrajan ratho vaikena cakrena varlamdno rtsyatt, evam asya yajno rtsyatt, vajHam risyantam yajamdno'nunsyati, sa tsfvd pdplydn bhavaU

3 He performs one way only (that by words) but the other is injured Even as a one-footed man walking or as a one-wheeled chariot moving is injured, even so is his sacrifice injured. When the sacrifice is injured, the sacrificer is injured By having sacrificed he becomes worse off.

samskarana remaking, reintegration See Attareya Brdhmana. VI. 27; Satapatha Brdhmana, VII. 1 z. 1, Attareya Aranyaka, III,

2 6

4 atha yatropdkrte prdtar-anuvdke na purd partdMniydyd brahmd vyavavadatt, ubJie eva variant samskurvanii, 11a hiyale' nyatara

4 But when after the morning litany has begun and before the concluding recitation the Brahma pnest does not speak, they perform both ways and neither is injured.

5. sa yatkobhayapdd vrajan ratho vobhdbhydm cakrdbhydm vartamdnah pratthsthah, evam asya yajnah prahhsfJiaU, yajnam prattUsthantam yajamdno' nupratthsthatt, sa tstvd sreydn bJiavah

5 As a two-footed man walking or as a two-wheeled chanot moving is well-supported, even so is his sacrifice well supported. When the sacnfice is well supported the sacnficer is well supported By having sacrificed he becomes better off.

The Brahma pnest knows the wisdom of silence, tnattna-vtpldnam

Section 17

HOW THE BRAHMA PRIEST CORRECTS MISTAKES IN THE SACRIFICIAL RITUAL

1 prajdpattr lokdn abhyatapat, tesdm tapyamdnanam rasdn prdvrhat, agmm prthtvydh vdyum antariksdt, ddttyam divah.

V. 17 6. Chdndogya. Upanisad 419

1 Prajd-pati brooded on the -worlds. As they were brooded an, he extracted their essences, fire from the earth, air from the atmosphere, the sun from the sky

2 sa etas tisro devata dbhyaiapat, tasath tapyamananam rasan pravrhat agner rcah, vayor yajumsi, samany adityat.

2 On these three deities he brooded. As they were brooded on, he extracted their essences, the Rg verses from the fire, the Yajus formulas from the air, the Saman chants from the sun

3 sa dam traylm vidydm abhyatapat, tasyas tapyamanaya rasan prdvrhat, bhur tty rgblvyah, bhuvar iti yajurbhyah, svar iti saviabhyah.

3 On this threefold knowledge he brooded As it was brooded upon he extracted its essences; bhur from the Rg verses; bhuvas from the Yajus formulas; sva}t from the Saman chants

4 tad yady rkto nsyed bhv.fi svaheti gdrhapatye pihuyat, ream em iad rasena ream mryena rcdmyajnasya viristam samdadhati.

i,. If (the sacrifice) is injured from the Rg verses, one should make an oblation in the householder's fire “with the words bhuh, hail. So by the essence of the Rg verses themselves, by the power of the Rg verses, he binds together (heals) the injury to the Rg sacrifice

5 alha yadi yajusto risyed bhuvah svaheti daksindgnau juhuyat yaptsam eva fad rasena yajusdni mryena yajusam yajnasva vmstam samdadhati ' ”

5 Again, if (the sacrifice) is injured by the Yajus formulas n!i make an ODlatio11 ™ the southern fire with the words bhuvah hsil So by the essence of the Yajus formulas them- selves by the power of the Yajus formulas he binds together (heals) the uvjury to the Yajus sacrifice.

6 alha yadi sdmato risyet, svah svahety dhavanvye julutyat, sanmam eva iad rasena sdinndm viryena samndm yajnasva vmstam samdadhati. J J J

JLm gaU )' rf ^ e sacrifice ) ^ injured by the Sdma chants, one wVt£ oblation ™ dhavatnya fire with the ^ords w nau So by the essence of the Sdma chants themselves,

Z, ™ 2 f Sdma he bmds together (heals) the

injury to the Saman sacrifice

K the injury be with regard to Brahma, g says, one should make

420

The Pnnctpal Upamsads

IV 17. 10

an oblation m all the three fires, pronouncing all the three, bhilh, bhuvah, svah, as the injury relates to all the three Vedas

7 tad yatlia lavanena suvarnam samdadhyat, suvarnena raja- tam, rajatena trapu, trapuna stsam, sisena loham, lohena dam, daru carmand

7 Just as one would bind together gold with (borax) salt, silver with gold, tin with silver, lead with tin, iron with lead, wood with iron or wood with leather

loha iron or brass

8 evam esam lokanam dsdm devatdnam asyds trayyd vidyayd viryena yajnasya vm$tam samdadhdii, bhesaja-krto ha va esa yajnah yatraivam-vtd brahmd bhavah,

8 So does one bind together (heal) any injury to the sacrifice with the power of these worlds, of these gods, and of the three Vedas Verily, such a sacrifice is well healed when there is a Brahma pnest knowing this

healed bhesaja-kfto ha va esa yajnah, rogdrta tva pumdm cikttsakena stthksitenawa yajno bliavati

9 esa ha va udak-pravano yajnah, yatraivam-vtd brahma bhavah, evam-vidam ha va esa brakmanam anu gatha yato yata avartate, tat tad gacchah manavah

g Verily, that sacrifice is inclined to the north, m which there is a Brahma pnest who knows this And with regard to such a Brahma pnest there is this song Wherever it falls, thither the man goes

manava silent from mauna, silence, or thoughtful, from manana Whenever mistakes are committed, he breaks his silence and corrects them, for it is said, 'Whenever it fails, thither the man goes '

10. brahmaivaika rtvik hurun aSvabhiraksah, evam vidd ha vat brahma yajitam yajamanam sarvams ca rtvijo'bhiraksatt, tasmad evam-vidam eva brahmanam kurvita, ndnevam-vidam, nanevam- vidam

10 The Brahma pnest as a Rtvik pnest protects the sacn- ficers like a mare, 1 e the Brahma pnest knowing this protects the sacrifice, the sacnficer and all the Rtvik pnests Therefore one should make one who knows this as his Brahma pnest, not one who does not know it, yea, not one who does not know it

V i 6

Chandogya Upani§ad

421

CHAPTER V

Section i

ON BREATH, THE SOUL AND THE UNIVERSAL SELF. THE FIVE BODILY FUNCTIONS AND THE IMPORT- ANCE OF BREATH

I yo ha vaijyestham ca &re%tham ca veda, jyesfhat ca ha vat sretfJuis ca bhavaii, pra.no vava jyestha§ ca iresthai ca.

1. Venly, he who knows the oldest and the best becomes himself the oldest and the best. Breath indeed is the oldest and the best.

§ explains that breath is the oldest because it functions prior to the sense activities, even when the child is in the womb.

2. yo ha vai vasisiham veda, vasisfho ha svanam bhavah, vag viva vasisthah

2. Verily, he who knows the most prosperous becomes the most prosperous of his own (people) Speech, indeed, is the most prosperous.

3 yo ha va% prahsthdm veda, prah ha tisthaty asmimi ca loke 'mttsmmS ca, cak$ur vava pratistha.

3- Venly, he who knows the firm basis becomes firm in this world and in the yonder. The eye, indeed, is the firm basis.

4- yo ha vat sampadam veda, sa hasmat kdmah padyante daivai cawdnuiaf ca, irotrath vava sampat

4- Verily, he who knows success, his desires succeed, both human and divine. The ear, indeed, is success.

5- yo ha va ayatanam vedayatanath ha svanam bhavati, mono ha va ayatanam.

5 Venly, he who knows the abode becomes the abode of his People The mind, indeed, is the abode

?t-™ d ' for 331 o^ate are perceived by the mind tndri- yopaiirtanam vtsaymam bhoUr-arthanam praiyaya-ru.p5.nam mana tyatanam a&ayah. £.

6. alha ha prdndaJtaih-sreyast vyudire * aham Erevan asmi, aham Srcyan asmih.

6. Now the (five) senses disputed among themselves as to

422 The Principal Upamsads V. i 10

who was superior saying (in turn) 'I am superior' 'I am superior '

Cp PrainaU 3, A U II 4, B U VI 1 1-14, KU III 3

7. te ha prdnah prajd-paUmpitaram etyocuh, bhagavan, ko nah Srestha iti, tan hovaca, yasmtn va titkrante iariram pdpisthataram iva drsyeta, sa vah srestha iti

7 Those senses went to Prajd-patt, (their) father and said, 'Venerable sir, who is the best of us ? ' He said to them, 'He on whose departing the body looks the worst, he is the best among you '

8 sa ha vdg uccakrama, sd samvatsaram prosya paryetyovaca, katham asakata rte maj jivitum itt, yatha kala avadantah prdnantah prdnena, paiyantai caksusd, imvantah irotrena, dhydyanto manasavoam iti, pravivesa ha vdk

8 Speech departed and having stayed away for a year returned and said, 'How have you been able to live without me ? ' (They replied) 'Like the dumb not speaking, but breathing with the breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind Thus (we lived) ' Speech entered in

g caksur hoccakrdma, tat samvatsaram prosya paryetyovaca, katham asakata rte maj jivitum iti, yathdndha apaiyantdh, prdnantah prdnena, vadanto vacd, imvantah irotrena, dhydyanto manasavoam tti, praviveia ha caksuh.

9 The eye departed and having stayed away for a year returned and said, 'How have you been able to live without me (They replied) 'like the blind not seeing but breathing with the breath, speaking with speech (the tongue), hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind Thus (we lived) ' The eye entered in

10 Srotram hoccakrdma, tat samvatsaram prosya paryetyovaca, katham asakata rte maj jivitum iti, yaiha badhird aSrnvantah, prdnantah prdnena, vadanto vacd, paiyantas caksusd, dhydyanto manasavoam iti, pravivesa ha irotram

10 The ear departed and having stayed away for a yar returned and said, 'How have you been able to live without me?' (They replied) 'like the deaf not hearing, but breathing with the breath, speaking with speech (the tongue), seeing with the eye and thinking with the mind. Thus (we lived) ' The ear entered in

V. 1. 15. Chandogya Vpanisaa 423

n. memo hoccahrmna, tat samvatsaram prosya paryetyovdea, katham aSakata rte maj pvitum iti, yatha baU amanasah, firdmii- iah prdnem, vaianio vacd, paiyantai caksu$a, smvafttah irotre- mwam tit, praviveia ha manah

11. The mind departed and having stayed away for a year returned and said, 'How have you been able to live •without me?' (They replied) 'Like the children mindless but breathing vrith the breath, speaking with speech (the tongue), seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear. Thus (we lived).' The mind entered in.

Mid amanasah: children mindless, rather undeveloped minds. aprarOdJia-manasah §

M atha ha prayta ucctkramisan, sa yatha suliayah padviia i&nhun samkhidet, eoam taran pranan samakhdat, tarn habht- sametyocuh, bhagavann edhi, tvam nah frestho'st, motkramir iti.

12 Now when breath was about to depart, tearing up the other senses, even as a spirited horse, about to start might tear op the pegs to which he is tethered, they gathered round him and said, 'Revered Sir, remain, you are the best of us, do not depart.'

remam our lord ttahsvaml §.

13 atha hainam vdg uvaca, yad aham vasistho'smi, tvam tad vasisiho'stti, atha hamam caksur uvaca, yai aham pratisthd'smi, tvamiat$rati$hd'siti

13 Then speech said to hun, 'If I am the most prosperous, so are you the most prosperous.' Then the eye said to him, 'If 1 am the firm basis, so are you the firm basis '

14 atha hainam srotram uvaca, yad aham sampad ami, tvam lei sampad asiti, atha hainam mana uvaca, yad aham ayatamm asmt, tvam tad ayatamm asiti.

14 Then the ear said to hun, 'If I am success, so are you we success.' Then the mind said to him, 'If I am the abode, so are you the abode '

15 »w vai^ vaco na caksitmsi na Srotrdni na mandmsity o^avah ^™ n& lty ev&ca ^ ate ' P r W° evaitam sarvani

n *5 ftey do not call them speeches or eyes or ears or

“™os iaey call them breaths, for all these are breath. SeeKU III 3.

424 The Principal Upanisads V 2, 4.

Section 2

THE MEANING OF THE MANTHA RITE

1 sa hovdca, ktm me annam bMvisyatTii; yat kith ad tdam a svabhya a sakuntbhyah, ih Jtocuh tad va etad anasydnnam ano ha zai nama pratydksam, no. ha va evamvidi kimcana anannam bhavatftt.

1. He (Breath) said, 'What will be my food?' They said, “Whatever there is here, even unto dogs and birds ' So this, verily, is the food of breath. Verily, breath (ana) is his evident name For one who knows this, there is nothing whatever that is not food

prana consists of pra and ana ana is breath and pra indicates the direction of the motion

2. sa hovdca, kim me vaso bhamsyafth; apali, itiJiocuh, tasrnad va etad asisyantah purastac coparistac cadbhh paridadhah, laiubhuko ha vaso bhavah, anagno ha bhavah

2 He said, 'What will be my clothing?' They said, 'Water.' Therefore it is that, when people are about to eat, they cover it (the breath) with water, both before and after He thus obtains clothing and becomes clothed (is no longernaked).

This verse refers to the usual Indian practice of rinsing the mouth both before and after a meal

3. tadd haitat satyakamo jabalo gosrutaye vaiydghrapadyayokt- vovaca, yady apy etac chuskaya sfhdvave briiyat, jayerann evasimfi-sakhah, praroheyuh paldidnth

3 Satyakama Jabala, after telling this to Gofiruti, the son of V3'aghrapada, said to him, 'Even if one should tell this to a dried up stump, branches would be produced on it and leaves would spring forth.'

son of Vyaghrapada vyaghrapddo'patyam S

4 aiha yadi mahaj jigamiset, amavasyayam dtksifvd pattr- namasyam rairau sarvausadhasya mantham dadhi-madhunor upamathya, jyesthdya ircsihdya svdha, ity agnav ajyasya huiva, inai.tJ.e saihpaiam avanayet

4 Now if one wishes to reach greatness, let him perform the initiatory rite on the new moon night and then on the night of the full moon, let him stir with curds and honey a mash of all lands of herbs and pour melted butter on the fire saying,

' 2. 7 Chdndogya Upamsad 425

Hail to the oldest, hail to the best ' And then let him throw the esidue into the mash

SeeBU.VI 3-2

On the day of initiation, diksa, the agent should have passed through the ethical preparation, austerity, truthfulness and chastity. 'Mmi-fayanadMiiya.mam krtvd tapo-r&pam satya-vacamm brahma- •Aiyam tty adidharmavan bhiitvety arthah.

5 vasisthdyat svaha, tty agnav ajyasya hutva, manthe sam- patam avanayet, prahsfhdyat svdM ity agnav ajyasya hutva manthe sampatam avanayet, sampade svaha, ity agnav ajyasya hutva manthe sampatam avanayet, dyatandya svaha, tty agnav ajyasya hutva manthe sampatam avanayet.

5 'Hail to the most prosperous,' with these words, let him lour melted butter on the fire and then let him throw the residue into the mash 'Hail to the firm basis,' with these words

3t him pour melted butter on the fire and then let htm throw the residue into the mash. 'Hail to success,' with these words

it him pour melted butter on the fire and then let him throw the residue into the mash 'Hail to the abode,' with these words

et him pour melted butter on the fire and then let him throw the residue into the mash.

6. athaprahsrpyMjalau mantham ddhdya japah 4 amo ndmdsi, amu h te sarvam idam, sa hi jyesthah srestho rdjddhipahh, sa »»« jyatsthyam sraisthyam rajyam ddhipaiyam gamayaiv aham evedam sarvam asdnlh.

6 Then moving away and holding the mash m his hands, he recites, 'Thou art ami by name for all this rests in thee. He js the oldest and the best, the king and the overlord May he lead me to old age, to the best (position), to kingship, to over- lordship May I be all this '

7 ftha khalv etayd red paccha acamah, tat savttur vrmmaha ity dedntah, vayam devasya bhojanam ity acamah, irestham wrvadhaiamam ity acamah, turam bhagasya dhTmahi ih sarvam pibati, nirnyya kamsam camasam vd paiedd agneh samvisah cannsjM va sthandtle vd vdcam-yamo'prasdhah; sa yadi stnyam pasyet samrddham karmeti vidyat.

7- Then he takes a sip with this Rk verse at each foot, jsaymg) we desire the Savitr' he sips a little, (saying) 'the 100a of the gods,' he sips a little (saying) 'the best and all sus- taining, he sips a little (saying) 'we meditate on the strength

426 The Principal Upanisads V. 3 3

of the god/ lie drinks up the whole Having cleansed the vessel or the cup, he sits down behind the fire either on a skin or on the bare ground with speech restrained and with self-possession If he now sees a woman let him know that his effort has reached fruition.

§ says that he lies down behind the fire and if, in the dream, he sees a woman, that is a sign that his effort has succeeded

8 tad esa slokah” yadd karmasu kdmye$u siriyam svapnesu paiyati, samrddhvm taira jamyat tasmvn svapna-nidariane iti tasmm svapna-mdarsane. 8 As to this, there is this verse 'If during rites performed for (the fulfilment of certain) wishes, he (the performer) sees a woman in a dream, let him recognise fulfilment in such a vision in a dream, in such a vision in a dream '

The Vedic rite is enlarged in its significance

Section 3

THE COURSE OF THE SOUL AFTER DEATH

1. svetaketur hdrimeyah pancalanam samitvm eyaya, tarn ha pravdhano jaivahr uvdca kumara ami tvdsisat piteti, a mthi, bhagava tti

1 SVetaketu Aruneya went to an assembly of the Pancalas. Then Pravahana Jaivah said to him. 'Young man, has your father instructed you?' 'Yes, indeed, Venerable Sir' (said he in answer).

aruneya' the grandson of Arum

2. vettlia yad tto'dhi prajah prayantUi^ tm, bhagava, Hi; vettha yatha punar avartanta itO na, bhagava iti; vettha pathor deva-yanasya pitrydnasya ca vydvartanam iti> na, bhagava ttt

2 'Do you know to what place men go from here 7 ' 'No, Venerable Sir.' 'Do you know how they return again 'No, Venerable Sir ' 'Do you know where the paths leading to the gods and leading to the fathers separate ' 'No, Venerable Sir '

3 vettha yathdsau loko na sampuryata iti? na bhagava tti;

V, jr. CMndogya Upanisad 427

vettha yathd paHcamydm ahutav apah purusa-vacaso bhavanttti, nam, bhagava tti.

3. 'Do you know how that (yonder) world never becomes full?' 'No, Venerable Sir.' 'Do you know how in the fifth libation water comes to be called a person.' 'Indeed, Venerable Sir, no.'

4. athamkimanus'isto'vocathdk.yo htmdm na vidydt, kathath so' wuiisio bruvitett. sa hdyastah pitur ardham eydya; tarn hovdca: anmuhsya vdva. ktla ma, bhagavdn, abravit arm tvd&isam itt.

4. 'Then why did you say that you had been instructed? Indeed how could any one who did not know these things speak of himself as having been instructed?' Distressed, he went to his father's place and said to him, 'Venerable Sir, you said, indeed, that you had instructed me without having instructed me.'

5 panca ma rdjanya-bandhuh prahidn aprakstt, tesdm naikam canaiakam mvaktum ih; sa hovdca: yathd ma tvam tdta, dan avadah, tathdham esdm naikam ca na veda yady ahum tmdn avedisyam, kathath te ndvahsyam itt.

5 'That fellow of the princely class asked me five questions and I could not understand even one of them.' He (the father) said, 'As you stated to me these (questions) I do not know even one of them If I had known them, how should I not have told them to you?'

6. sa ha gautamo rdjno'rdham eydya, tasmat ha prdptdydrhdm cakara; sa ha prdtah sabhdga udeydya; tarn hovdca: mdnusasya, Wtagavan gautama, vtttasya varam vrntthd tti, sa hovdca tavaiva, rfyan, m&nusam vitiam, yam eva kumdrasydnte vdcam abhds- athali, tarn eva me bruhiti; sa ha krcchri babhuva

6 Then Gautama went over to the long's place To him, when he arrived, he (the king) had proper respect shown. In the morning he went up to the audience hall (where) the king said to him, 'Venerable Gautama, choose a boon out of the jvealth that belongs to the world of men ' Then he replied, imne be the wealth of the world of men, 0 King; tell me that speech which you spoke to the young man ' The king was Perplexed

7. ha, cxram vasety djMpaydm cakara; tarn hovdca. yathd « mm, gautama, avadah, yathcyam naprdk tvattah pur a vidyd

428 The Principal Upam'sads V 4 2

brdhmnan gacchati, tasmai « sarvcsu lokesu ksatrasyaiva pras'dsar.am abhiid lit; tasmai hovaca

7. 'Stay for some time' he commanded him Then he said to him, 'As to what you have told me, Gautama, this knowledge has never reached the Brahmanas before you; therefore in all the worlds the rule (this teaching) belonged to the Ksatnya class only.' Then he said to him

Section 4

THE COURSE OF THE SOUL {continued)

1. asau vava lokah, gautama, agmh, tasyaditya cva samit, rasmayo dkumah, ahar arcth, candramd angarah, vaksatrdijt visphuliiigdh

1 'That world, verily, 0 Gautama, is a (sacrificial) fire, the sun itself is its fuel, the rays the smoke, the day the flame, the moon the coals, the stars the sparks

The analog}' of the heavenly region to the sacrificial fire is worked out The sun is the fuel as the world shines only when it is lighted up by the sun. The rays are the smoke because they rise from it even as the smoke rises from the fuel The day is the flame because it is bnght and is the effect of the sun The moon is the coals or the embers, for even as the moon becomes visible when the day has ceased, the embers become visible when the flame is put out The stars are the sparks, they are like parts of the moon S

2 tasmii.n ctasminn agnau devah sraddhdm juhvah, tasya ahutck soino raja sambhavati.

2. In this fire the gods offer (the oblation of) faith From this offering arises Soma (the moon) the long

Water is offered as the offering of faith

The king answers the last question why the water in the fifth libation is called man. V 3 3 The sacrificers rise through their offerings to heaven and attain there as their reward a nature hkc that of Son a

V i, i. - Chandogya Ufanisad 429

Section 5

THE COURSE OF THE SOUL (continued)

1 parjanyo vava, gautama, agmh, tasya vayur eva samit, abhram dhumah, vidyud arcih, aianir angardh, hradanayo visphulingafy.

1. The god of rain, 0 Gautama, is the (sacrificial) fire, the air itself is its fuel, the cloud is the smoke, the lightning is the flame, the thunder the coals and the thunderings the sparks.

hradam, generally explained as 'had', but here it means 'rumblings.'

2 taminn etasminn agnau devah somam rajanam juhvaii, tasya ahuter varsam sambhavah.

2 In this fire the gods offer (the libation of) Soma the King. From this offering arises rain

Section 6 THE SAME CONTINUED

1. prthivl vava, gautama, agmh; tasyah samvatsara eva satmt, akaso dhimiah, ratnr arcih, diio'ngarah, avantara diso visphu- hngak

1 P e earth, venly, 0 Gautama, is the (sacrificial) fire; of this the year is the fuel, space is the smoke, the night is the flame, the quarters the coals, the intermediate quarters the sparks.

2 tasmmn etasmmn agnau devd varsam pihvati. tasya ahuter annam sambJiavaii.

2. In this fire the gods offer (the libation of) rain. From this offering arises food.

Section 7

THE SAME CONTINUED

ihUT'^i v&va ' S auiam i, agmh; tasya vag eva samit, prano phva'mh, caksttr angaral}, trotram vtsphuhngdh.

43°

The Principal Upatnsads V 9 i.

1 Man, venly, 0 Gautama, is the (sacrificial) fire, of this speech is the fuel, breath the smoke, the tongue the flame, the eyes the coals and the ears the sparks

2 iasminn etasmwn agnau dcva annum juhvah, tasya dhute retah sambhavah

2 In this fire the gods offer (the libation of) food, from this offering arises semen

Section 8

THE SAME CONTINUED

I yosd vdva, gautama, agmh, tasya upastha eva samtt, yad upamantrayate sa dhiimah, yomr arcih, yad aniah karoti te angarah, abhinanda visphuhngak

1 Woman, venly, 0 Gautama, is the (sacrificial) fire, of this the sexual organ is the fuel, what invites is the smoke, the vulva is the flame, what is done inside is the coals, the pleasures the sparks

2 tasminn ctastmnn agnau devd reto juhvah, tasya ahutcr garbhah sambhavah

2 In this fire the gods offer (the libation of) semen, from this offering arises the foetus

From water, through intermediate developments the foetus anses and in all these developments water is the predominating element. drava-Mhulyam S So it is that water comes to be called man in the fifth oblation

Section 9 THE SAME CONTINUED

j 1/1 lit pancaviyam ahutav apah purusa-vacaso bhavantiii, sa albavrto garbhah, daia vd nava vd mdsdn antah Saytlvd yavad vd'tl-a jayatc

j For this (reason) indeed, m the fifth oblation water conies to be called man Tins foetus enclosed m the membrane, having

V I0 2 CMndogya Upanisad

43*

lam inside for ten or nine months or more or less, then comes to be born

Water, by which the self is enveloped on departing from hfe, means the subtle parts of the elements which constitute the seed_of the body afi-sahdem sarvesam eva deJia-btyaniim bhilta-siihmanam kathanam stddkam SB III I 2

2 sa jaio yavad ayusam jwah, tarn pretam distam ito'gnaya eva karanti, yata eveto yatah sambhuto bhavati

2 When born, he lives whatever the length of his life may be. When he has departed, they (his friends) cany him to the appointed place for the fire (of the funeral pile), from which indeed he came, from which he arose

iisfflW karmana mrAistam S.

Section 10

THE PATH OF THE GODS

1 taiya, ittham viduk,ye ceme'ranye iraddhd tapa ity upasate, ie'msamabhsambhavanh, amso'Iiah, akna apuryamana-paksam, apfiryamana-paksad yan sad udawn di masams tan

1. So those who know this, and those who m the forest meditate on faith as austerity (or with faith and austerity) go to light and from light to day, from day to the bright half of the month (of the waxing moon), from the bright half of the month to those six months during which the sun moves northward

The question as to the place to which men go from here is taken up See C.U IV 15 5

Ihwwho know this The doctrine of the five fires § makes out that i«b refers to the householders, as the next clause refers to the recluses in the forest

2 mfisebhyah samvatsaram, samvatsarad adityam, adityac wndramamn, candmmaso vidyutam, tat puntso'manavah, sa man brahma gamayah, esa deva-yanah pantM th

2. From these months to the year, from the year to the sun, worn the sun to the moon, from the moon to the lightning, i T> e 'i. e ls a P ersoa wao is non-human. He leads them on 0 ara hma This is the path leading to the gods

432

The Principal Upanisads

V.io 5

The earliest conception of the path of the gods is to be found in the R V , where Agni who serves as •the intermediary between gods and men, as bearing the offerings to the gods is addressed thus 'Knowing the ways by which the gods go, thou (Agni) hast become the unwearied messenger, the bearer of oblations ' I 72, 7, see also II 2 4 The path on which the sacrifices were taken to the heavenly world becomes the path by which the sacnficer himself ascended to the world of the gods SeeSatapathaBrdkmana,! 932 The stations on the path need not be taken literally They represent stages of progressive knowledge and light while those oipttf-ydna of progressive darkness and corruption See IV 15 5 B U VI 2 15

3 atha ya vme grama tstdpurte dattam ity updsate, te dhumam abhisambhavanh, dhumdd rdtnm, rdtrer apara-paksam, apara- paksdd ydn sad daksvnaih mdsdms tan, naite samvatsaram abhiprdpmivanti

3 But those, who in the village practise (a life of) sacrifices, (and perform) works of public utility and almsgiving they pass into the smoke, from smoke to night, from night to the latter (dark) half of the month, from the latter (dark) half of the month to the six months in which the sun moves south- wards, but they do not reach the year

4 mdsebhyah pitr-lokam, pttr-lokdd akdiam, dkdidc candra- tnasam, esa somo raja, tad devdndm annum, tarn devd bhaksayanti

4 From those months to the world of the fathers, from the world of the fathers to space, from space to the moon. That is the kmg Soma That is the food of the gods That the gods eat.

annam — food They become the servants of the gods: itpakara- na-mdlram devdndm bhavanh te strl-pasu-bhrtyddvuat S The gods love them and they love the gods They live with and rejoice in gods

Three kinds of future are indicated The performers of sacrifices reach the moon by passing along the path of the fathers, pttr-ydna, and after having experienced the fruits of their works these return agam with a residuum of their karma The non-performers of sacri- fices go to the kingdom of Yama Those who adopt the way of enlightenment go by the path of gods, deva-ydna There is no return for them from the latter. The distinction between thepitr-ydna and the deva-ydna is one of two different systems of culture, the way of works and the way of knowledge resulting in two different spiritual conditions

5 tasmm ydvat sampdtam usitvd'thaitam evddhvdnam punar

V io 8. Chandogya Upanisad 433

mvartante yathetam akasam, akasad vdyum, vayur bhutvd dhiimo bhavati, dhiimo bhutvd' bhram bhavati.

5. Having dwelt there as long as there is residue (of good works) they return again by that course by which they came to space, from space into air, and after having become the air they become the smoke; after having become smoke, they become mist.

It is not possible, § remarks, for all actions to have their effects in one life 1 m-eaikasmm janmani sarva-karmayam ksayaupapadyaie S

6 abhram bhutvd rnegho bhavati, megho bhutvd pravar?ati, ta iha vrihi-yava osadhi vanaspatayas tila-mdsd ttt jdyante, ato vai klmh durnispmpataram, yo yo hy annam atti yo retah sincati, tad bhuya eva bhavati.

6. After having become mist they become cloud, after having become cloud he rains down They are bom here as rice and barley, herbs and trees, as sesamum plants and beans. From thence the release becomes extremely difficult for whoever eats the food and sows the seed he becomes like unto him

Release is easy from human condition

7. tadya iha ramaniya-caranah, abhyaio hay at te rama^iyam ymwm apadyeran, brahmam-yonim vd ksatnya-yomm vd, vaiiya- yontm va, athaya iha kapuya-caranah abhyaio ha yat te kapuyam yonmi apadyeran ha-yonvmvd sukara-yonim vd canddla-yomth vd

7. Those whose conduct here has been good will quickly attain a good birth (literally womb), the birth of a Brahmin, the birth of a Ksatnya or the birth of a Vaisya But those whose conduct here has been evil, will quickly attain an evil birth, the birth of a dog, the birth of a hog or the birth of a Candala.

8 aihaitayoh pathor na katarena cam tdmmdm ksudrany amird-avartTni bhutdm bhavanti, jayasva, mnyasveti, etat trltyam iloM* 1 ' tm&sau m sampuryate, tasmaj jugupseta, tad esa

1 ^ ? Ut on ne ^ er °* {fast ways are those small creatures iwinch are) continually revolving (those of whom it is said),

X !°E? mi ^ Their ' s is a tbird state B y tms ( lt: about ) iT that world becomes full. Therefore let one seek to guard himself. To this end, there is this verse.

434 The 'Principal Upamsads V n 2

If we pursue wisdom, we travel by the path of the gods If we perform good works we travel by the path of the fathers If we do neither, we will continually revolve like little creatures

9 steno hiranyasya suram pibams ca guns talpam dvasan brahma ha ca-ete patanti catvdrah paficamas cdcarams taih

9 He who steals gold, he who dnnks wine, he who dishonours the teacher's bed, he who kills a Brahmana, these four do fall as. also the fifth who consorts with them

10 atha lia ya etan evam pancagnin veda, na saha tair apy dcaran pdpmand hpyate, duddhah piitah punya-loko bhavati ya evam veda, ya evam veda

10 But he who knows these five fires thus is not stained by evil, even though he consorts with these people. He becomes pure, clean, obtains a virtuous world, he who knows this, yea he who knows this '

The five questions raised in V 3, 2-3 are answered

Section 11

UNIVERSAL SELF

1 pracTna-sala aupamanyavah, satya-yapiah paulusih, vndra- dyumno bhattaveyah, janalt sarkaraksyah, budtla dhaiaraSviS te hy ete mdhaiala mahaSrotnyah sametya mimamsam cakrtth, ho na atma, kvm brahmeti.

1 Pracinasala Aupamanjava, Satyayajna Paulusi, Indra- dyumna Bhallaveya, JanaSarkaraksyaandBudilaASvatara^vi, these great householders, greatly learned in sacred lore, having come together, undertook an investigation as to what is our self and what is Brahman

See Satapatha Brahmana, X 6 1 1

2 te ha sampddaydmcakruh, udddlako vat bhagavanto'yam arumh sampratimam dtmdnam vaisvanaram adhyett, tarn hantabhyagacchameti, tarn habhyajagmuh

2 They then reflected among themselves, 'Venerable Sirs, Uddalaka Arum studies at present this Universal Self, well let us go to him ' Then they went over to him

V. ii. 7 Chdndogya Upanisad 435

3. sa Ita samp&daydmcakdra, praksyanti mam ime mahds'dld mahdkolnyah, iebhyo na sarvam iva prahpatsye, hantdham any am abhyanuSdsdmtt.

3 He then reflected, 'These great householders and greatly learned in sacred lore will question me. I shall not be able to tell them all Therefore, I shall direct them to another (teacher).'

4. tan hovdca ahapatir vat, bhagavanto, yam kaikeyah, sampratimam dtmdnwm vaiivdnaram adhyeh, tarn hantabhya- gacchamett; iam habhydjagmuJi.

4 He said to them, 'Venerable sirs, Asvapati Kaikeya studies at present this Universal Self, well, let us go to hrm.' Then they went over to him.

5 tebhyo ha prdpiebhyah prthag arhdni kdraydmcakdra, sa ltd prdtah samjihana uvaca;

na me steno janapade na kadaryo na madyapah, nandhitagnir ndvidvan, na svatn svamm kutah: yaksyamdno vat bhagavantah, aham asmt.ydvad ekaika 'sma rtvtje dhanam ddsydmt, tdvad bhagavadbhyo ddsyami, vasantu bhaga- vanla itt.

5- Then, when they answered, he (the king) had proper attentions shown to them severally. After rising the next morning, he said. 'In my kingdom there is no thief, no miser, no drunkard, no man without a sacrificial fire, no ignorant person, no adulterer, much less an adulteress.' I am going to perform a sacrifice, Venerable Sirs, and as much wealth as I

Venerabl^S* 1 sha11 ® ve to you ' pIease stay '

Aiyapah K an expert in Brahma-knowledge and also a wise admims- rator. Wisdom and work go together in him

» says that as the visitors did not accept the presents, he invited ttem to a sacrifice

6._fe hocuh, yem liavodrthena purusai caret, iam haiva vadet; br&m” emmm w&tiiMivm sampraty adhyesi, tarn eva no

m£ ^ ey said ' ,TIie Purpose for which a man comes, that SSf£* £ e skodd speak. At present, you know the Universal «M M us indeed about that.'

■bL, 1 h ° vSca ' P rSiar vah praiivaktdsmiti, ie ha samit-pdnayah *w fl ahcahmmi ™, tdn hdnupaniyaivattad uvaca 7- we then said to them, 'Tomorrow I will give you an

436

The Principal Upamsads

V 12 2.

answer ' Therefore on the next morning, they approached him with fuel m their hands Then, without having first received them as pupils, he said to them

He did not insist on the preparatory rites of initiation for he was impressed by their humility fuel in their hands This is a token of discipleship

Section 12

THE SKY AS THE HEAD OF THE UNIVERSAL SELF

I aupamanyava, kam tvam atmanam upassa ttt divam eva bhagavo rajan, ih hovaca esa vai sutejd alma vaisvanarah yam tvam atmanam updsse, tasmdt tava sutam prasutam asutam kule drsyate

1 Aupamanyava, on what do you meditate as the self? (He replied) 'Heaven only, Venerable King ' He said, 'The self you meditate on is the Universal Self (called) the good light Therefore in your family is seen the suta libation as also the prasuta and the asuta '

The Soma hbation is given these names of suta, prasuta and asuta in the different sacrifices

The good light sobhanam tep yasya so'yam sutejd §.

Those born in the family will be devoted to work ativa karmtnas tvat-kulina tti £

2 atsy amam, paiyast pnyam, atty annam, pasyatt pnyam, bhavaty asya brahma-varcasam kule, ya etam evam atmanam vaisvanaram upaste, murdhd iv esa almanah, itt hovaca, mitrdM te vyapattsyat, yan mam ndgamtsya ih

2 You eat food, you see what is pleasing He eats food, he sees what is pleasing In the family of him who meditates on the Universal Self thus, there arises eminence in brahma- knowledge 'That, however, is only the head of the self,' said he, 'Your head would have fallen off if you had not come to me '

The development of thought is effected gradually Asvapati elicits from these seekers their conceptions of the Universal Self Their conceptions of sky, sun, air, space, water and earth are accepted as partially true The Vaiivanara self is the whole, the all-comprehend-

V.i4 1 Chdndogya Upanisai 437

inff Infinite of which natural objects and individual selves are parts. It Is wrong to identify a particular deity, one conceived as presiding over a limited part of the world, with the Universal Self.

Section 13

THE SUN AS THE EYE OF THE UNIVERSAL SELF

1 ailia Itovaca satya-yajnam paulusim: prdcvna-yogya, ham tvam atmanam upassa iti: ddityam eva, bhagavo rajan, iti haaaca: esavaivi&a-rupaatma vaisvanarah, yamivam atmanam upasse, tasmat tava bahu visvariipam kuk drsyaie.

1 Then he said to Satyayajna Paulusi. Tracinayogya, on what do you meditate as the self?' (He replied) 'The sun only, Venerable King' He said, 'The self you meditate on is the Universal Self called the Universal Form. Therefore is seen in your family much and manifold (wealth).'

2 pravrtto' svatari-raiho dasi niskah, atsy annam pasyasi prtyam, atty annam, pasyati prvyam, bhavaty asya brahma-var- casam hile, ya etam evam atmanam vaisvanaram upaste, cakstis iv etad atmanak, iti hovaca andho bhavisyah, yan mam itagamisya tit

2. '(for example) there is the chariot with mules, female servants and gold necklaces You eat food, you see what is pleasing He eats food, he sees what is pleasing. In thefamily of him who meditates on the Universal Self thus, there arises eminence in brahma-knowledge. That, however, is the eye of the self,' said he, 'and you would have become blind if you had not come to me '

prmrfitv literally, a course of action, tendenc}-.

Section 14

AIR As THE BREATH OF THE UNIVERSAL SELF

pj hwfoendra-dynmnam bhdllaveyam: vaiydghrapadya, *' almanavi upassa iti: vaymn eva, bhagavo rajan, Hi

438 The Principal Upanisads V 15 2

hovdca esa vat prthag-varlmdimd vatsvdnarah yam ivam dtmanam updsse tasmdt ivam prthag halaya ayanh, prthag rathaSrenayo' nuyanti

1 Then he said to Indra-dyumna Bhallaveya, 'Vaiyaghra- padya, on what do you meditate as the self?' (He replied) 'Air only, Venerable King ' He said, 'The self you meditate on is the Universal Self of varied courses (prthag-vartman) Therefore offerings come to you in various ways and rows of chariots follow you in various ways '

2 atsy annam, paiyast priyam, atty annam, pasyatt pnyam, bhavaty asya brahma varcasam kule, ya etam evam dtmanam vativanaram updste prdnas tv esa atmanah, ttt hovdca, prdnas ta udakramtsyat, yan mam nd'gamtsya ttt.

2 'You eat food, you see what is pleasing He eats food, he sees what is pleasing In the family of him who meditates on the Universal Self thus, there arises eminence in brahma- knowledge That, however, is only the breath of the self,' said he, 'your breath would have departed, if you had not come to me '

Section 15

SPACE AS THE BODY OF THE UNIVERSAL SELF

1 atha hovdca janam Sarkaraksya kam ivam dtmanam upassa %ti' akaiam eva bhagavo rdjan, th hovdca e$a vat bahula dtond vativanardh, yam tvam dtmanam updsse, tasmat ivam bahulo'si prajayd ca dhanena ca.

1 Then he said to Janam Sa.rkara.ksya, on what do you meditate as the self?' (He replied) 'Space only, Venerable King.' He said, 'The self you meditate on is the Universal Self called Full (brahma) Therefore you are full of off spring and wealth '

2 atsy annam, pa&yast pnyam, atty annam, paiyatt pnyam, bhavaty asya brahma-varcasam kule ya etam evam dtmanam vat&odnaram upaste samdehas tv esa atmanah, ttt hovaca samdeJias te vyasiryat, yan mam ndgamisya ttt

2 'You eat food, you see what is pleasing He eats food, he sees what is pleasing In the family of him who meditates on the Universal Self thus, there arises eminence in brahma- knowledge That, however, is only the body of the self,' said he, 'your body would have fallen off, if you had not come to me '

V. 17 2.

Chdndogya Upanisad Section 16

439

WATER AS THE BLADDER OF THE UNIVERSAL SELF

1. atha hovaca, budilam asvatarasvim, vaiyaghrapadya, ham ivam atmanam upassa iti, apa eva bhagavo rdjan, iti hovaca. esa vat raytr atma vaisvanarah, yam ivam atmanam upasse, iasmM team rayiman ptidiman asi.

i Then he said to Budila Asvatarasvi, 'Vaiyaghrapadya, on what do you meditate as the self?' (He replied) 'Water only, Venerable King.' He said, 'The self you meditate on is the Universal Self called wealth (rayi). Therefore are you endowed with wealth and strength of body.'

2. atsy annani, paiyasi priyam, atty annam, paiyati priyam, bkavaty asya brahmavarcasam kule ya dam evam atmamm vaisvanaram updste, basks tv esa atmanah, iti hovaca bastis te vyabhetsyata, yan mam na'gamisya iti.

2. 'You eat food, you see what is pleasing. He eats food, he sees what is pleasing. In the family of him who meditates on the Universal Self thus, there arises eminence in brahma knowledge That, however, is only the bladder of the self and your bladder would have burst if you had not come to me.'

Section 17

EARTH AS THE FEET OF THE UNIVERSAL SELF

1. atha hovaca tcddalakam arunim: gautama, ham ivam atma- mm upsssa iti: prthmm eva, bhagavo rdjan, iti hovaca- esa vai prattfthdtmd vaisvanarah yam tvam atmanam upasse, tasmdt nam prahsthito'si prajaya ca pasubhis ca.

1. Then he said to Uddalaka Arum: 'Gautama, on what do you meditate as the self?' (He replied) 'Earth only, Venerable He said, 'The self you meditate on is the Universal Self cawed support [pratistha). Therefore you are supported, with offspring and cattle.'

2 atsy annam, paiyasi priyam, atty annam paiyati priyam, -avaty asya brahma-varcasam kule ya etam evam atmanam iwfljwraw up&ste, p&dau to etdv atmanah, iti hovaca, paaau “vyamlasyetam, yan mam na'gamisya iti. '

44° The Principal Upanisads V. 18 i.

2 'You see food, you see what is pleasing He eats food, he sees what is pleasing In the family of him who meditates on the Universal Self thus there arises eminence in brahma-know- ledge That, however, is but the feet of the self,' said he, 'your feet would have withered away, if you had not come to me '

Section 18

THE SELF AS THE WHOLE

i tan hovdca ete vai khalu yuyam prthag ivemam atmanam vaiivdnaram vidvdmso'nnam attha, yas tv etam evam prade&a- mdtram abhivimanam atmanam vaiivanaram updste, sa sarvesu lokesu sarvesu bhutesu sarvesv atmasv annum ath

i Then he said to them, 'Verily indeed you eat your food knowing this Universal Self as if it were many He, however, who meditates on the Universal Self as of the measure of the span or as identical with the self, eats food in all worlds, in all beings, in all selves '

prddeia-mdtra of the measure of the span £ gives five different renderings of which the chief are (1) that which is recognised bodily through heaven as the head and the earth as the feet, (u) that which is measured by a measure extending from the heaven to the earth

The self which has assumed the shape of the whole universe is the Universal Self It is to be known as the Self of all beings One has to realise the Self m oneself before one can comprehend Him as the Self of the whole creation The individual T and the universal 'I' are one

Asmarathya teaches the meditation of Vaisvanara as prddeta- matra since the Supreme Being is specially manifested in the heart which is conceived as of the measure of a span dbhvuyakter dhnarathyah B S I 2 29

pratyag-diniataydbhiinmiyate' ham ih jndyata %ty abkimmdnah S Badan is of the view that the Supreme Being is described as of

the measure of a span since he is meditated upon by the mind,

situated in the heart which is of the measure of a span

amtsmrter badanh B S I 2 30 Jaumni holds that prddesa-mdtra is intended to teach sampatti or

sampad-updsana, 1 e the realization of the non-separation of God

from the objects of sense £ explains dhydnena dfSya-vastum paratne-

ivarasya abheda-mspaitth

abhimmdna the inner self behind the parts

V 19 2 Chdndogya Upani?ad 441

pratyag-dtmaiayd abkimmiyate aham iti vi)?iayate' It is the Universal Self in each living being The seeker should realise the divine in himself and in all beings.

2 tasya ha va etasyatmano varivdnarasya murdhavoa sutejdh, caksur viiva-rupah, prdnah prthagvartmdtmd, samdeho bahuldh, bashr eva rayih, prthvy eva pdddv ura eva veiili, lomam barhih, krdayam gdrhapatyah, mano'nvdhdrya-pacanah, dsyam aha- vanlydh

2. Of this Universal Self, the head indeed is the good light, the eye is the universal form, breath is (the air) of varied courses, the body is the full, the bladder is wealth, the feet are the earth, the chest indeed is the sacrificial area, the hair is the sacred grass, the heart is the gdrhapaiya fire, the mind is the anvdhdrya-pacana fire and the mouth is the dhavamya fire

v prthag-vartmd

The teacher corrects the wrong notions of the pupils who mistake parts for the whole even as blind men mistake parts of the elephant for the elephant hash-darfane wa jatyandhah

This passage indicates the essential correspondence between the microcosm and the macrocosm

Section 19

THE SACRIFICE TO THE UNIVERSAL SELF IN ONE'S OWN SELF PRANA

1. tad yad bhaktam pratliamam dgaccliet, tad Jiomiyam, sa yam pratliamam dhutim pihuyat tarn juhuydt, firdndya svdheh, pranas trpyaii

n fl« ^i* 016 th at food which may come first should be an 'S g J* 6 fiist offe ™g he offers he should offer saying, aau to the p r &na breath ' The prdna breath is satisfied.

Md^'i'T ir ^ ail caksu s trpyah, caksusi trpyaty adityas trpyaii, cadiil ■ -li dymtS ir Py ail > dm irpyantydm yat km ca dyaui haiuM cad,nhstha ^h tat trpyah tasydmdrptim trpyah praiayd

evehp,n!^f ! f breath bein g sained, the eye is satisfied The Y Dem g satisfied, the sun is satisfied The sun being satisfied,

44 z The Principal Upamsads V. 21. 2

the heaven is satisfied. The heaven being satisfied, whateveC is under the heaven and under the sun is satisfied Along witt” the satisfaction thereof, he himself is satisfied with offspring; with cattle, with food (health born of food), brightness and with eminence in sacred knowledge

Section 20 VYANA

1 atha yam dvitiyam juhuyat tarn juhuyat, vydndya svaheti, vyanas trpyati.

x. Then the second offering he should offer, saying, 'Hail to the vyana breath ' The vyana breath is satisfied

2. vydne trpyah srotram trpyati, srotre trpyati candramds trpyati, candramasi trpyati disas trpyanh, diksu trpyantisu yat him ca di&ai ca candramdi cddhitisthanti, tat trpyati, tasyanu-trptim trpyati prajaya paiubhir annddyena tejasa brakma-varcasena

2 Vyana being satisfied, the ear is satisfied The ear being satisfied, the moon is satisfied The moon being satisfied, the quarters are satisfied The quarters bemg satisfied, whatever is under the quarters and under the moon is satisfied Along with the satisfaction thereof he himself is satisfied with off- spring, with cattle, with food, with brightness and with eminence in sacred knowledge

Section 21 APANA

1 atha yam trtiyam juhuyat tarn juhuyat, apanaya svaheti, apdnas trpyati

1 Then the third offering he should offer, saying, 'Hail to the apana breath ' The apana breath is satisfied

2. apane trpyati vak trpyati, vaci trpyantydm agnts trpyati, agttau trpyati prthtvT trpyati, prthivyam trpyantydm yat km ca prthtvt cdgms cddhiti?thatah tat trpyati, tasyanu-trptim trpyati prajaya paiubhir annddyena tejasa brahma-varcasena.

V 23 2 - Ckandogya Upamsad 443

2. Apdna being satisfied, speech is satisfied Speech being satisfied, the fire is satisfied The fire being satisfied, the earth is satisfied The earth being satisfied, whatever is under the earth and the fire is satisfied. Along with the satisfaction thereof, he himself is satisfied with offspring, with cattle, with food, with brightness and with eminence in sacred knowledge.

Section 22 SAMANA

1 atha yam caturtliim pihuyat tarn juhuydt samanaya svdheti samanas Irpyah.

1 Then the fourth offering he should offer, saying, 'Hail to the samdna breath ' The samdna breath is satisfied

2. samdne trpyati manas trpyah, manasi trpyati parjanyas irpyah, parjanye trpyati miyitt trpyati, vidyutt trpyantyath yat kim ca vidyitc ca parjanyas cadhitisthatah, tat trpyati tasydnu- trptim trpyati prajayd paiubhir annddyena Ujasd brahma-var- casena

2. Samdna being satisfied, the mind is satisfied The mind being satisfied, the rain god is satisfied The rain god being satisfied, lightning is satisfied. Lightning bemg satisfied, what- ever is under the lightning and the rain god is satisfied Along with the satisfaction thereof, he himself is satisfied with offspring, with cattle, with food, with brightness and with eminence in sacred knowledge.

Section 23 UDANA

1 alliayam pancamim juhuydt tarn juhuydt uddndya svdheti uaanas trpyati. '

T? en * he Mth off ering he should offer, saying, 'Hail to the udava breath ' The uddna breath is satisfied

2 udanc trpyati tvak trpyati, tvaci trpyantyath vdyus trpyati,

444 The Principal Upantsads V 24 4.

vayau trpyaty akaias trpyati, dkdse trpyati yat kim ca vdyus cdkasas cddhitisthatah, tat trpyah, tasydnu-trptim trpyati prajayd paiubhir annddyena tejasd brahma-varcasena

2 Uddna being satisfied, the skin is satisfied The skin being satisfied, the air is satisfied The air being satisfied, space is satisfied Space being satisfied, whatever is under the air and space is satisfied Along with the satisfaction thereof, he himself is satisfied with offspring, with cattle, with food, with brightness and with eminence m sacred knowledge

Section 24

THE NEED FOR KNOWLEDGE IS STRESSED

1 say a idam avidvdn agni-hotramjuhoti, yathdngdrdn apohya bhasmam juhuyat, tadrk tat sydt

1 If, without knowing this, one offers the fire sacrifice, that would be just as if he were to remove the live coals and pour the offering on (dead) ashes

2 atJta ya etad evam vidvdn agm-kotram juhoti, tasya sarvesu lokesu sarvesu bhutesu sarvesv dtmasu htitam bhavah

2 But if, knowing it thus, one offers the fire sacrifice he offers it in all worlds, in all bemgs, m all selves, he will perform sacrifices with a full knowledge of their meaning and purpose

3 tad yaihesikd-tulam agnau protam praduyeta, evam hdsya sarve pdpmdnah praduyante, ya etad evam mdvdn agm-Jwtram jukoti

3 Even as the soft fibres of the isika reed are burned up when laid on a fire, so also are burned up the evils of one who knowing it thus offers the fire sacrifice

4 tasmdd u haivamvid yady apt canddldyocchistam prayacchet, dtmam haivdsya tad vaisvdnare hutam sydd tit, tad esa ilokah

4 Therefore if one who knows this should offer the remnant of his food to a Candala, it would be offered m his Universal Self On this there is the following verse

Candala is symbolic of those who do not deserve the offer anarka $5 One is released from the observance of restrictions when one has

V. 24 5-

Chandogya Upanisad

445

attained knowledge that the one Self dwells in all One offers it to the Universal Self dwelling in the body of the Candida: candala-de- hasthe vatsvamre §. The whole system of caste and untouchabihty is undermined by the perception of the Indwelling Self in all

5 yathailia ksudhita baldh mdtaram paryupdsate evam sar- vam Vhutany agm-hotram upasate ity agm-hotram upasata itt

5 As here hungry children sit (expectantly) around their mother, even so do all beings sit around the fire sacrifice, yea they sit around the fire sacrifice

446

The Principal Upamsads

VI. i 4.

CHAPTER VI

Section 1

UDDALAKA'S TEACHING CONCERNING THE ONENESS OF THE SELF

1. aum svetaketur hd'runeya dsa, tarn ha pitovdca ivetaketo, vasa brahmacaryam, no. vai, saumya, asmairkulino'nanucya brahma-bandhur iva bhavatih

1 Aum There was Svetaketu Aruneya His father said to him, 'Live the life of religious student, venly, my dear, there is no one in our family who is unlearned (m the Vedas), who is a Brahmana only by birth '

aruneya arunasya pautrak grandson of Aruna § bralima-bandhuh he who cans Brahmanas his relatives but does not himself behave like a Brahmana brahmaniin bandhUn vyapadiiait na svayam brdhmana-vrlta ih S

2 sa ha dvadaia-varsa upetya caturvimsah varsah sarvan veddn adhitya mahdmana anucdna-mdm siabdJia evdya, tarn ha pitovdca, svetaketo, yan mt saumya idam mahdmana anucdna- mdm stabdho'si uia tam ddefam aprdksyah

2 He then, having become a pupil at the age of twelve, returned when he was twenty-four years of age, having studied all the Vedas, greatly conceited, thinking himself well read,

<■ arrogant His father then said to him, 'Svetaketu, since you are” now so greatly conceited, think yourself well read and arrogant, did you ask for that instruction

3 yendsrutam iniiam bhavati, amatam maiam, aviptdtam vijMtam %ii katham mi, bhagavah, sa ddeio bhavattti

3 By which the unbearable becomes heard, the unper- ceivable becomes perceived, the unknowable becomes known?' 'How, Venerable Sir, can there be such teaching?'

All learning is useless unless one knows the truth with regard^ to the Self sarvan apt veddn adhltya sarvam cany ad vedyam adhigamyapy dkrtdrtha eva bhavati yavad atmatattvam na jdnah 5

4 yatM, saumya, ekena mrt-pindena sarvam mrnmayam vipidtam sydt, vdcdrambhanam vikdro ndma-dheyam, tnrttikety eva satyam ,

4 Just as, my dear, by one clod of clay all that is made 01

VI. 2 I

Chdndogya Upanisad

447

clay becomes known, the modification being only a name arising from speech while the truth is that it is just clay.

vikara modification, manifestation, development, change S” suggests that the change is only nominal, vag-alambana-malram tiamatva kevalam «a mkaro nama vastv ash, faramdrthato mrttikety eva mrth- kaxva Ui satyam vastv ash S. The Upanisad suggests that all modi- fications are based on the reality of clay and not that change rests simply on a word, that it is a mere name.

5 yatM, saumya, ekem lolm-manina sarvam lohamayath vipiatam syat, vacdrambhanam vika.ro nama-dheyam lohamtty eva satyam £ ^

5. Just as, my dear, by one nugget of gold, all that is made of gold becomes known, the modification being only a name arising from speech, while the truth is that it is just gold.

by one nugget of gold suvarna-pindena. S loha originally meant iron or copper but later is used for gold or any metal

6. yathd, saumya, ekena naklia-mkrntanena sarvam kdrsndya- sam vtjnatam syat, vacdrambhanam vikdro nama-dheyam krsnd- yasam tty eva satyam, evam, saumya, sa dde&o bhavatlh

6 Just as, my dear, by one pair of nail scissors all that is made of iron becomes known, the modification bemg only a name arising from speech while the truth is that it is just iron: thus, my dear, is that teaching.

7 11a vat nttnam b)iagavantas ta etad avedisuh, yadd hy etad avedtsyan, katham me navaksyan iii bhagavams tv eva me tad bravTiv xtx, tatha, saumya, ih hovdca

7. 'Verily, those venerable men did not know this; for if they had known it, why would they not have told it to me? Venerable Sir, please tell me that/ *So be it, my dear/ said he.

Section 2 THE PRIMACY OF BEING

1 sad eva, saumya, idam agra dsH ekam evaditiyam, laid haika ««K«, asad evedam agra asU ekam evddvitiyam, tasmdd asatah saj jayata '

1. In the beginning, my dear, this was Bemg alone, one

44^ The Principal Upamsads VI 2 2

only without a second Some people say 'm the beginning this was non-being alone, one only, without a second From that non-being, being was produced ' sad being

eva without any limitation or upddhi

tdam this, the universe of name and form, the world of manifesta- tion Prior to manifestation this world was pure being One only without a second There is no second to it There is no other object than being ndsya dvitlyam vaslv antaram vidyata tty adviliyam S”SeeTU II 7, CU III 19 1

The logical priority of Brahman to the world is brought out by the statement that Being alone was this in the beginning

See Maitrl, VI 17

Cp. Pancadaii, I 19

tdam sarvam purd sysfer ekam evadmtiyakam sad evasin ndma-riipe nastdm Hi aruner vacah

'Previous to creation all this was being, one only without a second Name and form were not this is the statement of the son of Aruna '

He does not have 'being' as other things have being He is his own being Being is, is God Being is above all conceptions and conceptual differentiations It is prior to all things All other things are from being, live in it and end in it What is other than being is nothing

According to Indian logic, there are four lands of non-existence or abhava There is absolute non-existence or alyantabhava anything self-contradictory like the barren woman's son, vandhyaptttra, is inconceivable and impossible Barrenness and motherhood contra- dict each other The real excludes self-contradictory non-existence When non-being or asat is said to be the root of existence, asat does not mean absolute non-existence but only prior or antecedent non-existence or prag-abhava or potential existence The world is non-existent before its production It was existent potentially or as a possibility though not as an actuality Creation is not out of absolute non-existence but out of prior non-existence or the world of possibility This type of non-existence has no beginning but has an end when the possibility is actuahsed pradhvamsabhava is posterior non-existence It is the opposite of pnor non-existence It has a beginning but no end When a jar is destroyed, its non-existence begins at the tune it is destroyed, but it has no end The mutual exclusiveness of a jar and a cloth, the fact of difference, is indicated by anyonyabliava A is not B A jar is not a cloth See Annambhatta's Tarka-samgralia 3

z kutas tit khalu, sattmya, evam syat, iti hovaca, katham, asatah sajjdyeteh, sat tv eva, saumya, idam agra dsld ekam evadvitiyam

VI z. 4. Chandogya Upanisad 449

2. But how, indeed, my dear, could it be thus? said he, how could being be produced from non-being? On the contrary, my dear, in the beginning this was being alone, one only, without a second

A suggests that thorn excludes sajaiiya and svagala blieda and advitiyam excludes vijdtiya bhcda Cp Pancadail

vrksasya svagata-bhedah patra-piispa-phaladibJiik vrksaittarat sa.ja.tlyo mjatiydk hladitah II, 20. Svagata-bheda is internal difference of a tree from its leaves, flowers and fruits Saptlya difference is that of one tree from other trees Vxjatlya is the difference of a tree from rock, etc Brahman is devoid of all these three kinds of difference

3 iad aiksata, baku syam prajayeyeti, tat iejo'srjata- iat teja atksata, balm syam prajdyeyeti, tad apo'srjata, tasmdd yatra kva ca hcatt svedaie va purusah, tejasa eva Ud adhy apo jayante.

3. It thought, May I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth fire That fire thought, May I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth water. Therefore, whenever a person grieves or perspires, water is produced from the fire (heat).

aiksata thought literally saw This word indicates that pure being is conscious The reference in all such passages is not to the elements as such, but to the presiding deities

abhxmamnyah utmSk devaiak SB II 1 5 g also says that the Highest Lord abiding as the selves of the various elements, produces by his power of thought, the different effects: proauces pBTamOvara em tern Una dtmattd avahsihamanah abhidhyayan tarn tarn vikaram srjate SB II 3 13 ” «“»

product* Upani5ads ' space ' ^ ^ fire are mentioned as successive ? f^ests has no eye to the order of creation for it is Being d m maldng ° Ut ttat 331 eSects «* denved fror!

E, T !ad y aim ^ a c « mrsati, tad am bhiiyistkmn annam bliavat^ adbkya cva tad adhy anrtadyam jayaie.

nin?f Iw^^ 1 *' XIa >” 1 be man £ ™y I grow forth

45°

The Principal Upani$ads

VI. 3.4.

Section 3

THREEFOLD DEVELOPMENT

I 1c$iim khalv csam bhutfindm irhiy cva bijam bhavanh, andajam, jivajam, iidbfnjjam ill

1 Now of these (living) beings there arc only three origins, those born from an egg, born from a living being, born from a sprout.

In A U a fourth svedaja 'born from heat' is mentioned in addition to the three mentioned here Cp Atharva Veda, I iz 1

2 scyam devatatksata, hantdham wtas ttsro devata ancna jivend 'Imand'mtpraviSya nama-rupc vydkaravantti

2 That divinity thought, 'Well, let me enter into these three divinities by means of this living self and let me then develop names and forms

devata — literally divinity It means being By the union of sat or Being with the three elements of fire, water and earth, all the vaned manifestations of the world are produced In relation to the three elements which are called devatds, sat is called para devata, highest being Sal is primary being Tcjas is its first product Out of tejas water is produced, and out of water food Sat pene- trates into these three as their inner soul, and by mixing them up makes each of them threefold The red colour of fire is the colour of tejas, the white of Upas and the black of anna the three are the truth and their differentiations are denved from vac, vacarambhanam So long as vac does not differentiate, the three colours form a unity M Senart thinks that the three rilpas are de- rived from the three cosmic spheres. £ argues that this development does not affect the Absolute Reality He points out that the modi- fications of the world are real in so far as they participate in the nature of absolute reality and unreal in themselves sarvam ca ««»:«- riipadi sadalmanaiva saiyam vikdra-jdtam svatastv anrtam eva S Again, sadatmana sarva-vyavahardndni sarva-vikdrdndm ca satyatvam sato'nyatve canftalvam S

3 tasam tnvrlam trivrtam ekaikdm karavdnitt , scyam devatemds ttsro devata anenatva fivend'tmand'nupravis'ya nama-rupc vyd- karot

3 'Let me make each one of the three threefold' The divinity entered into those three divinities by means of the living self and developed names and forms

4 tasam tnvrlam tnvrtam ekaikdm akarot, yatkd tit khalu

VI 4 4 Chdndogya TJpanisad 45 1

saumya, imds tisro devatds irivrt trivrd ekaikd bliavati, tan me

vijamhiti. , , „ .,

4 It made each of these threefold and how these three divinities become each of them threefold, that learn from me now, my dear.

Section 4

THREEFOLD DEVELOPMENT— continued

1. yad eigne rohitam rupam iejasas tad rupam, yac chukiam lad apam, yat krsnam tad annasya apagad agner agnilvam, vdcdrambJianam vikdro nama-dheyam, trini rupdiuty eva satyam.

1 Whatever red form fire has it is the form of heat, whatever (is) white (is the form) of water. Whatever (is) dark (it is the form of) earth Thus vanishes the quality of fire from fire, the modification being only a name arising from speech while the truth is that it is only the three forms

2. yad ddityasya rohitam rupam tejasas tad rupam, yac chukiam tad apam, yat krsnam tad annasya. apagad adityad adiiyatvam, vdcarambhanam vikdro nama-dheyam, tniii mpatyity eva satyam

2 Whatever red form the sun has it is the form of heat, whatever (is) white (it is the form) of water Whatever (is) dark (it is the form) of earth. Thus vanishes the quality of the sun from the sun, the modification being only a name arising from speech while the truth is that it is only the three forms.

3 yac candramaso rohitam rupam tejasas tad rupam, yac chukiam tad apam, yat krsnam tad annasya apdgdc candrac candralvam, vdcdrambhanam vikdro nama-dheyam, trini rupdmty eva satyam

3 Whatever red form the moon has it is the form of heat, whatever (is) white (it is the form) of water. Whatever (is)dark (it is the form) of earth. Thus vanishes the quality of the moon from the moon, the modification being only a name arising from speech while the truth is that it is only the three forms

4 yad vidyuto rohitam rupam tejasas fad rupam, yac chukiam tad apam, yat krsnam tad annasya. apagad vidyuto vidyuivam, vdcdrambhanam vikdro xdma-dhcyam, trim rupdnity eva satyam.

452

The Principal Upamsads VI. 4. 7.

4. Whatever red form the lightning has it is the form of heat, whatever (is) white, (it is the form) of water Whatever (is) dark (it is the form) of earth Thus vanishes the quality of lightning from the lightning, the modification being only a name arising from speech, while the truth is that it is only the three forms

All things are ultimately modifications of pure being saruasya sad vikaratvat £ The primordial being becomes three deities, fire, water and earth The doctrine of trwrt-karana, by which each of the three original elements, fire, water and earth is to be regarded as being divided into two equal portions, of which one half is kept intact and the other half is divided into two equal parts, the two quarters of the two other elements in combination with the one half of the original element This view is the basis of the doctrine of panakarana of the later Vedanta Anaxagoras affirms that there is a portion of everything in everything

The three colours are taken over by the Sdmkhya system to corre- spond to the three gunas, sattva, rajas and tamos

5 etadd ha sma vat tad vidvdmsa ahuh purve mahdsdld maha- srotnydh na no'dya kascana a&rutam, amaiam, avijMtam, udaha- nsyatiti hy ebhyo vidamcakruh

5 Verily it was just this that the great householders and great students of sacred wisdom knew when they said of old 'no one now will mention to us what we have not heard, what we have not perceived, what we have not thought ' For from these (three forms) they knew everything

6 yad u rohxtam ivabhud iti tejasas tad riipam iti tad vxdam cakruh, yad u iuklam ivabhud ity apdm riipam tit tad vxdam cakruh, yad u krsnam ivabhud ity annasya riipam itt tad vxdam cakruh

6 They knew that whatever appeared red was of the form of heat, they knew that whatever appeared white was of the form of water, they knew that whatever appeared dark was of the form of earth

7 yad avipiatam ivabhud ity etdsdm eva devaianam samdsah, ih tad vidamcakruh, yatkd nu khalu, saumya, imas tisro devatdh purusam prapya tnvrt irivrd ekatkd bhavati, tan me vijdnihtti

7 They knew that whatever appeared unintelligible is a combination of just these three divinities Venly, my dear, learn from me how each of these three divinities when they reach the human, becomes threefold.

VI. 5 4

CMndogya Upantsad

453

Section 5

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THREEFOLD NATURE

I annam aiitam tredha. indhiyate, tasya yah sthavistho dhatus tat purlsam bhavah, yo madhyamas tan mamsam, yo'mstJtas tan manah

i Food when eaten becomes threefold, its coarsest portion becomes the faeces; its middle (portion) flesh and its subtlest (portion) mmd

§ argues that mmd being fed by food is material, elemental and not impartible and eternal

annopacttalvdn manaso bhautikalvam eva, na vaUesika-tantrok- Maksanam nityaih mravayavam cell gyhyate.

2. apahpTtas tredha mdhiyante, tasdmyah stJiavistho dhatus tan miiiram bltavati, yo madhyamas tal lohtam, yo'nisthah sa prdnah.

2. Water when drunk becomes threefold, its coarsest portion becomes the urine; its middle (portion) the blood, its subtlest (portion) the breath

3. tcp'htam tredha vidhiyate, tasya yah stiiavistho dhatus tad asthi bhavah, yo madhyamah sa maya, yo'nisthah sa vdk

3 Heat when eaten becomes threefold, its coarsest portion becomes bone, its middle (portion) marrow, its subtlest (portion} speech '

Matatan heat ' m the ShapC ° f < “ 1 ' butter ' etc S: toila-ghrtMt-

4 annamayam hi, samnya, manah, dpomayah prdnah teio- mayi vag ih, bhiiya eva ma bhagavan mjMpayatv tit; taiha saumya, iti hovaca. r J

jL^^ my d l ar ' COnsists of food ' bre *th consists of water and speech consists of heat 'Please, Venerable Sir instruct me still more ' So be it, my dear, said ba '

Everything is threefold and so all the three elements exist in everything scrvasya invrLhrta-lvat sarvatra sarvopap™eh%

454 The Principal Upamsads VI. 7. 2.

Section 6

ILLUSTRATIONS— continued

1 dadhnah, saumya, mathyamanasya yo'mma, sa urdhvah samudisati, tat sarpir bhavati

1. Of the curd, my dear, when churned, that which is subtle moves upwards, it becomes butter

2 evam eva kJialu, saumya, annasydiyamanasya yo'mma, sa urdhvah samudisati, tan mano bhavati

2 In the same manner, my dear, of the food that is eaten, that which is subtle moves upwards, it becomes mind

3 apam, saumya, piyamandnam yo'mma, sa urdhvah samu- disati, sa prano bhavati

3 Of the water, my dear, that is drunk, that which is subtle moves upwards, it becomes breath

4 tejasah saumya aSyamdnasya yo'mma, sa urdhvah samu- disati, sa vag bhavati

4 Of the heat, my dear, that is eaten, that which is subtle moves upwards, it becomes speech

5 annamayam hi, saumya, manah, apomayah pranah, tejomayi vag iti bhuya eva ma, bhagavan, vijndpayatv itt, tatha, saumya, itt hovaca.

5 Thus, my dear, mind consists of food, breath consists of water, speech consists of heat 'Please, Venerable Sir, instruct me still more ' So be it, my dear, said he

Section 7

IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL NEEDS 1 sodas'a-kalah,saumya,punisah,pafKafas'ahamvia'£ih,kamam apah piba, apomayah prano na pibato vicchetsyata tit

1 A person, my dear, consists of sixteen parts For fifteen days do not eat (any food), drink water at (your) will Breath which consists of water will not be cut off from one who dnnks water

2 sa ha pancadaSaham nd'sa atha hamam upasasada, kirn

VI. 7 6. Chandogya Upamsad 455

bravlmi bho iti, rcah, saumya, yajums% sdmdniti, sa hovaca, na vai ma pratibhdnh bho %ti.

2. Then for fifteen days he did not eat (any food) , and then he approached him saying, 'What, sir, shall I say? ! 'The Rg. verses, my dear, the Yajus formulas and the Saman chants ' He replied, 'They do not occur to me, Sir '

3. tarn hovaca, yatha, saumya, mahato'bhydhitasyaiko'ngdrah kliadyota-mdirahpaniistah syat, tena tato'pt na balm dahet, evam, saumya, te sodaidndm kalanam eku kald'hhstd syat, tayaitarht veian nanubhavasi, aidna, aiha me vy/ndsyasiti

3 He said to him, 'Just as, my dear, of a great lighted fire, a single coal of the size of a firefly may be left which would not thereafter burn much, even so, my dear, of your sixteen parts only one part is left and so with it you do not apprehend (remember) the Vedas Eat Then you will understand me '

4 sa hd'ia, atha hainam upasasada, tarn ha yat kim ca papraccJta sarvam ha prattpede

4 Then he ate and approached him (his father) Then what- soever he asked him, he answered it all

5_ tarn hovaca, yatha, saumya, mahato'bhydhitasyatkam angaram khadyota-mdtram panitstam tarn irnair upasamddhdya prapalayet, iena tato'pi bahu dahet.

5- To him he then said, 'Just as, my dear, of a great lighted fire if a single coal of the size of a firefly is left, and made to blaze up by covering it with straw and with it the fire would thereafter burn much

_6. evam, saumya, te sodaidndm kalanam ekd kald'hs'istd'bhut, sa nnenopasainahita prdjvdUt, tayd etarhi veddn anubltavasi anna mayam hi, saumya, manah, dpomayah prdnah, tejomayi vdg m tadi hdsya vijajndv iti

6 So, my dear, of your sixteen parts only one part was left and that, when covered with food, blazed up With it you now apprehend the Vedas For, my dear, the mind consists of food tne breath consists of water and speech consists of heat. Then he understood what he said; he understood it

In some texts the following verse is found.

panccndnyasya purusasyayad eva syad anavrtam

tad asya prajnd sravah dfUh psdad ivodakam When the (mind of the) person consisting of the five senses « not

456 The Principal Upantsads VI 8. z

supported by food, then his intelligence goes away, even as the •water flows away from the mouth of a leathern bag ' anavffanr unprotected, uncovered by food

Section 8

CONCERNING SLEEP, HUNGER AND THIRST AND

DYING

i. uddalako hdrunih svetaketuth putram uvaca, svapnantam me, saumya, vijamhlh, yatraiiat purusah svapih ndma, sata, saumya, tada sampanno bhavati, svam apTto bhavah, tasmdd emm svapitity dcaksaie, svam hy apTto bhavati

1. Then Uddalaka Aruni said to his son, Svetaketu, Learn from me, my dear, the true nature of sleep When a person here sleeps, as it is called, then, nry dear, he has reached pure being He has gone to his own Therefore they say he sleeps for he has gone to his own

svapnanla true nature of sleep, literally the end of the dream S interprets it as the central portion of the dream vision : svapnantam svapna-madhyam susuptam S In the condition of deep sleep, personal consciousness subsides and the self is said to be absorbed in the Highest Self Speech, mind and the senses rest. Only the breath is active The jiva, the living soul returns for a while to the deeper self in order to recover from the fatigue

In dreamless sleep, buddht or understanding remains in a potential condition and becomes active in the dream and waking states SB II 3 3*-

2 sa yaiha sakumh siitrena prabaddho dtsam diiam pati- ivanyatrdyatanam alabdhvd bandhanam evopasrayaU, evam eva khalu, saumya, tan mano ditam disam patitvdnyatrayatanam alabdhvd pranam evopasrayate, prana-bandhanam hi, saumya, mana iti.

2. Just as a bird tied by a string, after flying in various directions without rinding a resting-place elsewhere settles down (at last) at the place where it is bound, so also the mind, my dear, after flying in various directions without finding a resting- place elsewhere settles down in breath, for the mind, my dear, is bound to breath

The organic nature of the relationship between mind and life is

VI. 8. 6. Chandogya Upanisad 457

brought out here. The mental, while it transcends the vital, arises out of the vital and is rooted m it

3 aSand-pipdse me, saumya, vijdmhih,yatra%tatpuruso ahsisati nama, apa eva tad aiitam myante tad yathd gondyo'ivandyah furusanaya tti, evam tad apa dcaksate's'andyett, tatrattacchungam utpahtam, saumya, vijamhi, nedam amulam bhamsyatth.

3. Learn from me, my dear, what hunger and thirst are. When a person here is hungry, as it is called, water only is leading (carrying away) what has been eaten (by him). So as they speak of a leader of cows, a leader of horses, a leader of men, so they speak of water as the leader (or carrier of food). On this, my dear, understand that this (body) is an offshoot which has sprung up, for it could not be without a root

The person is hungry because whatever he eats is quickly digested.

4. tasya kva mulam sydd attyatrdnndt, evam eva khalu, saumya, annena sungendpo mulam anvtccha, adbhih, saumya, sungena tejo mulam anvtccha, tejasd, saumya, sungena san mulam anvtccha, san mul&h, saumya, vmah sarvah prajdh sad-dyatandh, sat- prattsthdh

4. And what else could its root be than food? And in the same manner, my dear, with food as an offshoot, seek for water as the root, with water, my dear, as an offshoot, seek for heat as the root; with heat, my dear, as an offshoot, seek for Being as its root All these creatures, my dear, have their root in Being. They have Being as their abode, Being as their support

Being is the ultimate root of the whole universe.

5 ai)ia yatraitat purusah ptpdsati noma, teja eva tat pttam nayate, tad yathd gondyo'svandyah purusanaya tti, evam tat teja “casta udanyett, tatraitad eva iungam utpahtam, saumya, midnthi nedam amiilam bhavisyattti.

5 Now when a person here is thirsty, as it is called, heat only is leading (or carrying off) what has been drunk (by him), ao as they speak of a leader of cows, a leader of horses, a leader w men so one speaks of heat as the leader of water. On this «y dear, understand that this (body) is an offshoot which has s Pnmg up, for it could not be without a root.

6 tasya ha mulam sydd anyatra adbhyah, adbhh, saumya, - T J ° am mmccha > teJM”. saumya, sungena san mulam

“nnccna; san muld/t, saumya, tmdh sarvdh prajdh saddyatandh

458 The Principal Upanisads VI 8 7

satprattsthah, yatha mi khalu, saumya, tmas tisro devatdh purusam prdpya tnvrt trivrdekaxka bliavah, tad uktam, purastad eva bhavaii, asya, saumya, pw usasya prayato van manasi sampadyate, vianah prdne, pranas tejast, tejah parasyam devatdydm

6 And what else could its root be than water? With water, my dear, as an offshoot, seek for heat as the root, with heat, my dear, as an offshoot, seek for Being as the root All these creatures, my dear, have their root in Being They have Being as their abode, Being as their support But how, venly, my dear, each of these three divinities, on reaching the human, becomes threefold has already been said 1 When, my dear, a person departs from hence, his speech merges in his mind, his mmd on his breath, his breath in heat and heat in the highest divinity

From Pure Being arises fire, from fire water and from water earth In speech the element of fire predominates, in life-breath the element of water, in mind the element of earth When a person deceases, his speech is merged in the mmd His voice fails though his mind continues to function When the mmd merges in life, the mental activity ceases When life merges m heat, when we are in doubt about a man's condition, whether he is alive or dead, we feel the body If it is warm, he is alive, if not he is dead Fire is then taken up in the highest Being If we depart from this life with our thoughts merged in the Supreme we reach Pure Being, otherwise, we enter the world of becoming

f 7. sa ya eso'mmd aitad aimyam tdam sarvam, tat satyam, sa 1 I aima tat tvam asi, svetaketo, iti, bhiiya eva ma, bhagavan, l vijnapayatv tit, tatha, saumya, iti liovaca

7. That which is the subtle essence (the root of all) this whole world has for its self That is the true That is the self That art thou, Svetaketu 'Please, Venerable Sir, instruct me still further.' 'So be it, my dear,' said he

tat tvam asi that art thou This famous text emphasises the divine nature of the human soul, the need to discriminate between the essential self and the accidents with which it is confused and the fetters by which it is bound He who knows only what is of the body or mmd knows the things that may be his but not himsell The text That art thou' applies to the inward person, antah ptirusa, and not to the empirical soul with its name and family descent V 'What I am, that is be, what he is, that am I '

See Aitareya Aranyaka, II 2 4 6

1 VI 5 1-4

yi, g 2 Chdndogya Upanisad 459

ja6<& Up has the following: tvath va aham asmi bhagavo deaate ate va ivam asi. 'I am thou, 0 great God, and thou art I.'

R interprets tat tvam asi as affirming that the principle of God is common to both the universe and the individual. That means God having the entire universe-as his body, thou means God having the individual soul as his body. The principle of God is common to both

In the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brdhmana (III. 14. 1-5) when the deceased reaches the Sun-door, the question is asked, “Who art thou' If he answers by a personal or a family name, he is subject to the law of karma If he responds 'Who I am (is) the light thou (art). As such have I come to thee, the heavenly light/ Prajd-pati replies: 'Who thou art, that same am I; who I am that same art thou. Enter in '

Rami speaks to us of the man who knocked at his friend's door and was asked, “Who art thou?' He answered 'I.' 'Begone/ said his fnend. After a year's suffering and separation he came and knocked again, and when asked the same question, replied, 'It is Thou art at the door,' and received the reply, 'Since thou art I, come in, 0 myself.' Mathnavi, 1. 3056-3065

Section 9

THE INDWELLING SPIRIT

1 yat.ha,saumya,madhu madhukrto nististhanti, ndndtyaydndm Wjflnam rasan samavaharam ekaiarii rasarh gamayanti. , 1 as » my dear, the bees prepare honey by collecting we essences (juices) of different trees and reducing them into one essence

The son's difficulty is anticipated. If creatures reach Pure Being every day when they fall into sleep, how is it that they do not know “at ttey attain that condition every day?

ras ' k ia * ra m “MMkath labkanie, amusyaham vrhsasya iv 7 mi ' a ™ tls y°ham wfoasya rasosmtti, evam eva hhalu, satmya, iU a 1 sm * fl prajah sati sampadya na viduh, sati sampadydmaha

tHm”^ ^ e ^ ces ) possess no discrimination (so that of that * S ^ * 3111 essence of this tree, I am the essence though ft even so ' ™ deed > m y dear, all these creatures th«B=in IeaCh Beins do not know ^ they iave reacIied

460

The Principal Upanisads

VI 10 3

3 ta tha vyaghro va sithho va vrko va varaho va ktto va patango va damio va ma&ako vayadyad bhavanti, tad abhavantt

3 Whatever they are in this world, tiger or lion or wolf or boar or worm or fly or gn