jaina uttaradhyayana sutra

The Uttaradhyayana Sutra

Gaina Sutras

Principle author: Mahavira

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi

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TEN years have elapsed since the first part of my translation of Gaina Sutras appeared. During that decennium many and very important additions to our knowledge of Gainism and its history have been made by a small number of excellent scholars. The text of the canonical books, together with good commentaries in Sanskrit and Guzerati, has been made accessible in fair editions published by native scholars in India. Critical editions of two of them have been published by Professors Leumann [1] and Hoernle [2]; and the latter scholar has added a careful translation and ample illustrations to his edition of the text. A general survey of the whole Gaina literature has been given by Professor Weber in his catalogue of the Berlin Manuscripts [3] and in his learned treatise [4] on the sacred literature of the Gainas. The development of Gaina learning and science has been studied by Professor Leumann, and some Gaina legends and their relations to those of the Brahmans and Buddhists have been investigated by the same scholar [5]. An important document for our knowledge of the old history of the Svetambara sect has been edited by myself [1], and the history of some of their Gakkhas has been made known from their lists of teachers by Hoernle and Klatt. The last-named scholar, whom we have all but lost by this time, has prepared a biographical dictionary of all Gaina writers and historical persons, and he has issued specimens of this great Onomasticon, while Hofrat Buhler has written a detailed biography of the famous encyclopaedist Hemakandra [2]. The same scholar has deciphered the ancient inscriptions, and discussed the sculptures excavated by Dr. Fuhrer at Mathura [3], and the important inscriptions at Sravana Belgola have been edited by Mr. Lewis Rice [4]; M. A. Barth has reviewed our knowledge of Gainism [5], and likewise Buhler in a short paper [6]. Lastly Bhandarkar has given a most valuable sketch of the whole of Gainism [7]. All these additions to our knowledge of Gainism (and I have but mentioned the most remarkable ones) have shed so much clear light on the whole subject that little room is left now for mere guesswork, and the true historical and philological method can be applied to all its parts. Still some of the principal problems require elucidation, while the proffered solution of others is not accepted by all scholars. I, therefore, gladly avail myself of this opportunity to discuss some of the disputed points, for the settling of which the works translated in this volume offer valuable materials.

It is now admitted by all that Nataputta (Gnatriputra), who is commonly called Mahavira or Vardhamana, was a contemporary of Buddha; and that the Niganthas [8]

In the Anguttara Nikaya, III, 74, a learned prince of the Likkhavis of Vaisali, Abhaya [1], gives the following account of some Nigantha doctrines: 'The Nigantha Nataputta, sir, who knows and sees all things, who claims perfect knowledge and faith (in the following terms): “walking and standing, sleeping or waking, I am always possessed of perfect knowledge and faith;” teaches the annihilation by austerities of the old Karman, and the prevention by inactivity of new Karman. When Karman ceases, misery ceases; when misery ceases, perception ceases; when perception ceases, every misery will come to an end. In this way a man is saved by pure annihilation of sin (niggara) which is really effective.'

The Gaina counterpart to these tenets can be collected from the Uttaradhyayana XXIX. By austerities he cuts off Karman,' section 27. 'By renouncing activity he obtains inactivity; by ceasing to act he acquires no new Karman, and destroys the Karman he had acquired before,' section 37. The last stages in this process are fully described in section section 71,

The above assertion that Nataputta claimed the possession of perfect knowledge and faith, requires no further proof; for it is one of the fundamental dogmas of the Gainas.

Another piece of information about Nigantha doctrines may be gathered from the Mahavagga VI, 31 (S. B. E., vol. xvii, p. 108 ff.) There a story is told of Siha [1], the general of the Likkhavis, who was a lay disciple of Nataputta. He wanted to pay the Buddha a visit, but Nataputta tried to dissuade him from it, because the Niganthas held the Kriyavada, while the Buddha taught the Akriyavada. Siha, however, setting his master's prohibition at nought, went to the Buddha on his own account, and was, of course, converted by him. Now the statement that the Niganthas embraced the Kriyavada is borne out by our texts; for in the Sutrakritanga I, 12, 21, below, p. 319, it is said that a perfect ascetic 'is entitled to expound the Kriyavada;' and this doctrine is thus expressed in the Akaranga Sutra I, 1, 1, 4 (part i, p. 2): 'He believes in soul, believes in the world, believes in reward, believes in action (believed to be our own doing in such judgments as these): “I did it;” “I shall cause another to do it;” “I shall allow another to do it.'

Another lay disciple of Mahavira, converted by the Buddha, was Upali. As narrated in the Magghima Nikaya 56, he ventured upon a dispute with him whether the sins of the mind are heaviest, as the Buddha teaches, or the sins of the body, as the Nigantha Nataputta contends. In the beginning of the discourse Upali states that his master uses the term danda, punishment, for what is commonly called kamma, deed, act. This is true, though not quite to the letter; for the word kamma occurs also in the Gaina Sutras in that sense. The term danda, however, is at least as frequently used. Thus, in the Sutrakritanga II, 2, p. 357 ff., the thirteen kinds of 'committing sins' are treated of, and in the first five cases the word which I have translated committing sins' is in the original dandasamadane, and in the remaining cases kiriyathane, i.e. kriyasthana.

The Nigantha Upali goes on to explain that there are three dandas, the danda of body, that of speech, and that of mind. This agrees with the Gaina doctrine expressed in nearly the same words in the Sthananga Sutra, 3rd uddesaka .

The second statement of Upali, that the Niganthas consider sins of the body more important than sins of the mind, is in perfect harmony with Gaina views. For in the Sutrakritanga II, 4, p. 398 ff., the question is discussed whether sins may be committed unconsciously, and it is boldly answered in the affirmative (compare note 6, p. 399); and in the Sixth Lecture of the same book (p. 414) the Buddhists are severely ridiculed for maintaining that it depends on the intention of the man whether a deed of his be a sin or not.

In the Anguttara Nikaya III, 70, 3, some practices of Nigantha laymen are discussed. I translate the passage thus: 'O Visakha, there is a class of Samanas who are called Niganthas. They exhort a Savaka thus: “Well, sir, you must desist from doing injury to beings in the East beyond a yogana from here, or to those in the West, North, South, always beyond a yogana from here.” In this way they enjoin tenderness by making him spare some living beings; in this way they enjoin cruelty by making him not spare other living beings.' It is not difficult to recognise under these words the Digvirati vow of the Gainas, which consists in laying down the limits beyond which one shall not travel nor do business in the different directions. A man who keeps this vow cannot, of course, do any harm to beings beyond the limits within which he is obliged to keep. This is so distorted by the hostile sect as to lay the rule under discussion open to blame. We cannot expect one sect to give a fair and honest exposition of the tenets of their opponents; it is but natural that they should put them in such a form as to make the objections to be raised against them all the better applicable. The Gainas were not a whit better in this respect than the Bauddhas, and they have retorted upon them in the same way; witness their misrepresentation of the Buddhist idea that a deed becomes a sin only through the sinful intention of the doer, in a passage in the present volume, <page 414>, v. 26 ff., where the sound principle of the Buddhists is ridiculed by applying it to a fictitious and almost absurd case.

The passage in the Anguttara Nikaya, which we have just discussed, goes on as follows: 'On the Uposatha day they exhort a Savaka thus: “Well, sir, take off all your clothes and declare: I belong to nobody, and nobody belongs to me.” Now his parents know him to be their son, and he knows them to be his parents. His son or wife know him to be their father or husband, and he knows them to be his son or wife. His slaves and servants know him to be their master, and he knows them to be his slaves and servants. Therefore (the Niganthas) make him use lying speech at the time when he makes the above declarations. On this account I charge him with lying speech. After the lapse of that night he enjoys pleasures (by means of things) that were not freely given. On this account I charge him with taking of what is not freely given.'

According to this statement, the duties of a Nigantha layman became, during the Uposatha days, equal to those of a monk; it was on common days only that the difference between layman and monk was realised. This description, however, does not quite agree with the Posaha rules of the Gainas. Bhandarkar gives the following definition of Posaha according to the Tattvarthasaradipika, which agrees with what we know about it from other sources: Posaha, i.e. to observe a fast or eat once only or one dish only on the two holy days (the eighth and the fourteenth of each fortnight), after having given up bathing, unguents, ornaments, company of women, odours, incense, lights, and assumed renunciation as an ornament.' Though the Posaha observances of the present Gainas are apparently more severe than those of the Buddhists, still they fall short of the above description of the Nigantha rules; for a Gaina layman does not, to my knowledge, take off his clothes during the Posaha days, though he discards all ornaments and every kind of luxury; nor must he pronounce any formula of renunciation similar to that which the monks utter on entering the order. Therefore, unless the Buddhist account contains some mistake or a gross misstatement, it would appear that the Gainas have abated somewhat in their rigidity with regard to the duties of laymen.

Buddhaghosa, in his commentary on the Brahmagala Sutta, Digha Nikaya I, 2, 38 [1], mentions the Niganthas as holding the opinion, discussed in the text, that the soul has no colour, in contradistinction to the Agivikas, who divide mankind into six classes according to the colour of the Atman; both Niganthas and Agivikas, however, agree in maintaining that the soul continues to exist after death and is free from ailments (arogo). Whatever may be the exact meaning of the last expression, it is clear that the above description squares with the opinions of the Gainas about the nature of the soul, as described below, <page 172> f.

In another passage (l.c. p. 168) Buddhaghosa says that Nigantha Nataputta considers cold water to be possessed of life (so kira sitodake sattasanni hoti), for which reason he does not use it. This doctrine of the Gainas is so generally known that I need not bring forward any quotation from the Sutras in support of its genuineness.

This is nearly all the information on the doctrines of the ancient Niganthas which I have been able to gather from the Pali texts. Though it is less than we desire, its value is not to be underrated. For with one exception all the doctrines and usages of the ancient Niganthas mentioned agree with those of the present Gainas, and they comprise some of the fundamental ideas of Gainism. It is therefore not probable that the doctrines of the Gainas have undergone a great change in the interval between the quoted Buddhist records and the composition of the Gaina canon.

I have purposely deferred the discussion of the classical passage on the doctrines of Nigantha Nataputta, because it leads us to a new line of inquiry. The passage in question occurs in the Samannaphala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya [1]. I translate it in accordance with Buddhaghosa's comment in the Sumangala Vilasini. 'Here, great king, a Nigantha is protected by restraint in four directions (katuyamasamvarasamvuto). How, great king, is a Nigantha protected by restraint in four directions? Here, great king, a Nigantha abstains from all (cold) water, he abstains from all bad deeds, by abstinence from all bad deeds he is free from sins, he realises abstinence from all bad deeds. In this way, great king, a Nigantha is protected by restraint in four directions. And, great king, because he is thus protected, the Nigantha Nataputta's soul is exalted, is restrained, is well settled [2].'–This is, certainly, not an accurate nor an exhaustive description of the Gaina creed, though it contains nothing alien from it, and successfully imitates the language of the Gaina Sutras. As I have already explained elsewhere [3], I think the term katuyamasamvarasamvuto has been misunderstood not only by the commentator, but also by the author of the text. For the Pali katuyama is equivalent to the Prakrit katuggama, a well-known Gaina term which denotes the four vows of Parsva in contradistinction to the five vows (panka mahavvaya) of Mahavira. Here, then, the Buddhists, I suppose, have made a mistake in ascribing to Nataputta Mahavira a doctrine which properly belonged to his predecessor Parsva. This is a significant mistake; for the Buddhists could not have used the above term as descriptive of the Nigantha creed unless they had heard it from followers of Parsva, and they would not have used it if the reforms of Mahavira had already been generally adopted by the Niganthas at the time of the Buddha. I, therefore, look on this blunder of the Buddhists as a proof for the correctness of the Gaina tradition, that followers of Parsva actually existed at the time of Mahavira.

Before following up this line of inquiry, I have to call attention to another significant blunder of the Buddhists: they call Nataputta an Aggivesana, i.e. Agnivaisyayana; according to the Gainas, however, he was a Kasyapa, and we may credit them in such particulars about their own Tirthakara. But Sudharman, his chief disciple, who in the Sutras is made the expounder of his creed, was an Agnivaisyayana, and as he played a prominent part in the propagation of the Gaina religion, the disciple may often have been confounded by outsiders with the master, so that the Gotra of the former was erroneously assigned to the latter. Thus by a double blunder the Buddhists attest the existence of Mahavira's predecessor Parsva and of his chief disciple Sudharman.

That Parsva was a historical person, is now admitted by all as very probable; indeed, his followers, especially Kesi [1], who seems to have been the leader of the sect at the time of Mahavira, are frequently mentioned in Gaina Sutras in such a matter-of-fact way, as to give us no reason for doubting the authenticity of those records. The legend in the Uttaradhyayana, Lecture XXIII, how the union of the old and the new church was effected, is of much interest in this respect. Kesi and Gautama, the representatives and leaders of the two branches of the Gaina church, both at the head of their pupils, meet in a park near Sravasti; the differences in their creed concerning the number of great vows, and the use or disuse of clothes are explained away without further discussion, and full harmony with regard to the fundamental ethical ideas is satisfactorily established by the readiness with which allegorical expressions of the one speaker are understood and explained by the other. There seems to have been some estrangement, but no hostility between the two branches of the church; and though the members of the older branch invariably are made to adopt the Law of Mahavira, 'which enjoins five vows,' it may be imagined that they continued in some of their old practices, especially with regard to the use of clothes, which Mahavira had abandoned. On this assumption we can account for the division of the church in Svetambaras and Digambaras, about the origin of which both sects have contradictory legends [1]. There was apparently no sudden rupture; but an original diversity (such as e.g. subsists now between the several Gakkhas of the Svetambaras) ripened into division, and in the end brought about the great schism.

The records in the Buddhist Canon are not repugnant to our views about the existence of the Niganthas before Nataputta; for the Niganthas must have been an important sect at the time when Buddhism took its rise. This may be inferred from the fact that they are so frequently mentioned in the Pitakas as opponents or converts of Buddha and his disciples; and as it is nowhere said or even merely implied that the Niganthas were a newly-founded sect, we may conclude that they had already existed a considerable time before the advent of the Buddha. This conclusion is supported by another fact. Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of Buddha and Mahavira, divided mankind into six classes [1]. Of these, according to Buddhaghosa [2], the third class contains the Niganthas. Gosala probably would not have ranked them as a separate, i.e. fundamental subdivision of mankind, if they had only recently come into existence. He must have looked upon them as a very important, and at the same time, an old sect, in the same way in which, in my opinion, the early Buddhists looked upon them. As a last argument in favour of my theory I may mention that in the Magghima Nikaya 35, a disputation between the Buddha and Sakkaka, the son of a Nigantha, is narrated. Sakkaka is not a Nigantha himself, as he boasts of having vanquished Nataputta in disputation [3], and, moreover, the tenets he defends are not those of the Gainas. Now when a famous controversialist, whose father was a Nigantha, was a contemporary of the Buddha, the Niganthas can scarcely have been a sect founded during Buddha's life.

Let us now confront the records of the Gainas about the philosophical doctrines of heretics, which they had to combat, with such as the Buddhists describe. In the Sutrakritanga II, I, 15 (<page 339> f.) and 21 f. (<page 343>) two materialistic theories which have much in common are spoken of. The first passage treats of the opinion of those who contend that the body and the soul are one and the same thing; the second passage is concerned with the doctrine that the five elements are eternal and constitute everything. The adherents of either philosophy maintain that it is no sin to kill living beings. Similar opinions are, in the Samannaphala Sutta, ascribed to Purana Kassapa and Agita Kesakambali. The former denies that there is such a thing as sin or merit. Agita Kesakambali holds that nothing real corresponds to the current transcendental ideas. He moreover maintains: Man (puriso) consists of the four elements; when he dies, earth returns to earth, water to water, fire to fire, wind to wind, and the organs of sense merge into air (or space) [1]. Four bearers with the hearse carry the corpse to the place of cremation (or, while it is burned) they make lamentations; the dove-coloured bones remain, the offerings are reduced to ashes.' The last passage recurs with few alterations in the Sutrakritanga, <page 340>: 'Other men carry the corpse away to burn it. When it has been consumed by fire, only dove-coloured bones remain, and the four bearers return with the hearse to their village [2].'

In connection with the second materialistic system (<page 343>, section 22, and <page 237> f., vv. 15, 16) a variety of it is mentioned, which adds the permanent Atman or soul as a sixth to the five permanent elements. This seems to have been a primitive or a popular form of the philosophy which we now know under the name of Vaiseshika. To this school of philosophy we must perhaps assign Pakudha Kakkayana of Buddhist record. He maintained [3] that there are seven eternal, unchangeable, mutually independent things: the four elements, pleasure, pain, and the soul. As they have no influence upon one another, it is impossible to do any real harm to anybody. I confess that to maintain the eternal existence of pleasure and pain (sukha and dukkha) and to deny their influence on the soul, seems to me absurd; but the Buddhists have perhaps misstated the original tenets. At any rate, the views of Pakudha Kakkayana come under the denomination of Akriyavada; and in this they differ from the Vaiseshika proper, which is a Kriyavada system. As these two terms are frequently used both by Buddhists and Gainas, it will not be amiss to define them more accurately. Kriyavada is the doctrine which teaches that the soul acts or is affected by acts. Under this head comes Gainism, and of Brahmanical philosophies Vaiseshika and Nyaya (which, however, are not expressly quoted in the canonical books of either Buddhists or Gainas), and apparently a great many systems of which the names have not been preserved, but the existence of which is implied in our texts. Akriyavada is the doctrine which teaches either that a soul does not exist, or that it does not act or is not affected by acts. Under this subdivision fall the different schools of materialists; of Brahmanical philosophies the Vedanta, Sankhya, and Yoga; and the Buddhists. Of the latter the doctrines of the Kshanikavadins and the Sunyavadins are alluded to in Sutrakritanga I, 14, verses 4 and 7. It may be mentioned here that the Vedantists or their opinions are frequently mentioned in the Siddhanta; in the Sutrakritanga the Vedanta is the third heresy described in the First Lecture of the Second Book, <page 344>; it is also adverted to in the Sixth Lecture, p. 417. But as no professor of it was among the six heretical teachers (titthiya) of the Buddhists, we may pass them over here [1].

The fourth heresy discussed in the First Lecture of the Second Book of the Sutrakritanga [2] is Fatalism. In the Samannaphala Sutta this system is expounded by Makkhali Gosala in the following words [3]: 'Great king, there is no cause, nor any previously existing principle productive of the pollution of sentient beings; their defilement is uncaused and unproduced by anything previously existing. There is no cause nor any previously existing principle productive of the purity of sentient beings: their purity is uncaused and unproduced by anything previously existing. For their production there is nothing that results from the conduct of the individuals, nothing from the actions of others, nothing from human effort: they result neither from power nor effort, neither from manly fortitude nor manly energy. Every sentient being, every insect, every living thing, whether animal or vegetable [1], is destitute of intrinsic force, power, or energy, but, being held by the necessity of its nature, experiences happiness or misery in the six forms of existence ' The explanation of these doctrines in the Sutrakritanga (l.c.), though less wordy, comes to the same; it does not, however, expressly ascribe them to Gosala, the son of Makkhali.

The Gainas enumerate four principal schools of philosophy [2]: Kriyavada, Akriyavada, Agnanavada, and Vainayikavada. The views of the Agnanikas, or Agnostics, are not clearly stated in the texts, and the explanation of the commentators of all these philosophies which I have given in note [2], <page 83>, is vague and misleading. But from Buddhist writings we may form a pretty correct idea of what Agnosticism was like. It is, according to the Samannaphala Sutta, the doctrine of Sangaya Belatthiputta, and is there stated in the following way [3]: 'If you inquire of me whether there be a future state of being, I answer: If I experience a future state of existence, I will then explain the nature of that state. If they inquire, Is it after this manner? that is not my concern. Is it after that fashion? that is not my concern. Is it different from these? that is not my concern. Is it not? that is not my concern. No, is it not? It is no concern of mine.' In the same way he e.g. refuses a definite answer to the questions whether the Tathagata is after death, or is not; is and is not at the same time, is not nor is not at the same time. It is evident that the Agnostics examined all modes of expression of the existence or nonexistence of a thing, and if it were anything transcendental or beyond human experience, they negatived all those modes of expression.

The records of the Buddhists and Gainas about the philosophical ideas current at the time of the Buddha and Mahavira, meagre though they be, are of the greatest importance to the historian of that epoch. For they show us the ground on which, and the materials with which, a religious reformer had to build his system. The similarity between some of those 'heretical' doctrines on the one side, and Gaina or Buddhist ideas on the other, is very suggestive, and favours the assumption that the Buddha, as well as Mahavira, owed some of his conceptions to these very heretics, and formulated others under the influence of the controversies which were continually going on with them. Thus, I think, that in opposition to the Agnosticism of Sangaya, Mahavira has established the Syadvada. For as the Agnanavada declares that of a thing beyond our experience the existence, or non-existence or simultaneous existence and non-existence, can neither be affirmed nor denied, so in a similar way, but one leading to contrary results, the Syadvada declares that 'you can affirm the existence of a thing from one point of view (syad asti), deny it from another (syad nasti); and affirm both existence and non-existence with reference to it at different times (syad asti nasti). If you should think of affirming existence and non-existence at the same time from the same point of view, you must say that the thing cannot be spoken of (syad avaktavyah). Similarly, under certain circumstances, the affirmation of existence is not possible

This is the famous Saptabhanginaya of the Gainas. Would any philosopher have enunciated such truisms, unless they served to silence some dangerous opponents? The subtle discussions of the Agnostics had probably bewildered and misled many of their contemporaries. Consequently the Syadvada must have appeared to them as a happy way leading out of the maze of the Agnanavada. It was the weapon with which the Agnostics assailed the enemy, turned against themselves. Who knows how many of their followers went over to Mahavira's creed convinced by the truth of the Saptabhanginaya!

We can trace, I imagine, the influence of Agnosticism also in the doctrine of the Buddha about the Nirvana, as it is stated in Pali books. Professor Oldenberg was the first to draw attention to the decisive passages which prove beyond the possibility of doubt that the Buddha declined answering the question whether the Tathagata (i.e. the liberated soul, or rather principle of individuality) is after death or not. If the public of his time had not been accustomed to be told that some things, and those of the greatest interest, were beyond the ken of the human mind, and had not acquiesced in such answers, it certainly would not have lent a willing ear to a religious reformer who declined to speak out on what in Brahmanical philosophy is considered the end and goal of all speculations. As it is, Agnosticism seems to have prepared the way for the Buddhist doctrine of the Nirvana [2]. It is worthy of note that in a dialogue between king Pasenadi and the nun Khema, told in the Samyutta Nikaya, and translated by Oldenberg, the king puts his questions about the existence or non-existence of the Tathagata after death in the same formulas which Sangaya is made to use in the passage translated above from the Samannaphala Sutta.

In support of my assumption that the Buddha was influenced by contemporary Agnosticism, I may adduce a tradition incorporated in the Mahavagga I, 23 and 24. There we are told that the most distinguished pair of his disciples, Sariputta and Moggalana, had, previously to their conversion, been adherents of Sangaya, and had brought over to Buddha 250 disciples of their former teacher. This happened not long after Buddha's reaching Bodhi, i.e. at the very beginning of the new sect, when its founder must have been willing, in order to win pupils, to treat prevalent opinions with all due consideration.

The greatest influence on the development of Mahavira's doctrines must, I believe, be ascribed to Gosala, the son of Makkhali. A history of his life, contained in the Bhagavati XV, I, has been briefly translated by Hoernle in the Appendix to his translation of the Uvasaga Dasao. It is there recorded that Gosala lived six years together with Mahavira as his disciple, practising asceticism, but afterwards separated from him, started a Law of his own, and set up as a Gina, the leader of the Agivikas. The Buddhist records, however, speak of him as the successor of Nanda Vakkha and Kisa Samkikka, and of his sect, the akelaka paribbagakas, as a long-established order of monks. We have no reason to doubt the statement of the Gainas, that Mahavira and Gosala for some time practised austerities together; but the relation between them probably was different from what the Gainas would have us believe. I suppose, and shall now bring forward some arguments in favour of my opinion, that Mahavira and Gosala associated with the intention of combining their sects and fusing them into one. The fact that these two teachers lived together for a long period, presupposes, it would appear, some similarity between their opinions. I have already pointed out above, in the note on <page xxvi>, that the expression sabbe satta sabbe pana sabbe bhuta sabbe giva is common to both Gosala and the Gainas, and from the commentary we learn that the division of animals into ekendriyas, dvindriyas, which is so common in Gaina texts, was also used by Gosala. The curious and almost paradoxical Gaina doctrine of the six Lesyas closely resembles, as Professor Leumann was the first to perceive, Gosala's division of mankind into six classes; but in this particular I am inclined to believe that the Gainas borrowed the idea from the Agivikas and altered it so as to bring it into harmony with the rest of their own doctrines. With regard to the rules of conduct the collective evidence obtainable is such as to amount nearly to proof that Mahavira borrowed the more rigid rules from Gosala. For as stated in the Uttaradhyayana XXIII, 13, <page 121>, the Law of Parsva allowed monks to wear an under and upper garment, but the Law of Vardhamana forbade clothes. A term [1] for naked friar, frequently met with in the Gaina Sutras, is akelaka, literally 'unclothed.' Now the Buddhists distinguish between Akelakas and Niganthas; e.g. in Buddhaghosa's commentary on the Dhammapadam [2] it is said of some Bhikkhus that they gave the preference to the Niganthas before the Akelakas, because the latter are stark naked (sabbaso apatikkhanna), while the Niganthas use some sort of cover [3] 'for the sake of decency,' as was wrongly assumed by those Bhikkhus. The Buddhists denote by Akelaka the followers of Makkhali Gosala and his two predecessors Kisa Samkikka and Nanda Vakkha, and have preserved an account of their religious practices in the Magghima Nikaya 36. There Sakkaka, the son of a Nigantha, whom we are already acquainted with, explains the meaning of kayabhavana, bodily purity, by referring to the conduct of the Akelakas. Some details of Sakkaka's account are unintelligible in the absence of a commentary, but many are quite clear, and bear a close resemblance to well-known Gaina usages. Thus the Akelakas, like the Gaina monks, may not accept an invitation for dinner; they are forbidden food that is abhihata or uddissakata, which terms are, in all likelihood, identical with adhyahrita and auddesika of the Gainas ; they are not allowed to eat meat or to drink liquor. 'Some beg only in one house and accept but one morsel of food, some in more up to seven; some live upon one donation of food, some on more up to seven.' Similar to these are some practices of Gaina monks described in the Kalpa Sutra, 'Rules for Yatis,' 26, part i, p. 300, and below, p. 176 f., verses 15 and 19. The following practice of the Akelakas is identically the same as that observed by the Gainas: 'some eat but one meal every day, or every second day [1], up to every half month.' All the rules of the Akelakas are either identical with those of the Gainas or extremely like them, and dictated, so to say, by the same spirit. And still Sakkaka does not quote the Niganthas as a standard of 'bodily purity,' though he was the son of a Nigantha, and therefore must have known their religious practices. This curious fact may most easily be accounted for by our assuming that the original Niganthas, of whom the Buddhist records usually speak, were not the section of the church, which submitted to the more rigid rules of Mahavira, but those followers of Parsva, who, without forming a hostile party, yet continued, I imagine, to retain within the united church some particular usages of the old one [1]. As those rigid rules formed no part of the ancient creed, and Mahavira, therefore, must have introduced them, it is probable that he borrowed them from the Akelakas or Agivikas, the followers of Gosala, with whom he is said to have lived in close companionship for six years practising austerities. We may regard Mahavira's adoption of some religious ideas and practices of the Agivikas as concessions made to them in order to win over Gosala and his disciples. This plan seems to have succeeded for some time; but at last the allied teachers quarrelled, it may be supposed, on the question who was to be the leader of the united sects. Mahavira's position apparently was strengthened by his temporary association with Gosala, but the latter seems to have lost by it, if we are to believe the account of the Gainas, and his tragic end must have been a severe blow to the prospects of his sect.

Mahavira probably borrowed much more from other sects than we shall ever be able to prove. It must have been easy to add new doctrines to the Gaina creed, as it scarcely forms a system in the true sense of the word. Each sect, or fraction of a sect, which was united with the Gaina church by the successful policy of Mahavira [2], may have brought with it some of its favourite speculations, and most probably its favourite saints too, who were recognised as Kakravartins or Tirthakaras. This is, of course, a mere conjecture of mine; but it would account for the strange hagiology of the Gainas, and in the absence of any trace of direct evidence we are driven to rely upon guesses, and those deserve the preference which are the most plausible. For the rest, however, of the hypotheses which I have tried to establish in the preceding pages, I claim a higher degree of probability. For on the one hand I do no violence to the tradition of the Gainas, which in the absence of documents deserves most careful attention, and on the other, I assume but what under the given circumstances would have been most likely to happen. The cardinal feature in my construction of the early history of the Gaina church consists in my turning to account the alleged existence of followers of Parsva in the time of Mahavira, a tradition which seems to be almost unanimously accepted by modern scholars.

If Gainism dates from an early period, and is older than Buddha and Mahavira, we may expect to find marks of its antiquity in the character of Gaina philosophy. Such a mark is the animistic belief that nearly everything is possessed of a soul; not only have plants their own souls, but particles of earth, cold water, fire, and wind also. Now ethnology teaches us that the animistic theory forms the basis of many beliefs that have been called the philosophy of savages; that it is more and more relinquished or changed into purer anthropomorphism as civilisation advances. If, therefore, Gaina ethics are for their greater part based on primitive animism, it must have extensively existed in large classes of Indian society when Gainism was first originated. This must have happened at a very early time, when higher forms of religious beliefs and cults had not yet, more generally, taken hold of the Indian mind.

Another mark of antiquity Gainism has in common with the oldest Brahmanical philosophies, Vedanta and Sankhya. For at this early epoch in the development of metaphysics, the Category of Quality is not yet clearly and distinctly conceived, but it is just evolving, as it were, out of the Category of Substance: things which we recognise as qualities are constantly mistaken for and mixed up with substances. Thus in the Vedanta the highest Brahman is not possessed of pure existence, intellect, and joy as qualities of his nature, but Brahman is existence, intellect, and joy itself. In the Sankhya the nature of purusha or soul is similarly defined as being intelligence or light; and the three gunas are described as goodness, energy, and delusion, or light, colour, and darkness; yet these gunas are not qualities in our sense of the word, but, as Professor Garbe adequately calls them, constituents of primitive matter. It is quite in accordance with this way of thinking that the ancient Gaina texts usually speak only of substances, dravyas, and their development or modifications, paryayas; and when they mention gunas, qualities, besides, which however is done but rarely in the Sutras and regularly in comparatively modern books only, this seems to be a later innovation due to the influence which the philosophy and terminology of Nyaya-Vaiseshika gradually gained over the scientific thoughts of the Hindus. For at the side of paryaya, development or modification, there seems to be no room for an independent category 'quality,' since paryaya is the state in which a thing, dravya, is at any moment of its existence, and this must, therefore, include qualities, as seems to be actually the view embodied in the oldest text. Another instance of the Gainas applying the category 'substance' to things which are beyond its sphere, and come rather under that of quality,' is seen in their treating merit and demerit, dharma and adharma, as kinds of substances with which the soul comes into contact [1]; for they are regarded as coextensive with the world, not unlike space, which even the Vaiseshikas count as a substance. If the categories of substance and quality had already been clearly distinguished from one another, and had been recognised as correlative terms, as they are in Vaiseshika philosophy (which defines substance as the substratum of qualities, and quality as that which is inherent in substance), Gainism would almost certainly not have adopted such confused ideas as those just expounded.

From the preceding remarks it will be evident that I do not agree with Bhandarkar [1], who claims a late origin for Gainism, because, on some points, it entertains the same views as the Vaiseshika. The Vaiseshika philosophy may be briefly described as a philosophical treatment and systematical arrangement of those general concepts and ideas which were incorporated in the language, and formed therefore the mental property common to all who spoke or knew Sanskrit. The first attempts to arrive at such a natural philosophy may have been made at an early epoch; but the perfection of the system, as taught in the aphorisms of Kanada, could not be reached till after many centuries of patient mental labour and continuous philosophical discussion. In the interval between the origin and the final establishment of the system those borrowings may have taken place of which, rightly or wrongly, the Gainas may be accused. I must, however, remark that Bhandarkar believes the Gainas to hold, on the points presently to be discussed, a view 'which is of the nature of a compromise between the Sankhyas and the Vedantins on the one hand and the Vaiseshika on the other.' But for our discussion it makes no difference whether direct borrowing or a compromise between two conflicting views be assumed. The points in question are the following: both Gainism and Vaiseshika embrace the Kriyavada, i.e. they maintain that the soul is directly affected by actions, passions ; both advocate the doctrine of asatkarya, i.e. that the product is different from its material cause, while the Vedanta and Sankhya hold that they are the same (satkarya); (g) that they distinguish qualities from their substratum (d navy a). The latter item has been discussed above; we have to deal, therefore, with the first two only. It will be seen that the opinions under and are the common-sense views; for that we are directly affected by passions, and that the product is different from its cause, e.g. the tree from the seed, will always and everywhere be the prima facie conclusion of an unbiassed mind, or rather will appear as the simple statement of what common experience teaches. Such opinions cannot be regarded as characteristic marks of a certain philosophy, and their occurrence in another system need not be explained by the assumption of borrowing. The case would be different if a paradoxical opinion were found in two different schools; for a paradoxical opinion is most likely the product of but one school, and, when once established, it may be adopted by another. But such opinions of the Vaiseshika, as are the result of a peculiar train of reasoning, e.g. that space (dis) and air (akasa) are two separate substances, do not recur in Gainism. For in it, as well as in the older Brahmanical systems, Vedanta and Sankhya, space and air are not yet distinguished from one another, but akasa is made to serve for both.

Some other instances of difference in fundamental doctrines between Vaiseshikas and Gainas are, that according to the former the souls are infinite and all-pervading, while to the latter they are of limited dimensions, and that the Vaiseshikas make dharma and adharma qualities of the soul, while, as has been said above, the Gainas look on them as a sort of substances. In one point, however, there is some resemblance between a paradoxical Vaiseshika opinion and a distinct Gaina doctrine. According to the Vaiseshika there are four kinds of bodies: bodies of earth, as those of men, animals ; bodies of water in the world of Varuna; bodies of fire in the world of Agni; and bodies of wind in the world of Vayu. This curious opinion has its counterpart in Gainism; for the Gainas, too, assume Earth-bodies, Water-bodies, Fire-bodies, and Wind-bodies. However, these elementary bodies are the elements or the most minute particles of them, inhabited by particular souls. This hylozoistic doctrine is, as I have said above, the outcome of primitive animism, while the Vaiseshika opinion, though probably derived from the same current of thought, is an adaptation of it to popular mythology. I make no doubt that the Gaina opinion is much more primitive and belongs to an older stage in the development of philosophical thought than the Vaiseshika assumption of four kinds of bodies.

Though I am of opinion that between Vaiseshika and Gainism no such connection existed as could be proved by borrowings of the one system from the other, still I am ready to admit that they are related to each other by a kind of affinity of ideas. For the fundamental ideas of the Vedantins and Sankhyas go directly counter to those of the Gainas, and the latter could not adopt them without breaking with their religion. But they could go a part of their way together with the Vaiseshika, and still retain their religious persuasion. We need, therefore, not wonder that among the writers on the Nyaya-Vaiseshika some names of Gainas occur. The Gainas themselves go still farther, and maintain that the Vaiseshika philosophy was established by a schismatical teacher of theirs, Khaluya Rohagutta of the Kausika Gotra, with whom originated the sixth schism of the Gainas, the Trairasika-matam, in 544 A. V. [1] (18 A. D.) The details of this system given in the Avasyaka, vv. 77-83, are apparently reproduced from Kanada's Vaiseshika Darsana; for they consist in the enumeration of the six (not seven) categories with their subdivisions, among which that of qualities contains but seventeen items (not twenty-four), and those identical with Vaiseshika Darsana I, 1, 6.

I believe that in this case, as in many others, the Gainas claim more honour than is their due in connecting every Indian celebrity with the history of their creed. My reason for doubting the correctness of the above Gaina legend is the following. The Vaiseshika philosophy is reckoned as one of the orthodox Brahmanical philosophies, and it has chiefly, though not exclusively, been cultivated by orthodox Hindus. We have, therefore, no reason for doubting that they have misstated the name and Gotra of the author of the Sutras, viz. Kanada of the Kasyapa Gotra. No trace has been found in Brahmanical literature that the name of the real author of the Vaiseshika was Rohagupta, and his Gotra the Kausika Gotra; nor can Rohagupta and Kanada be taken as different names of the same person, because their Gotras also differ. Kanada, follower of Kanada, means etymologically crow-eater, owl; hence his system has been nicknamed Aulukya Darsana, owl-philosophy [1]. In Rohagupta's second name, Khuluya, which stands for Shaduluka [2], allusion is made to the 'owl,' probably to the Kanadas; but the Gainas refer uluka to the Gotra of the Rohagupta, viz. Kausika [3], which word also means owl. As the unanimous tradition of the Brahmans deserves the preference before that of the Gainas, we can most easily account for the latter by assuming that Rohagupta did not invent, but only adopted the Vaiseshika philosophy to support his schismatical views.

About the two works translated in this volume, the Uttaradhyayana and Sutrakritanga, I have little to add to the remarks of Professor Weber in the Indische Studien, vol. xvi, p. 259 ff., and vol. xvii, p. 43 ff. The Sutrakritanga is probably the older of the two, as it is the second Anga, and the Angas obtain the foremost rank among the canonical books of the Gainas, while the Uttaradhyayana, the first Mulasutra, belongs to the last section of the Siddhanta. According to the summary in the fourth Anga the object of the Sutrakritanga is to fortify young monks against the heretical opinions of alien teachers, to confirm them in the right faith, and to lead them to the highest good. This description is correct on the whole, but not exhaustive, as will be seen by going over our table of contents. The work opens with the refutation of heretical doctrines, and the same object is again treated at greater length in the

The Uttaradhyayana resembles the Sutrakritanga with regard to its object and part of the subjects treated; but it is of greater extent than the original part of the Sutrakritanga, and the plan of the work is carried out with more skill. Its intention is to instruct a young monk in his principal duties, to commend an ascetic life by precepts and examples, to warn him against the dangers in his spiritual career, and to give some theoretical information. The heretical doctrines are only occasionally alluded to, not fully discussed; apparently the dangers expected from that quarter grew less in the same measure as time advanced and the institutions of the sect were more firmly established. Of more importance to a young monk seems to have been an accurate knowledge of animate and inanimate things, as a rather long treatise on this subject has been added at the end of the book.–Though there is an apparent plan in the selection and arrangement of the single Lectures, still it is open to doubt whether they were all composed by one author, or only selected from the traditional literature, written or oral, which among the Gainas, as everywhere else, must have preceded the formation of a canon. I am inclined to adopt the latter alternative, because there is a greater variety of treatment and style in the different parts than seems compatible with the supposition of one author, and because a similar origin must be assumed for many works of the present canon.

At what time the works under discussion were composed or brought into their present shape is a problem which cannot be satisfactorily solved. As, however, the reader of the present volume will naturally expect the translator to give expression to his personal conviction on this point, I give my opinion with all reserve, viz. that most parts, tracts, or treatises of which the canonical books consist, are old; that the redaction of the Angas took place at an early period (tradition places it under Bhadrabahu); that the other works of the Siddhanta were collected in course of time, probably in the first centuries before our era, and that additions or alterations may have been made in the canonical works till the time of their first edition under Devardhiganin (980 AV. = 454 A. D.)

I have based my translation of the Uttaradhyayana and Sutrakritanga on the text adopted by the oldest commentators I could consult. This text differs little from that of the MSS. and the printed editions. I had prepared a text of my own from some MSS. at my disposal, and this has served to check the printed text.

The Calcutta edition of the Uttaradhyayana (Samvat 1936 = 1879 A. D.) contains, besides a Guzerati gloss, the Sutradipika of Lakshmivallabha, pupil of Lakshmikirtiganin of the Kharatara Gakkha. Older than this commentary is the Tika of Devendra, which I have made my principal guide. It was composed in Samvat 1179 or 1123 A. D., and is confessedly an abstract from Santyakarya's Vritti, which I have not used. But I have had at my disposal an illuminated old MS. of the Avakuri, belonging to the

The Bombay edition of the Sutrakritanga (Samvat 1936 or 1880 A. D.) contains three commentaries: Silanka's Tika, in which is incorporated Bhadrabahu's Niryukti. This is the oldest commentary extant; but it was not without predecessors, as Silanka occasionally alludes to old commentators. Silanka lived in the second half of the ninth century A. D., as he is said to have finished his commentary on the Akaranga Sutra in the Saka year 798 or 876 A. D. The Dipika, an abstract from the last by Harshakula, which was composed in Samvat 1583 or 1517 AD. I have also used a MS. of the Dipika in my possession. Pasakandra's Balavabodha, a Guzerati gloss.–My principal guide was, of course, Silanka; when he and Harshakula agree, I refer to them in my notes as the 'commentators;' I name Silanka when his remark in question has been omitted by Harshakula, and I quote the latter when he gives some original matter of interest. I may add that one of my MSS. is covered with marginal and interlinear glosses which have now and then given me some help in ascertaining the meaning of the text.



November, 1894.


I may here add a remark on the Parable of the Three Merchants, see <page 29> f., which agrees with Matthew xxv. 14 and Luke xix. 11. It seems, however, to have had a still greater resemblance to the version of the parable in The Gospel according to the Hebrews, as will appear from the following passage from Eusebius' Theophania (ed. Migne's Patrologia Graeca, iv. 155), translated by Nicholson, 'The Gospel according to the Hebrews (London, 1879): The Gospel, which comes to us in Hebrew characters, has directed the threat not against the hider, but against the abandoned liver. For it has included three servants, one which devoured the substance with harlots and flute-women, one which multiplied, and one which hid the talent: one was accepted, one only blamed, and one shut up in prison.' I owe this quotation to my colleague Arnold Meyer.

Taking into consideration that the Gaina version contains only the essential elements of the parable, which in the Gospels are developed into a full story; and that it is expressly stated in the Uttaradhyayana VII, 15 that 'this parable is taken from common life,' I think it probable that the Parable of the Three Merchants was invented in India, and not in Palestine.

H. J.


  • xiii:1 Das Aupapatika Sutra, in the Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. viii; and Dasavaikalika Sutra und Niryukti, in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. xlvi.
  • xiii:2 The Uvasaga Dasao: (in the Bibliotheca Indica), vol. i. Text and Commentary, Calcutta, 1890; vol. ii. Translation, 1888.
  • xiii:3 Berlin, 1888 and 1892.
  • xiii:4 In the Indische Studien, vol. xvi, p. 211 ff., and xvii, p. 1 ff.; translated in the Indian Antiquary and edited separately, Bombay, 1893.
  • xiii:5 In the Actes du VI Congres International des Orientalistes, section Arienne, p. 469 ff., in the 5th and 6th vols. of the Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, and in the 48th vol. of the Journal of the German Oriental Society.
  • xiv:1 The Parisishtaparvan by Hemakandra, Bibliotheca Indica.
  • xiv:2 Denkschriften der philos.-histor. Classe der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol. xxxvii, p. 171 ff.
  • xiv:3 Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vols. ii and iii. Epigraphia Indica, vols. i and ii.
  • xiv:4 Bangalore, 1889.
  • xiv:5 The Religions of India. Bulletin des Religions de l'Inde, 1889-94.
  • xiv:6 Uber die indische Secte der Jaina. Wien, 1887.
  • xiv:7 Report for 1883-84.
  • xiv:8 Nigantha is apparently the original form of the word, since it is thus spelled in the Asoka inscription, in Pali, and occasionally by the Gainas, though the phonetic laws of all three idioms would have given preference to the form niggantha, the more frequent spelling in Gaina works.
  • xv:1 There are apparently two persons of this name. The other Abhaya, a son of king Srenika, was a patron of the Gainas, and is frequently mentioned in their legends and in the canonical books. In the Magghima Nikaya 58 (Abhayakumara Sutta) it is related that the Nigantha Nataputta made him engage in a disputation with Buddha. The question was so adroitly framed that whether the answer was Yes or No, it involved Buddha in self-contradiction. But the plan did not succeed, and Abhaya was converted by Buddha. There is nothing in this account to elucidate the doctrines of Nataputta.
  • xvi:1 The name Siha occurs in the Bhagavati (Calcutta edition, p. 1267, see Hoernle, Uvasaga Dasao Appendix, p. 10) as that of a disciple of Mahavira; but as he was a monk, he cannot be identified with his namesake in the Mahavagga.
  • xix:1 Sumangala Vilasini, p. 119 of the Pali Text Society edition.
  • xx:1 Page 57 of the edition in the Pali Text Society.
  • xx:2 The translations of Gogerly and of Burnouf in Grimblot, Sept Suttas Palis, were made without the help of a commentary, and may, therefore, be passed by. It is, however, open to doubt whether Buddhaghosa has drawn his information from genuine tradition, or had to rely on conjectures of his own.
  • xx:3 See my paper, 'On Mahavira and his Predecessors,' in the Indian Antiquary, IX, 158 ff., where some of the above problems have been treated.
  • xxi:1 In the Ragaprasni Parsva has a discussion with king Paesi and converts him, see Actes du VI Congres International des Orientalistes, vol. iii, P. 490 ff.
  • xxii:1 See my paper on the origin of the Svetambara and Digambara sects in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. xxxviii, p. 1 ff.
  • xxiii:1 Samannaphala Sutta, Digha Nikaya II, 20.
  • xxiii:2 Sumangala Vilasini, p. 162. Buddhaghosa expressly states that Gosala reckoned the Niganthas lower than his own lay disciples, who form the fourth class.–As Buddhaghosa does not take umbrage at Gosala's reckoning the Bhikkhus still lower, it is clear that he did not identify the Bhikkhus with the Buddhist monks.
  • xxiii:3 See p. 250 of the Pali Text Society edition.
  • xxiv:1 Akasa; it is not reckoned as a fifth element in the Buddhist account, but it is so in that of the Gainas, see below, <page 343>, and <page 237>, verse 15. This is a verbal, rather than a material difference.
  • xxiv:2 I put here the original texts side by side so that their likeness may be more obvious:
      asandipankama   purisa matam adaya gakkhanti yava   alahana padani pannapenti,   kapotakani atthini bhavanti,   bhassanta'hutiyo.
     adahanae   parehi niggai, aganigghamite sarire   kavotavannaim atthini   asandipankama purisa gamam pakkagakkhanti.
  • xxiv:3 Loc. cit., p. 56.
  • xxv:1 It is worthy of remark that the Vedantists play no conspicuous part, if any, among Buddha's opponents. As they were, however, the foremost of Brahmanical philosophers, we must conclude that Brahmans of learning held aloof from the classes of society to which the new religion appealed.
  • xxv:2 Page <page 345> f., see also <page 239>.
  • xxv:3 Grimblot, Sept Suttas Palis, p. 170.
  • xxvi:1 In the original: sabbe satta, sabbe pana, sabbe bhuta, sabbe giva. The same enumeration frequently occurs in Gaina Sutras, and has, in my translation, been abbreviated in all classes of living beings.' Buddhaghosa's explanation has been thus rendered by Hoernle, Uvasaga Dasao, Appendix II, p. 16: 'In the term all beings (sabbe satta) he comprises camels, oxen, asses, and other animals without exception. The term all sensive beings (sabbe pana) he uses to denote those with one sense, those with two senses, and so forth. The term all generated beings (sabbe bhuta) he uses with reference to those that are generated or produced from an egg or from the womb. The term all living beings (sabbe giva) he uses with reference to rice, barley, wheat, and so forth; in these he conceives that there is life, because it is their nature to grow.'
  • xxvi:2 See pp. <page 83>, <page 291>, <page 316>, <page 385>.
  • xxvi:3 Grimblot, l.c., p. 174.
  • xxviii:1 Bhandarkar, Report for 1883-4, p. 95 f.
  • xxviii:2 The reticence of Buddha on the nature of the Nirvana may have been wise at his time; but it was fraught with very important results for the development of the church. For his followers, having to hold their own against such split-hair dialecticians as the Brahmanical philosophers, were almost driven to enunciate more explicit ideas about the great problem which the founder of the church had left unsolved. The tendency to supply the crowning stone to an edifice which appeared to have been left unfinished by the hand of the master, led to the division of the community into numerous [p. xxix] sects soon after the Nirvana of Buddha. We need not wonder therefore that in Ceylon, which is at such a distance from the centre of Brahmanical learning, Buddhists could retain the doctrine of the Nirvana in its original form.
  • xxx:1 Another term is Ginakalpika, which may be rendered: adopting the standard of the Ginas. The Svetambaras say that the Ginakalpa was early replaced by the Sthavirakalpa, which allows the use of clothes.
  • xxx:2 Fausboll's edition, p. 398.
  • xxx:3 The words sesakam purimasamappita va patikkhadenti are not quite clear, but the contrast leaves no doubt about what is meant. Sesaka is, I believe, the Pali for sisnaka. If this is right, the above words may be translated: 'they cover the pudenda wearing (a cloth) about the forepart (of their body).'
  • xxxi:1 These fasts are called by the Gainas kautthabhatta, khatthabhatta
  • xxxii:1 As I have said above and in note . <page 119>, this difference has probably given rise to the division of the church into Svetambaras and Digambaras. But these two branches have not directly grown out of the party of Parsva and that of Mahavira; for both recognise Mahavira as a Tirthakara.
  • xxxii:2 Mahavira must have been a great man in his way, and an eminent leader among his contemporaries; he owed the position of a Tirthakara probably not so much to the sanctity of his life, as to his success in propagating his creed.
  • xxxiv:1 That this was the primitive conception of the Vedic Hindus has been noted by Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda, p. 317 f.
  • xxxv:1 See his Report for 1883-84., p. 116 f.
  • xxxvii:1 See Indische Studien, vol. xvii, p. 116 ff.
  • xxxviii:1 See my edition of the Kalpa Sutra, p. 119.
  • xxxviii:2 Literally Six-owl. The number six refers to the six categories of the Vaiseshika.
  • xxxviii:3 Part i, p. 290. But in the legend translated by Professor Leumann, l.c., p. 121, his Gotra is called Khaulu.
  • xxxix:1 According to an old tradition the Sutrakritanga is studied in the fourth year after the ordination of a monk.

1 - on discipline

I shall explain in due order the discipline of a houseless monk, who has got rid of all worldly ties. Listen to me.

A monk who, on receiving an order [1] from his superior [2], walks up to him, watching his nods and motions, is called well-behaved.

But a monk who, on receiving an order from his superior, does not walk up to him, being insubordinate and inattentive, is called ill-behaved.

As a bitch with sore ears is driven away everywhere, thus a bad, insubordinate, and talkative (pupil) is turned out.

As a pig leaves a trough filled with grain to feed on faeces, so a brute (of a man) turns away from virtue, and takes to evil ways.

Hearing a man thus compared to a dog and a pig, he who desires his own welfare, should adhere to good conduct.

Therefore be eager for discipline, that you may acquire righteousness; a son of the wise [1], who desires liberation [2], will not be turned away from anywhere.

One should always be meek, and not be talkative in the presence of the wise; one should acquire valuable knowledge, and avoid what is worthless.

When reprimanded a wise man should not be angry, but he should be of a forbearing mood; he should not associate, laugh, and play with mean men.

He should do nothing mean [3], nor talk much; but after having learned his lesson, he should meditate by himself.

If he by chance does anything mean, he should never deny it, but if he has done it, he should say: 'I have done it;' if he has not done it, 'I have not done it.'

He should not, in every case, wait for the express command (of the teacher) like an unbroken horse for the whip (of the rider), but like a broken horse which sees the whip (of the rider) he should commit no evil act.

Disobedient, rough speaking, ill-behaved pupils will exasperate even a gentle teacher; but those will soon win even a hot-tempered teacher who humour him and are polite.

He should not speak unasked, and asked he should not tell a lie; he should not give way to his anger, and bear with indifference pleasant and unpleasant occurrences.

Subdue your Self, for the Self is difficult to subdue; if your Self is subdued, you will be happy in this world and in the next.

Better it is that I should subdue my Self by self-control and penance, than be subdued by others with fetters and corporal punishment.

He should never do anything disagreeable to the wise [1], neither in words nor deeds, neither openly nor secretly.

He should not (sit) by the side of the teacher, nor before him, nor behind him; he should not touch (the teacher's) thigh with his own, nor answer his call from the couch.

A well-behaved monk should not sit on his hams [2], nor cross his arms [1], nor stretch out his legs, nor stand (too) close to his teacher.

If spoken to by the superior, he should never remain silent, but should consider it as a favour; asking for his command [2], he should always politely approach his teacher.

If the teacher speaks little or much, he should never grow impatient; but an intelligent pupil should rise from his seat and answer (the teacher's) call modestly and attentively.

He should never ask a question when sitting on his stool or his bed, but rising from his seat [3] and coming near, he should ask him with folded hands.

When a pupil who observes the above rules of conduct, questions the teacher about the sacred text, its meaning, or both, he should deliver it according to tradition.

A monk should avoid untruth, nor should he speak positively (about future things, his plans ); he should avoid sinful speech, and always keep free from deceit.

He should not tell anything sinful or meaningless [4] or hurtful, neither for his own sake nor for anybody else's, nor without such a motive. .

In barbers' shops [1] or houses, on the ground separating two houses, or on the highway a single monk should not stand with a single woman, nor should he converse with her.

Any instruction the wise ones [2] may give me in a kind or a rough way, I shall devotedly accept, thinking that it is for my benefit.

(The teacher's) instruction, his manner of giving it, and his blaming evil acts are considered blissful by the intelligent, but hateful by the bad monk.

Wise, fearless monks consider even a rough instruction as a benefit, but the fools hate it, though it produces patience and purity of mind.

He should occupy a low, firm seat, which does not rock; seldom rising and never without a cause, he should sit motionless.

At the right time a monk should sally forth, and he should return at the right time; avoiding to do anything out of time, he should do what is appropriate for each period of the day.

A monk should not approach (dining people) sitting in a row, but should collect alms that are freely given; having begged according to the sanctioned rules, he should eat a moderate portion at the proper time.

A monk should wait (for his alms) alone, not too far from other monks, nor too near them, but so that he is not seen by another party; another monk should not pass him to get the start of him.

Neither boldly erect nor humbly bowing down, standing neither too close by nor too far off, a monk should accept permitted [1] food that was prepared for somebody else [2].

In a place that is covered above and sheltered on all sides, where there are no living beings nor seeds, a monk should eat in company, restrained and undressed.

A monk should avoid as unallowed such food as is well dressed, or well cooked, or well cut, or such in which is much seasoning, or which is very rich, or very much flavoured, or much sweetened [3].

(The teacher) takes delight in instructing a clever (pupil), just as the rider (in managing) a well-broken horse; but he tires to instruct a foolish (pupil), just as the rider (tires to manage) an unbroken horse.

(A bad pupil thinks:) 'I get but knocks and boxes on the ear, hard words and blows;' and he believes a teacher who instructs him well, to be a malevolent man.

A good pupil has the best opinion (of his teacher), thinking that he treats him like his son or brother or a near relation [4]; but a malevolent pupil imagines himself treated like a slave.

He should not provoke his teacher's anger, nor should he himself grow angry; he should not offend the teacher nor irritate him by proclaiming his faults [1].

Perceiving the teacher's anger one should pacify him by kindness, appease him with folded hands, and promise not to do wrong again.

He who adopts the conduct which the wise ones [2] have attained by their virtues and always practised, will not incur blame.

Guessing the teacher's thoughts and the purport of his words, one should express one's assent, and execute (what he desires to be done).

An excellent pupil needs no express directions, or he is (at least) quickly directed; he always carries out his duties as he is told.

An intelligent man who has learned (the sacred texts) takes his duties upon himself [3], and he becomes renowned in the world; as the earth is the dwelling of all beings, so he will be a dwelling of all duties.

When the worthy teachers, who are thoroughly enlightened and from early times well versed in conduct [4], are satisfied (with a pupil), they will make over to him their extensive and weighty [5] knowledge of the sacred texts.

His knowledge will be honoured, his doubts will be removed, he will gladden the heart of his teacher by his good acts; kept in safety by the performance of austerities and by meditation, being as it were a great light, he will keep the five vows.

Honoured by gods, Gandharvas, and men, he will, on leaving this body which consists of dirt and impurities, become either an eternal Siddha [1], or a god of great power and small imperfections.

Thus I say [2].


  • 1:1 Ana-niddesa-kare. Agna is the order itself; nirdesa, the assent to it.
  • 1:2 The original has the plural instead of the singular. It takes great liberties in this respect, and the commentators constantly call to help a vakanavyatyaya or lingavyatyaya, exchange of number or gender, as the case may be. It is impossible in the translation to follow the original in this respect, and useless to note all such grammatical blunders. The conclusion we may draw from them is that in the spoken language many grammatical forms which in the literary language continued to be used, were on the point of dying out or had already actually become obsolete. I am almost sure that the vernacular of the time when the Sutras were composed began to drop the distinction between the singular and plural in the verb. It was, however, artificially revived in the literary Maharashtri of later days.
  • 2:1 Buddhaputta. Buddha is here and in the sequel explained by akarya, teacher. The word is in the crude form, not in the inflected form, as the nominative would not suit the metre. Liberties of this kind are frequently met with in our text.
  • 2:2 Niogatthi = niyogarthin. It is always explained and usually means moksharthin. But here and in verse 20 niyoga has perhaps its common meaning: appointment, order. In that case we must translate: he who waits for an order.
  • 2:3 Kandaliya, literally, he should not demean himself like a Kandala. The commentators, however, divide the word in kanda, violent, hot, and alika, untrue, false. This explanation is too artificial to be accepted, though the meaning comes to the same thing.
  • 3:1 Buddhanam, i.e. the superiors.
  • 3:2 Palhatthiya = paryastika: so that his clothes cover his knees and shanks.
  • 4:1 Pakshapinda.
  • 4:2 Niyagatthi or niogatthi. The commentator explains it, as in verse 7, by 'desiring liberation.'
  • 4:3 Ukkuduo. The commentator explains it by muktasanah, karanatah padapunkhanadigatah.
  • 4:4 In illustration of this the commentator (Devendra) quotes the following verse: esha bandhyasuto yati khapushpakritasekharah | mrigatrishnambhasi snatah sasasringadhanurdharah || There goes the son of a barren woman, bearing a chaplet of sky-flowers, having bathed in the water of a fata morgana, and carrying a bow made of a hare's horn.
  • 5:1 Samara, explained by the commentator barbers' shop or smithy, with the addition that it includes all places of low people.
  • 5:2 Buddhah.
  • 6:1 Phasuya, translated prasuka, and explained: free from living beings.
  • 6:2 Parakada, prepared for the householder or some other person, but not for the monk himself.
  • 6:3 The translation of the terms in this verse is rather conjectural, notwithstanding the explanations in the commentary.
  • 6:4 I translate according to the interpretation of the commentator, which is probably right; but the text sets all rules of grammar at defiance.
  • 7:1 Literally, search for the goad.
  • 7:2 Buddha.
  • 7:3 Namati, literally, bows down.
  • 7:4 Puvvasamthuya = purvasamstuta. Besides the meaning rendered in my translation the commentator proposes another: already famous.
  • 7:5 Atthiya = arthika, having an object or purpose, viz. moksha; it is therefore frequently rendered: leading to liberation.
  • 8:1 I.e. a liberated or perfected soul.
  • 8:2 Ti bemi = iti bravimi. These words serve to mark the end of every chapter in all canonical books; compare the Latin dixi.

2 - on troubles

O long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse [4] from the Venerable (Mahavira):

Here [5], forsooth, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira of the Kasyapa Gotra has declared twenty-two troubles which a monk must learn and know, bear and conquer, in order not to be vanquished by them when he lives the life of a wandering mendicant.

1. digankha (gugupsa)-parisaha, hunger;

2. pivasa (pipasa)-p., thirst;

3. siya (sita)-p., cold;

4. usina (ushna)-p., heat;

5. damsamasaya (damsamasaka)-p., gad-flies, and gnats [1];

6. akela-p., nakedness [2];

7. arati-p., to be discontented with the objects of control.

8. itthi (stri)-p., women;

9. kariya (karya)-p., erratic life;

10. nisihiya (naishedhiki)-p., place for study;

11. se.gga (sayya)-p., lodging;

12. akkosa (akrosa)-p., abuse;

13. vaha (vadha)-p., corporal punishment;

14. gayana (yakana)-p., to ask for something;

15. alabha-p., to be refused;

16. roga-p., illness;

17. tana-phasa (trinasparsa), pricking of grass;

18. galla-p., dirt;

19. sakkarapurakkara (satkarapurahkara)-p., kind and respectful treatment;

20. panna (pragna)-p., understanding;

21. annana (agnana)-p., ignorance;

22. sammatta (samyaktva)-p., righteousness.

[1]The enumeration of the troubles has been delivered by the Kasyapa [2], I shall explain them to you in due order. Listen to me.

1. Though his body be weakened by hunger, a monk who is strong (in self-control) and does penance, should not cut or cause another to cut (anything to be eaten), nor cook it or cause another to cook it.

Though emaciated like the joint of a crow's (leg) and covered with a network of veins, he should know the permitted measure of food and drink, and wander about with a cheerful mind.

2. Though overcome by thirst, he should drink no cold water, restrained by shame and aversion (from forbidden things); he should try to get distilled [3] water.

Wandering about on deserted ways, in pain, thirsty, with dry throat, and distressed, he should bear this trouble (of thirst).

3. If a restrained, austere ascetic occasionally suffers from cold on his wanderings, he should not walk beyond the (prescribed) time, remembering the teaching of the Gina.

'I have no shelter and nothing to cover my skin, therefore I shall make a fire to warm myself;' such a thought should not be entertained by a monk.

4. If he suffers from the heat of hot things, or from the heat of his body, or from the heat of summer, he should not lament the loss of comfort.

A wise man, suffering from heat, should not long for a bath, or pour water over his body, or fan himself.

5. Suffering from insects a great sage remains undisturbed. As an elephant at the head of the battle kills the enemy, so does a hero (in self-control conquer the internal foe).

He should not scare away (insects), nor keep them off, nor be in the least provoked to passion by them. Tolerate living beings, do not kill them, though they eat your flesh and blood.

6. 'My clothes being torn, I shall (soon) go naked,' or 'I shall get a new suit;' such thoughts should not be entertained by a monk.

At one time he will have no clothes, at another he will have some; knowing this to be a salutary rule, a wise (monk) should not complain about it.

7. A houseless and poor monk who wanders from village to village may become tired of ascetic life: he should bear this trouble.

A sage should turn away from this discontent; he should wander about free from sins, guarded in himself, a tabernacle (as it were) of the Law, doing no actions, and perfectly passionless.

8. In this world men have a natural liking for women; he who knows (and renounces) them, will easily perform his duties as a Sramana.

A wise man who knows that women are a slough, as it were, will get no harm from them, but will wander about searching for the Self.

9. Alone, living on allowed food [1], he should wander about, bearing all troubles, in a village or a town or a market-place or a capital.

Different (from other men) a monk should wander about, he should acquire no property; but not being attached to householders, he should live without a fixed residence.

10. In a burial-place, or a deserted house, or below a tree he should sit down, alone, without moving, and he should not drive away any one.

Sitting there he should brave all dangers; when seized with fear, he should not rise and go to some other place.

11. A monk who does penance and is strong (in self-control), will not be affected beyond measure by good or bad lodgings, but an evil-minded monk will.

Having obtained a good or bad lodging in an empty house [2], he should stay there thinking: 'What does it matter for one night?'

12. If a layman abuses a monk, he should not grow angry against him; because he would be like a child [3], a monk should not grow angry.

If a monk hears bad words, cruel and rankling ones, he should silently overlook them, and not take them to heart.

13. A monk should not be angry if beaten, nor should he therefore entertain sinful thoughts; knowing patience to be the highest good, a monk should meditate on the Law.

If somebody strikes a restrained, resigned Sramana somewhere, he should think: 'I have not lost my life.'

14. It will always cause difficulties to a houseless monk to get everything by begging, and nothing without begging.

The hand (of the giver) is not always kindly stretched out to a monk when he is on his begging tour; but he should not think that it would be better to live as a householder.

15. He should beg food from the householder when his dinner is ready; a wise man should not care whether he gets alms or not.

'I get nothing to-day, perhaps I shall get something to-morrow;' a monk who thinks thus, will not be grieved by his want of success.

16. If any misfortune [1] happens and he suffers pain, he should cheerfully steady his mind, and bear the ills that attack him.

He should not long for medical treatment, but he should continue to search for the welfare of his soul; thus he will be a true Sramana by neither acting himself nor causing others to act.

17. When a naked, rough, restrained ascetic lies on the grass, his body will be hurt.

In the sun his pain will grow insupportable; still a monk, though hurt by the grass, will not use clothes [2].

18. When by the heat of summer his body sweats and is covered with dirt and dust, a wise monk should not lament his loss of comfort.

He should bear (all this), waiting for the destruction of his Karman [1], (and practising) the noble, excellent Law; he should carry the filth on his body till he expires.

19. It may be that a gentleman salutes a monk, or rises from his seat on his approach, or invites him (to accept alms in his house): a monk should evince no predilection for men of this sort, who show him such marks of respect.

Not resentful, having few wants, begging from strangers, and not being dainty, a wise man should not long for pleasant things, nor be sorry afterwards (for not having got them).

20. 'Forsooth, in bygone times I have done actions productive of ignorance, for I do not remember them when asked by anybody anywhere [2].'

'Afterwards, however, actions productive of ignorance take effect.' Therefore comfort yourself, knowing the consequences of actions. (4!)

21. 'It was of no use to turn away from the lust of the senses and to live restrainedly, for I do not properly recognise good and bad things.'

'Though in practising austerities and religious observances I live according to strict rules, still the hindrances to knowledge will not go off.'

22. A monk should not think: 'There is, indeed, no life to come, nor an exalted state to be acquired by penances; in short, I have been deceived.'

A monk should not think: 'Those lied who said that there were, are, and will be Ginas.'

All these troubles have been declared by the Kasyapa. A monk should not be vanquished by them, when attacked by any anywhere.

Thus I say.


  • 8:3 Parisaha, that which may cause trouble to an ascetic, and which must be cheerfully borne.
  • 8:4 The commentator (Devendra) says that when Mahavira spoke, he was understood by all creatures, whatever was their language. He quotes the following verse: deva devim nara narim sabaras kapi sabarim | tiryanko pi ka tairaskim menire bhagavadgiram || The gods, men, Sabaras, and animals took the language of the Lord for their own. Cf. Acts ii. 11.
  • 8:5 I.e. in our creed or religion. This is generally the meaning of the word iha, here, opening a sentence.
  • 9:1 This is to include all biting or stinging insects, as lice
  • 9:2 This is binding on the Ginakalpikas only, not on common monks.
  • 10:1 The preceding part of this lecture is in prose, the rest is in sloka. The numbers placed before the verses refer to the above enumeration of the troubles. It will be seen that two stanzas are allotted to each of them.
  • 10:2 I.e. Mahavira, who belonged to the Gotra of Kasyapa.
  • 10:3 Vigada = vikrita. It means water which by boiling or some other process has become so changed that it may be regarded as lifeless.
  • 12:1 Ladha; see also note on XVII, 2.
  • 12:2 I.e. in which there are no women.
  • 12:3 Or like an ignorant man, bala.
  • 13:1 Viz. if he falls sick.
  • 13:2 Tantuga, what is manufactured from threads.
  • 14:1 Nirgara.
  • 14:2 The commentators refer the word 'anywhere' to the place or object of the former actions.

3 - the four requisites

Four things of paramount value are difficult to obtain here by a living being: human birth, instruction in the Law, belief in it, and energy in self-control.

I. The universe is peopled by manifold creatures, who are, in this Samsara, born in different families and castes for having done various actions.

Sometimes they go to the world of the gods, sometimes to the hells, sometimes they become Asuras in accordance with their actions.

Sometimes they become Kshattriyas, or Kandalas and Bukkasas, or worms and moths, or (insects called) Kunthu [1] and ants.

Thus living beings of sinful actions, who are born again and again in ever-recurring births, are not disgusted with the Samsara, but they are like warriors (never tired of the battle of life).

Living beings bewildered through the influence of their actions, distressed and suffering pains, undergo misery in non-human births.

But by the cessation of Karman, perchance, living beings will reach in due time a pure state and be born as men.

II. And though they be born with a human body, it will be difficult for them to hear the Law, having heard which they will do penances, combat their passions and abstain from killing living beings.

III. And though, by chance, they may hear the Law, it will be difficult for them to believe in it; many who are shown the right way, stray from it.

IV. And though they have heard the Law and believe in it, it is difficult for them to fulfill it strenuously; many who approve of the religion, do not adopt it.

Having been born as a man, having heard the Law, believing in it, and fulfilling it strenuously, an ascetic should restrain himself and shake off sinfulness.

The pious obtain purity, and the pure stand firmly in the Law: (the soul afterwards) reaches the highest Nirvana, being like unto a fire fed with ghee.

Leave off the causes of sin, acquire fame through patience! (A man who acts up to this) will rise to the upper regions after having left this body of clay.

The Yakshas who are gifted with various virtues, (live in the heavenly regions, situated) one above the other, shining forth like the great luminaries, and hoping never to descend thence.

Intent on enjoying divine pleasures and changing their form at will, they live in the upper Kalpa heavens many centuries of former [1] years.

The Yakshas, having remained there according to their merit, descend thence at the expiration of their life and are born as men.

Men are of ten kinds.

Fields and houses, gold, cattle, slaves and servants: where these four goods, the causes of pleasure, are present, in such families he is born [1].

He will have friends and relations, be of good family, of fine complexion, healthy, wise, noble, famous, and powerful.

After having enjoyed, at their proper time, the unrivalled pleasures of human life, he will obtain true knowledge by his pure religious merit acquired in a former life.

Perceiving that the four requisites are difficult to obtain, he will apply himself to self-control, and when by penances he has shaken off the remnant of Karman, he will become an eternal Siddha.

Thus I say.


  • 15:1 About the Kunthu see below, Thirty-sixth Lecture, v. 138 and note.
  • 16:1 One 'former' (purva) year consists of 7,560 millions of common years. The idea that years were longer when the world was still young, is apparently suggested by the experience which everybody will have made, that a year seemed to us an enormously long time when we were young, and the same space of time [p. 17] appears to us shorter and shorter as we advance in life. A similar analogy with our life has probably caused the belief in the four ages of the world, shared by the Hindus and the ancients. For does not childhood to most of us appear the happiest period of our life, and youth better still than the time of full-grown manhood? As in retrospect our life appears to us, so primitive man imagines the life of the world to have been: the first age was the best and the longest, and the following ages grew worse and worse, and became shorter at the same time. This primitive conceit was by the ancients combined with the conceit of the year, so that the four ages were compared with the four seasons of the year. Something similar seems to have happened in India, where, however, there are three or six seasons. For the Gainas seem to have originally divided one Eon into six minor periods. Now the year was frequently compared to a wheel, and this second metaphor was worked out by the Gainas. They named the six minor periods aras, literally spokes of a wheel, and divided the whole Eon into one descending part (of the wheel), avasarpini, and one rising part, utsarpini. These Avasarpinis and Utsarpinis are probably a later improvement, and the Eon originally contained but six Aras. But if there were indeed twelve Aras from the beginning, they must have been suggested by the twelve months of the year.
  • 17:1 This is the first of the ten kinds of men mentioned above; the remaining nine are enumerated in the following verse.

4 - impurity

You cannot prolong your life [1], therefore be not careless; you are past help when old age approaches. Consider this: what (protection) will careless people get, who kill living beings and do not exert themselves?

Men who adhering to wrong principles acquire wealth by evil deeds, will lose it, falling into the snares (of their passions) and being held captive by their hatred.

As the burglar [2] caught in the breach of the wall perishes by the work the sinner himself had executed, thus people in this life and the next cannot escape the effect of their own actions.

If a man living in the Samsara does an action for the sake of somebody else, or one by which he himself also profits, then, at the time of reaping the fruit of his actions, his relations will not act as true relations (i.e. will not come to his help).

Wealth will not protect a careless man in this world and the next. Though he had seen the right way, he does not see it, even as one in the dark whose lamp has suddenly been put out.

Though others sleep, be thou awake! Like a wise man, trust nobody, but be always on the alert; for dangerous is the time and weak the body. Be always watchful like a Bharunda [1] bird!

A monk should step carefully in his walk (i.e. in his life), supposing everything to be a snare for him. First he must bestow care on his life till he wins the stake (viz. enlightenment), and afterwards he should despise it, annihilating his sins.

By conquering his will, (a monk) reaches liberation, as a well-broken horse which is clad in harness (goes to battle). Be watchful in your young years; for thereby a monk quickly obtains liberation.

'If he does not get (victory over his will) early, he will get it afterwards;' such reasoning [2] presupposes the eternity of human life. But such a man despairs when his life draws to its close, and the dissolution of his body approaches.

One cannot quickly arrive at discernment; therefore one should exert one's self, abstain from pleasures, understand the world, be impartial like a sage, and guard one's self: (thus) never be careless.

A Sramana who again and again suppresses the effects of delusion, and controls himself, will be affected in a rough way by external things; but a monk should not hate them in his mind.

External things weaken the intellect and allure many; therefore keep them out of your mind. Keep off delusion, remove pride, do not practise deceit, leave off greed.

Heretics who are impure and vain, are always subject to love and hate, and are wholly under the influence (of their passions). Despising them as unholy men, desire virtues till the end of your life.

Thus I say.


  • 18:1 A similar expression is used in Sutrakritanga I, 2, 2, 21.
  • 18:2 Devendra relates two stories of burglars, one of which is supposed to be hinted at in the text. It comes to this. A burglar is caught, in the breach he had excavated, by the owner of the house, who takes hold of his feet protruding from the breach. But the burglar's companion tries to drag him out from the other side of the wall. In this position he is smashed by the upper part of the wall coming down.
  • 19:1 Each of these birds has two necks and three legs.
  • 19:2 Upama. Literally translated: 'this is the comparison of those who contend that life is eternal.' The commentator gives a forced interpretation of the first part of the verse to bring about a comparison. But the meaning comparison' will not suit the context, the word must here mean: conclusion, reasoning.

5 - death against one's will

In this ocean (of life) with its currents (viz. births) difficult to cross, one man has reached the opposite shore; one wise man has given an answer to the following question.

These two ways of life ending with death have been declared: death with one's will, and death against one's will.

Death against one's will is that of ignorant men, and it happens (to the same individual) many times. Death with one's will is that of wise men, and at best [1] it happens but once.

Mahavira has (thus) described the first kind in which an ignorant man, being attached to pleasures, does very cruel actions.

A man attached to pleasures and amusements will be caught in the trap (of deceit). (He thinks): 'I never saw the next world, but I have seen with my own eyes the pleasures of this life.'

'The pleasures of this life are (as it were) in your hand, but the future ones are uncertain [1]. Who knows whether there is a next world or not?'

The fool boasts: 'I shall have the company of (most) men [2].' But by his love of pleasures and amusements he will come to grief.

Then he begins to act cruelly against movable and immovable beings, and he kills living beings with a purpose or without.

An ignorant man kills, lies, deceives, calumniates, dissembles, drinks liquor, and eats meat, thinking that this is the right thing to do.

Overbearing in acts and words, desirous for wealth and women, he accumulates sins in two ways [3], just as a young snake gathers dust (both on and in its body).

Then he suffers ill and is attacked by disease; and he is in dread of the next world when he reflects on his deeds.

I have heard of the places in hell, and of the destination of the sinner, where the fools who do cruel deeds will suffer violently.

Then going to the place where he is to be born again according to his deeds, he feels remorse, as I have heard (from my teacher).

As a charioteer, who against his better judgment leaves the smooth highway and gets on a rugged road, repents when the axle breaks; so the fool, who transgresses the Law and embraces unrighteousness, repents in the hour of death, like (the charioteer) over the broken axle. (14, 15)

Then when death comes at last, the fool trembles in fear; he dies the 'death against one's will,' (having lost his chance) like a gambler vanquished by Kali.

Thus has been explained the fools' 'death against one's will;' now hear from me the wise men's 'death with one's will!'

Full of peace and without injury to any one is, as I have heard (from my teachers), the death of the virtuous who control themselves and subdue their senses [1].

(Such a death) does not fall to the lot of every monk, nor of every householder; for the morality of householders is of various character, and that of monks is not always good throughout.

Some householders are superior to some monks in self-control; but the saints are superior to all householders in self-control.

Bark and skin (of a goat), nakedness, twisted hair, baldness–these (outward tokens) will not save a sinful ascetic.

A sinner, though he be a mendicant (friar), will not escape hell; but a pious man, whether monk or householder, ascends to heaven.

A faithful man should practise [1] the rules of conduct for householders; he should never neglect the Posaha fast [2] in both fortnights, not even for a single night.

When under such discipline he lives piously even as a householder, he will, on quitting flesh and bones [3], share the world of the Yakshas.

Now a restrained monk will become one of the two: either one free from all misery or a god of great power.

To the highest regions, in due order, to those where there is no delusion, and to those which are full of light, where the glorious (gods dwell)–who have long life, great power, great lustre, who can change their shape at will, who are beautiful as on their first day, and have the brilliancy of many suns–to such places go those who are trained in self-control and penance, monks or householders, who have obtained liberation by absence of passion. (26-28)

Having heard (this) from the venerable men who control themselves and subdue their senses, the virtuous and the learned do not tremble in the hour of death.

A wise man having weighed (both kinds of death) and chosen the better one (taught in) the Law of Compassion, will become calm through patience, with an undisturbed mind (at the time of death).

When the right time (to prepare for death) has arrived, a faithful (monk) should in the presence (of his teacher) suppress all emotions (of fear or joy) and wait for the dissolution of his body.

When the time for quitting the body has come, a sage dies the 'death with one's will,' according to one of the three methods [1].

Thus I say.


  • 20:1 Viz. in the case of a Kevalin. Other sages die this death seven or eight times before reaching mukti.
  • 21:1 Kalika, doubtful as regards the time when they will be enjoyed.
  • 21:2 I.e. I shall do as people generally do, viz. enjoy pleasures.
  • 21:3 Viz. By his acts and thoughts.
  • 22:1 Samgayanam vusimao = samyatanam vasyavatam. Vusimao is gen. sing., it is here used in juxtaposition with a word in gen. plur. Such an irregularity would of course be impossible in classical Prakrit, but the authors of metrical Gaina Sutras take such liberties with grammar that we must put up with any faulty expression, though it would be easy to correct it by a conjecture.
  • 23:1 Kaena phasae = kayena spriset, literally, touch with his body.
  • 23:2 The Posaha of the Gainas corresponds to the Uposatha of the Buddhists. Hoernle in note 87 of his translation of the Uvasaga Dasao (Bibliotheca Indica) says of the Posaha: it is distinguished by the four abstinences (uvavasa) from food (ahara), bodily attentions (sarirasatkara), sexual intercourse (abrahma) and daily work (vyapara).
  • 23:3 Literally, skin and joints.
  • 24:1 These three methods are bhaktapratyakhyana, ingitamarana, padapopagamana. They are fully described in the Akaranga Sutra I, 7, 8, 7 ff., see part i, p. 75 f.

6 - the false ascetic

All men who are ignorant of the Truth are subject to pain; in the endless Samsara they suffer in many ways.

Therefore a wise man, who considers well the ways that lead to bondage [3] and birth, should himself search for the truth, and be kind towards all creatures.

'Mother, father, daughter-in-law, brother, wife, and sons will not be able to help me, when I suffer for my own deeds [1].'

This truth should be taken to heart [2] by a man of pure faith; he should (therefore) cut off greed and love, and not hanker after his former connections.

Cows and horses, jewels and earrings, cattle, slaves and servants: all these (possessions) you must give up in order to obtain the power of changing your form at will. [3]

Everything that happens to somebody, affects him personally; therefore, knowing the creatures' love of their own self, do not deprive them of their life, but cease from endangering and combating them.

Seeing that to accept (presents) leads to hell, one should not accept even a blade of grass; only to preserve one's life [4] one should eat the food that is put in one's own alms-bowl.

Here some are of opinion that they will be delivered from all misery by merely attending the teacher [5], without abstaining from sins.

Acknowledging the truth about bondage and liberation, but talking only, not acting (in accordance with these tenets), they seek comfort for themselves in mighty words.

Clever talking will not work salvation; how should philosophical instruction do it? Fools, though sinking lower and lower through their sins, believe themselves to be wise men. (to)

They are (going) a long way in the endless Samsara; therefore looking out carefully one should wander about carefully [1].

Choosing what is beyond and above (this world, viz. liberation), one should never desire (worldly objects), but sustain one's body only to be able to annihilate one's Karman.

Those will reap pains who, in thoughts, words, or acts, are attached to their body, to colours, and to forms.

Recognising the cause of Karman, one should wander about waiting for one's death; (knowing) the permitted quantity of food and drink, one should eat (such food as has been) prepared (by the householders for their own consumption).

An ascetic should not lay by any store, not even so little as the grease (sticking to his alms-bowl); but as a bird with its plumage [2], so he with his alms-bowl should wander about without desires.

Receiving alms in a manner to avoid faults [1], and controlling one's self, one should wander about in a village ( ) without a fixed residence; careful among the careless one should beg one's food.

Thus has spoken the Arhat Gnatriputra, the venerable native of Vaisali [2], who possesses the highest knowledge and who possesses the highest faith, who possesses (at the same time) the highest knowledge and the highest faith.

Thus I say.


  • 24:2 Khuddaganiyanthiggam = Kshullakanirgranthiyam. Kshullaka originally means 'small, young,' but I do not see that the contents of this lecture support this translation, though the commentators would seem to favour it.
  • 24:3 Devendra here quotes the following Sanskrit verse: Kalatranigadam dattva na samtushtah pragapatih | bhuyo'py apatyarupena dadati galasrinkhalam. The creator was not satisfied when he had given (to man) the wife as a fetter, he added a chain round his neck in the form of children.
  • 25:1 This verse recurs in Sutrakritanga I, 9, 5.
  • 25:2 Sapehae pase = svaprekshaya pasyet, he should look at it with his mind or reflectively. However sapehae is usually the absolute participle samprekshya. The meaning is the same in both cases.
  • 25:3 Some MSS. insert here the following verse: 'Movables and immovables, corn, and furniture can not deliver a man from pain, who is suffering for his deeds.'
  • 25:4 This is according to the commentators the meaning of the word dogunkhi = gugupsin.
  • 25:5 Ayariyam vidittanam. The commentator makes this out [p. 26] to mean: by learning only what right conduct (akarikam) is, without living up to it. But it is obvious that the author intends a censure upon the Gnanamarga.
  • 26:1 As usual this phrase means: one should conduct one's self so as to commit no sin.
  • 26:2 There is a pun in the original on the word patta, which means plumes (patra) and alms-bowl (patra).
  • 27:1 This is the eshanasamiti. On the samitis see below, Twelfth Lecture, 2.
  • 27:2 Vesalie = Vaisalika. See my remarks on this statement in part i, introduction, p. xi, and Hoernle's notes in his translation of the Uvasaga Dasao, p. 3 ff.

7 - the parable of the ram, etc.

As somebody, to provide for (the arrival of) a guest, brings up a young ram, gives it rice and gram [3], and brings it up in his yard;

Then when it is grown up and big, fat and of a large belly, fattened and of a plump body, it is ready for the guest.

As long as no guest comes, the poor (animal) lives; but as soon as a guest arrives, its head is cut off, and it is eaten.

As this ram is well treated for the sake of a guest, even so an ignorant, great sinner longs (as it were) for life in hell.

An ignorant man kills, tells lies, robs on the highway, steals foreign goods, deceives, (always thinking of some one) whom he could plunder, the villain.

He is desirous of women and pleasures, he enters on undertakings and business, drinks liquor, eats meat, becomes strong, a subduer of foes.

He eats crisp goats' meat, his belly grows, and his veins swell with blood–but he gains nothing but life in hell, just as the ram is only fed to be killed for the sake of a guest.

After having enjoyed pleasant seats, beds, carriages, riches, and pleasures, after having squandered his wealth which he had so much trouble in gaining, and after having committed many sins, he will, under the burden of his Karman, and believing only in the visible world, be grieved in the hour of death like the ram [1] at the arrival of a guest. (8, 9)

Then the sinner who has been killing living beings, at the end of his life falls from his state [2], and against his will he goes to the world of the Asuras, to the dark place.

As a man for the sake of one Kakini [3] (risks and) loses a thousand (Karshapanas), or as the king lost his kingdom (and life) by eating a mango-fruit which he was strictly forbidden (by his physician) [4]:

Even so are human pleasures compared with the pleasures of the gods: divine life and pleasures surpass (the former) a thousand times and more.

Those endowed with excellent knowledge live many nayutas [1] of years; so great a loss suffer the fools in a life of less than a hundred years!

Three merchants set out on their travels, each with his capital; one of them gained there much, the second returned with his capital, and the third merchant came home after having lost his capital. This parable [2] is taken from common life; learn (to apply it) to the Law. (14, 15)

The capital is human life, the gain is heaven; through the loss of that capital man must be born as a denizen of hell or a brute animal.

These are the two courses open to the sinner; they consist in misery, as corporal punishment ; for the slave to his lusts [3] has forfeited human life and divine life.

Having once forfeited them, he will have to endure these two states of misery; it will be difficult for him to attain an upward course [1] for a long time to come.

Considering what is at stake, one should weigh (the chances of) the sinner and of the virtuous man (in one's mind).

He who brings back his capital, is (to be compared to) one who is born again as a man.

Those men who through the exercise of various virtues [2] become pious householders, will be born again as men; for all beings will reap the fruit of their actions.

But he who increases his capital, is (to be compared to) one who practises eminent virtues; the virtuous, excellent man cheerfully attains the state of gods [3].

When one thus knows that a (virtuous) monk or householder will be gladdened (by his gain), how, then, should a man, whilst he is losing (his chance), not be conscious of his losing it?

As a drop of water at the top of a blade of Kusa-grass dwindles down to naught when compared with the ocean, so do human pleasures when compared with divine pleasures.

The pleasures in this very limited life of men are like (the water at) the top of a blade of Kusa-grass; for the sake of what will a man not care to gain and to keep (so precious a good which he risks to lose)?

He who has not renounced pleasure, will miss his aim (i.e. the true end of his soul); for though he has been taught the right way, he will go astray again and again.

But he who has renounced pleasure, will not miss his aim; (he will think): I have learned that, by getting rid of this vile body, I shall become a god.

He will be born among men where there is wealth, beauty, glory, fame, long life, and eminent happiness.

See the folly of the sinner who practises unrighteousness: turning away from the Law, the great sinner will be born in hell.

See the wisdom of the wise man who follows the true Law: turning away from unrighteousness, the virtuous man will be born as a god.

A wise man weighs in his mind the state of the sinner and that of the virtuous man; quitting the state of the sinner, a sage realises that of the virtuous.

Thus I say.


  • 27:3 Yavasa, explained by mudgamashadi. Mutton of gram-fed sheep is greatly appreciated in India.
  • 28:1 Aya = aga, literally goat.
  • 28:2 Kuya = kyuta is said of one who is born after his death in a lower sphere than that in which he lived before.
  • 28:3 According to the commentators the eightieth part of a rupee.
  • 28:4 The commentators relate 'old stories' to explain allusions in the text; they will, however, be intelligible without further comment, though I do not contend that those stories were not really old and known to the author of the Sutra.
  • 29:1 A nayuta or niyuta is equal to

It is derived in the following way:

1 purvanga = 8.400,000

1 purva = 8,400,000 purvangas.

1 nayutanga = 8,400,000 purvas.

1 nayuta = 8,400,000 nayutangas.
  • 29:2 This parable closely corresponds to Matth. xxv. 14, Luke xix. 11. I need not here discuss the problems raised by this coincidence since they will, as I hear, be fully treated by Herr Huttemann, a pupil of Professor Leumann of Strassburg.
  • 29:3 Lolayasadhe = lolatasatha. The commentator takes lolata for lola and makes the word a karmadharaya. I think that the word satha which originally means 'one who deceives others' is used here in the sense one who deceives himself.'
  • 30:1 I.e. birth as a man or a god.
  • 30:2 Siksha. The commentator quotes the following passage in Prakrit: Souls gain human birth through four causes: a kind disposition (prakritibhadrata), love of discipline (prakritivinitata), compassion (sanukrosanata), and want of envy (amatsarita).
  • 30:3 For a higher rank than that of a god, e.g. that of a Kevalin, cannot, in the present state of the world, be attained.

8 - kapila's verses

By what acts can I escape a sorrowful lot in this unstable ineternal Samsara, which is full of misery?

Quitting your former connections place your affection on nothing; a monk who loves not even those who love him, will be freed from sin and hatred.

Then the best of sages, who is exempt from delusion and possesses perfect knowledge and faith, speaks for the benefit and eternal welfare, and for the final liberation of all beings.

All fetters (of the soul), and all hatred, everything of this kind, should a monk cast aside; he should not be attached to any pleasures, examining them well and taking care of himself.

A stupid, ignorant sinner who never fixes his thoughts on the soul's benefit and eternal welfare, but sinks down through hatred and the temptation of lust, will be ensnared as a fly is caught on glue.

It is difficult to cast aside the pleasures of life, weak men will not easily give them up; but there are pious ascetics (sadhu) who get over the impassable (Samsara) as merchants cross the sea.

Some there are who call themselves Sramanas, though they are like the beasts ignorant of (the prohibition of) killing living beings; the stupid sinners go to hell through their superstitious beliefs [1].

One should not permit (or consent to) the killing of living beings; then he will perhaps be delivered from all misery; thus have spoken the preceptors who have proclaimed the Law of ascetics.

A careful man who does not injure living beings, is called 'circumspect' (samita). The sinful Karman will quit him as water quits raised ground.

In thoughts, words, and acts he should do nothing injurious to beings who people the world, whether they move or not.

He should know what alms may be accepted, and should strictly keep these rules; a monk should beg food only for the sustenance of life, and should not be dainty.

He should eat what tastes badly, cold food, old beans, Vakkasa Pulaga, and for the sustenance of his life he should eat Manghu (ground badara).

Those who interpret the marks of the body, and dreams, and who know the foreboding changes in the body (angavidya) [1], are not to be called Sramanas; thus the preceptors have declared.

Those who do not take their life under discipline, who cease from meditation and ascetic practices [2], and who are desirous of pleasures, amusements, and good fare, will be born again as Asuras.

And when they rise (in another birth) from the world of the Asuras, they err about, for a long time, in the Samsara; those whose souls are sullied by many sins, will hardly ever attain Bodhi.

And if somebody should give the whole earth to one man, he would not have enough; so difficult is it to satisfy anybody.

The more you get, the more you want; your desires increase with your means. Though two mashas would do to supply your want, still you would scarcely think ten millions sufficient.

Do not desire (women), those female demons [1], on whose breasts grow two lumps of flesh, who continually change their mind, who entice men, and then make a sport of them as of slaves.

A houseless (monk) should not desire women, he should turn away from females; learning thoroughly the Law, a monk should strictly keep its rules.

This Law has been taught by Kapila of pure knowledge; those who follow it, will be saved and will gain both worlds.

Thus I say.


  • 31:1 This lecture is ascribed to Kapila. According to an old story, told in the commentary, he was the son of Kasyapa, a Brahman [p. 32] of Kausambi, and his wife Yasa. When Kasyapa died, his place was given to another man. His wife then sent her boy to Sravasti to study under Indradatta, a friend of his father's. That man was willing to instruct the boy, and procured him board and lodging in a rich merchant's house. Kapila, however, soon fell in love with the servant-girl who was appointed to his service. Once, at a festival kept by her caste, the girl in tears told him that she could not take part in the festivity as she had no money to buy ornaments. To get some she asked him to go to Dhana, a merchant, who used to give two pieces of gold to the man who saluted him first in the morning. Accordingly Kapila set out in the night, but was taken up by the police and brought before the king, Prasenagit. The student made a clear breast before the king, who was so pleased with him that he promised to give him whatever he should ask. Kapila went in the garden to consider what he should ask; and the more he thought about it, the more he raised the sum which he believed he wanted, till it came to be ten thousand millions. But then, all of a sudden, the light came upon him; he began to repent of the sinful life he had led up to that time, and tearing out his hair he became a Svayamsambuddha. Returning to the king, he pronounced verse 17: The more you get, and giving him the Dharmalabha, he went his way. He practised austerities and acquired superior knowledge, by dint of which he came to know that in a wood, eighteen leagues from Ragagriha, lived a gang of five hundred robbers, under a chief Balabhadra. These men, he knew, would become converts to the right faith; accordingly he went to the wood where they lived. He was made prisoner, and brought before the leader of the robbers. To have some fun out of him they ordered him to dance, and on his objecting that there was none to play up, they all clapped their hands to beat the time. He then sang the first stanza of this lecture, by which some robbers were converted, and he continued to sing, repeating this stanza after each following verse (as dhruva), till at last all the robbers were converted.
  • 33:1 The commentator quotes the following words: brahmane brahmanam alabheta, indraya kshattram, marudbhyo vaisyam, tapase sudram, and explains them: he who kills a Brahmana will acquire Brahma knowledge.
  • 34:1 See the note on verse 17 of the Fifteenth Lecture.
  • 34:2 Samadhiyogah. Samadhi is concentration of the mind, and the yogas are, in this connection, the operations (vyapara) of mind, speech, and body conducive to it.
  • 35:1 Rakshasis in the original.

9 - the pravragya of king nami

After (Nami) had descended from the world of the gods, and had been born as a man, he put an end to the influence of delusion, and remembered his former birth.

Remembering his former birth, king Nami became a Svayamsambuddha in the true Law, and placing his son on the throne he retired from the world.

After having enjoyed, in the company of the beautiful ladies of his seraglio, excellent pleasures which match those of the heavens, king Nami became enlightened and gave up his pleasures.

Having given up the town and country of Mithila, his army, seraglio, and all his retinue, the venerable man retired from the world and resorted to a lonely place.

When the royal Seer Nami retired from the world, at the occasion of his Pravragya there was an uproar in Mithila.

To the royal Seer who had reached the excellent stage of Pravragya, Sakra in the guise of a Brahmana addressed the following words:

'Why is now Mithila [1] full of uproar? Dreadful noises are heard from palaces and houses.'

On hearing this, the royal Seer Nami, pursuing his reasons and arguments, answered the king of the gods thus:

'In Mithila is the sacred [2] tree Manorama, full of leaves, flowers, and fruits, which sheds a cool shadow; this tree is always a favourite resort of many (birds).

'Now, as this sacred tree Manorama is shaken by the storm, the birds, suffering, destitute of refuge, and miserable, scream aloud.'

On hearing this, the king of gods, pursuing his reasons and arguments, answered the royal Seer Nami thus:

“This is fire and storm, your palace is on fire! Reverend sir, why do you not look after your seraglio?”

Nami answered :

'Happy are we, happy live we who call nothing our own; when Mithila is on fire, nothing is burned that belongs to me.

To a monk who has left his sons and wives, and who has ceased to act, nothing pleasant can occur, nor anything unpleasant.

'There is much happiness for the sage, for the houseless monk, who is free from all ties, and knows himself to be single and unconnected (with the rest of the world).'

Indra answered :

“Erect a wall, gates, and battlements; dig a moat; construct sataghnis [1]: then you will be [2] a Kshattriya.”

Nami answered :

'Making Faith his fortress, Penance and Self-control the bolt (of its gate), Patience its strong wall, so that guarded in three ways [3] it is impregnable; making Zeal his bow, its string Carefulness in walking (iriya), and its top (where the string is fastened) Content, he should bend (this bow) with Truth, piercing with the arrow, Penance, (the foe's) mail, Karman–(in this way) a sage will be the victor in battle and get rid of the Samsara.' (20-22)

Indra answered :

“Build palaces, excellent houses [1], and turrets; thus you will be a Kshattriya.”

Nami answered :

'He who builds his house on the road, will certainly get into trouble; wherever he wants to go, there he may take up his lodgings.'

Indra answered :

“Punishing thieves and robbers, cut-purses and burglars, you should establish public safety; thus you will be a Kshattriya.”

Nami answered :

'Men frequently apply punishment wrongly: the innocent are put in prison, and the perpetrator of the crime is set at liberty.'

Indra answered :

“O king, bring into subjection all princes who do not acknowledge you; thus you will be a true Kshattriya.”

Nami answered :

'Though a man should conquer thousands and thousands of valiant (foes), greater will be his victory if he conquers nobody but himself.

'Fight with your Self; why fight with external foes? He who conquers himself through himself, will obtain happiness.

'The five senses, anger, pride, delusion, and greed

Indra answered :

“Offer great sacrifices, feed Sramanas and Brahmanas, give alms, enjoy yourself, and offer sacrifices: thus you will be a true Kshattriya.”

Nami answered:

'Though a man should give, every month, thousands and thousands of cows, better will be he who controls himself, though he give no alms.'

Indra answered:

“You have left the dreadful asrama (that of the householder) [2] and are wanting to enter another; (remain what you were), O king, and be content with observing the Posaha-days.”

Nami answered:

'If an ignorant man should eat but a blade of Kusa-grass every month, (the merit of his penance) will not equal the sixteenth part of his who possesses the Law as it has been taught.'

Indra answered:

“Multiply your gold and silver, your jewels and pearls, your copper, fine robes, and carriages, and your treasury; then you will be a true Kshattriya.”

Nami answered:

'If there were numberless mountains of gold and silver, as big as Kailasa, they would not satisfy a greedy man; for his avidity is boundless like space.

'Knowing that the earth with its crops of rice and barley, with its gold and cattle, that all this put together will not satisfy one single man, one should practise austerities.'

Indra answered:

“A miracle! O king, you give up those wonderful pleasures, in search of imaginary objects; your very hope will cause your ruin.”

Nami answered:

'Pleasures are the thorn that rankles, pleasures are poison, pleasures are like a venomous snake; he who is desirous of pleasures will not get them, and will come to a bad end at last.

'He will sink through anger; he will go down through pride; delusion will block up his path; through greed he will incur dangers in both worlds.'

Throwing off the guise of a Brahmana, and making visible his true form, Sakra saluted him respectfully and praised him with these sweet words:

“Bravo! you have conquered anger; bravo! you have vanquished pride; bravo! you have banished delusion; bravo! you have subdued greed.

“Bravo for your simplicity, O saint! bravo for your humility, O saint! bravo for your perfect patience! bravo for your perfect liberation!

“Here (on earth) you are the highest man, Reverend sir, and hereafter you will be the highest; exempt from all blemishes you will reach Perfection, a higher state than which there is none in this world.”

Thus praising the royal Seer, Sakra in perfect faith kept his right side towards him and paid reverence to him, again and again.

After having adored the best sage's feet marked by the Kakra and the Ankusa [1], he flew up through the air, with his crown and his earrings prettily trembling.

Nami humbled himself; enjoined by Sakra in person, the king of Videha left the house, and took upon him Sramanahood.

Thus act the enlightened, the wise, the clever ones; they turn away from pleasures, as did Nami, the royal Seer.

Thus I say.


  • 35:2 The Life of king Nami and his Bodhi is told in the commentary. The Prakrit text of this romance is printed in my 'Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharashtri,' Leipzig, 1886, p. 41 ff. Nami is one of the four simultaneous Pratyekabuddhas, i.e. one of those saints who reach the highest stage of knowledge by an effort of their own, not through regular instruction and religious discipline. The Pratyekabuddhas or Svayamsambuddhas (Sahasambuddha in Prakrit) do not, however, propagate the true Law, as the Tirthakaras do. As the legend of Nami is not materially connected with our text, I need not give an abstract of it here.
  • 36:1 The text has Mahilae, which is against the metre. The locative makes the construction needlessly involved.
  • 36:2 Keie, kaitya. The commentator interprets it as meaning udyana, park; but to make good his interpretation he takes vakkhe for an instrumental plural instead of a nominative singular. The context itself seems to militate against this interpretation; for it is natural to say of a tree that it has many leaves, but it is rather strained to say the same of a park.
  • 37:1 An instrument for defending a town.
  • 37:2 Gakkhasi. The commentator explains this as an imperative, but there is no necessity for it.
  • 37:3 Tigutta, this is a pun on the three guptis.
  • 38:1 Vardhamanagriha; the houses which are so called, belong to the best kind, see Varaha Mihira, Brihat Samhita 53, 36.
  • 39:1 The first line of this verse is in the Arya-metre, the second in Anushtubh; the whole will not construe, but the meaning is clear. There are numerous instances in which the metre changes in the same stanza from Arya to Anushtubh, and vice versa, so frequent they are that we are forced to admit the fact that the authors of these metrical texts did not shrink from taking such liberties.
  • 39:2 Ghorasama. A Gaina author cannot forbear to name things from his religious point of looking at them. Thus only can it be explained that here Indra is made to apply to the asrama of the householder an attribute which not he but his opponent could have used. Our verse is, however, probably only a later addition, as it has not the burden of the verses put into the mouth of Indra.
  • 41:1 The wheel and the hook.

10 - tenth lecture


As the fallow leaf of the tree falls to the ground, when its days are gone, even so the life of men (will come to its close); Gautama, be careful all the while!

As a dew-drop dangling on the top of a blade of Kusa-grass lasts but a short time, even so the life of men; Gautama, be careful all the while!

As life is so fleet and existence so precarious, wipe off the sins you ever committed; Gautama

A rare chance, in the long course of time, is human birth for a living being; hard are the consequences of actions; Gautama

When the soul has once got into an earth-body [1], it may remain in the same state as long as an Asamkhya [2]; Gautama

When the soul has once got into a water-body (all as in verse 5).

When a soul has once got into a fire-body (all as in verse 5).

When the soul has once got into a wind-body (all as in verse 5).

When the soul has once got into a vegetable-body, it remains long in that state, for an endless time, after which its lot is not much bettered [3]; Gautama

When the soul has once got into a body of a Dvindriya (i.e. a being possessing two organs of sense), it may remain in the same state as long as a period called samkhyeya [1]; Gautama

When the soul has once got into a body of a Trindriya (i.e. a being possessing three organs of sense), it (all as in verse 10).

When the soul has once got into a body of a Katurindriya (i.e. a being possessing four organs of sense), it (all as in verse 10).

When the soul has once got into a body of a Pankendriya (i.e. a being possessing five organs of sense), it may remain in the same state as long as seven or eight births; Gautama

When the soul has once got into the body of a god or of a denizen of hell, it may remain in that state one whole life; Gautama

Thus the soul which suffers for its carelessness, is driven about in the Samsara by its good and bad Karman; Gautama

Though one be born as a man, it is a rare chance to become an Arya; for many are the Dasyus and Mlekkhas; Gautama

Though one be born as an Arya, it is a rare chance to possess all five organs of sense; for we see many who lack one organ or other; Gautama

Though he may possess all five organs of sense, still it is a rare chance to be instructed in the best Law; for people follow heretical teachers; Gautama

Though he may have been instructed in the right Law, still it is a rare chance to believe in it; for many people are heretics; Gautama

Though one believe in the Law, he will rarely practise it; for people are engrossed by pleasures; Gautama

When your body grows old, and your hair turns white, the power of your ears decreases; Gautama

When your body grows old, and your hair turns white, the power of your eyes decreases; Gautama

When your body grows old, and your hair turns white, the power of your nose decreases.

When your body grows old, and your hair turns white, the power of your tongue decreases.

When your body grows old, and your hair turns white, the power of your touch decreases.

When your body grows old, and your hair turns white, all your powers decrease.

Despondency, the king's evil, cholera, mortal diseases of many kinds befall you; your body wastes and decays; Gautama

Cast aside from you all attachments, as the (leaves of) a lotus let drop off the autumnal [1] water, exempt from every attachment, Gautama, be careful all the while!

Give up your wealth and your wife; you have entered the state of the houseless; do not, as it were, return to your vomit; Gautama

Leave your friends and relations, the large fortune you have amassed; do not desire them a second time; Gautama

There is now no Gina [1], but there is a highly esteemed guide to show the way; now being on the right path, Gautama, be careful all the while!

Now you have entered on the path from which the thorns have been cleared, the great path; walk in the right path; Gautama

Do not get into an uneven road like a weak burden-bearer; for you will repent of it afterwards; Gautama

You have crossed the great ocean; why do you halt so near the shore? make haste to get on the other side; Gautama

Going through the same religious practices as perfected saints [2], you will reach the world of perfection, Gautama, where there is safety and perfect happiness; Gautama

The enlightened [3] and liberated monk should control himself, whether he be in a village or a town, and he should preach to all [4] the road of peace; Gautama

Having heard the Buddha's [5] well-delivered sermon, adorned by illustrations, Gautama cut off love and hatred and reached perfection. Thus I say.


  • 41:2 This is a sermon delivered by Mahavira to his disciple Indrabhuti, who belonged to the Gotama Gotra. In the commentary a lengthy legend is given how Gautama came to want this instruction. As it is not necessary for understanding the contents of this lecture, I may pass it over.
  • 42:1 Verses 5-9 treat of the ekendriyas or beings which possess but one organ of sense, that of touch. A full description of them as well as of the dvindriyas is given in the last lecture.
  • 42:2 The periods called asamkhya are measured by utsarpinis and avasarpinis which correspond to the kalpas of the Hindus, but greatly exaggerated. An asamkhya is the longest time (ukkosam = utkarsham) which a soul may be doomed to live in earth-bodies; see below, XXXVI, 81 ff.
  • 42:3 This is, according to the commentary, the meaning of duranta.
  • 43:1 A samkhigga, i.e. samkhyeya, is a period which can be measured by thousands of years.
  • 44:1 This attribute is here given to 'water,' because in autumn the water becomes pure, and even the purest water has no hold upon the leaves of a lotus; thus a saint should give up even the best and dearest attachment.
  • 45:1 As this assertion cannot be put in the mouth of Mahavira, this verse must be set down as a later addition–or perhaps as a blunder of the poet similar to that noted before, in IX, 42.
  • 45:2 This seems, according to the commentary, to be the meaning of the phrase akalevarasenim usiya. Akalevarasreni is said to mean as much as kshapakasreni.
  • 45:3 Buddha.
  • 45:4 Buhae = vrimhayet; literally, propagate.
  • 45:5 Here the word b u d d h a is used as a title; but its use is very restricted, scarcely going beyond that of a common epithet. This is just what we otherwise should have to assume in order to explain the use by the Bauddhas of that word to denote the founder of their sect. In the Sutrakritanga II, 6, 28 Buddha, in the plural, actually denotes the prophets of the Buddhists.

11 - the very learned

I shall explain, in due order, the right discipline of a houseless monk who has got rid of all worldly ties. Listen to me.

He who is ignorant of the truth, egoistical, greedy, without self-discipline, and who talks loosely, is called ill-behaved and void of learning.

There are five causes which render wholesome discipline impossible: egoism, delusion, carelessness, illness, and idleness:

For eight causes discipline is called virtue, viz.: not to be fond of mirth, to control one's self, not to speak evil of others, not to be without discipline, not to be of wrong discipline, not to be covetous, not to be choleric, to love the truth; for their influence discipline is called virtue. (4, 5)

A monk who is liable to the following fourteen charges, is called ill-behaved, and does not reach Nirvana:

If he is frequently angry; if he perseveres in his wrath; if he spurns friendly advice; if he is proud of his learning; if he finds fault with others; if he is angry even with friends; if he speaks evil even of a good friend behind his back; if he is positive in his assertions; if he is malicious, egoistical, greedy, without self-discipline; if he does not share with others; if he is always unkind: then he is called ill-behaved. (7-9)

But for the following fifteen good qualities he is called well-behaved: if he is always humble, steady, free from deceit and curiosity; if he abuses nobody; if he does not persevere in his wrath,; if he listens to friendly advice; if he is not proud of his learning; if he does not find fault with others; if he is not angry with friends; if he speaks well even of a bad friend behind his back; if he abstains from quarrels and rows; if he is enlightened, polite, decent, and quiet: then he is called well-behaved. (10-13)

He who always acknowledges his allegiance to his teacher [1], who has religious zeal and ardour for study, who is kind in words and actions, deserves to be instructed.

As water put into a shell shines with a doubled brilliancy, so do the piety, fame, and knowledge of a very learned monk.

As a trained Kamboga-steed, whom no noise frightens [2], exceeds all other horses in speed, so a very learned monk is superior to all others [3].

As a valiant hero bestriding a trained horse, with heralds singing out to his right and left, (has no equal) [4], neither has a very learned monk.

As a strong and irresistible elephant of sixty years, surrounded by his females, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As a sharp-horned, strong-necked bullock, the leader of the herd, is a fine sight, so is a very learned monk.

As a proud lion with sharp fangs, who brooks no assault, is superior to all animals, so is a very learned monk (superior to all men).

As Vasudeva, the god with the conch, discus, and club, who fights with an irresistible strength, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As a universal monarch with his fourfold army and great power, the possessor of the fourteen attributes of a king, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As Sakra the thousand-eyed, the wielder of the thunderbolt, the fortress-destroyer, the king of gods, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As the rising sun, the dispeller of darkness, who burns as it were with light, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As the moon, the queen of the stars, surrounded by the asterisms, when she is full at full-moon, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As a well-guarded storehouse of merchants, which is filled with grain of many kinds, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As the best of Gambu [1] trees, called Sudarsana, which is the abode of the presiding deity, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As the best of rivers, the ocean-flowing stream Sita [1] with its dark waters, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As the best of hills, high mount Mandara, on which various plants shed a bright lustre, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

As the ocean of inexhaustible water, the delight of Svayambhu [2], which is full of precious things of many kinds, (has no equal), neither has a very learned monk.

Monks who equal the ocean in depth, who are difficult to overcome, are frightened by nobody (or nothing), and are not easily assailed, who are full of extensive learning and take care of themselves, will go to the highest place, after their Karman has been annihilated.

Therefore, seeker after the highest truth, study the sacred lore, in order to cause yourself and others to attain perfection.

Thus I say.


  • 47:1 Literally, who always remains in his teacher's kula.
  • 47:2 Kanthaka. The horse of Buddha is called Kanthaka; our passage shows that the word is not a proper noun, but an appellative.
  • 47:3 This is the burden of all verses down to verse 30.
  • 47:4 I have supplied these words here and in the following verses. The commentators try to do without them, and labour to point out qualities of the monk, which correspond to the attributes of the subject of the comparison.
  • 48:1 Eugenia Jambu. According to the commentators the very tree is meant from which Gambudvipa took its name. They make of the presiding (anadhiya) deity, the god Anadrita. I am not prepared to say that there is such a god as Anadrita. The name looks suspicious. I think anadhiya is equal to agnasthita.
  • 49:1 According to the cosmography of the Gainas the Sita is a river which takes its rise in the Nila range and falls into the Eastern ocean. The Nila is the fourth of the six parallel mountain-barriers, the southernmost of which is the Himalaya. (Trailokya Dipika, Umasvatis' Tattvarthadhigama Sutra )
  • 49:2 This epithet apparently refers to Vishnu's sleeping on the ocean.

12 - harikesa

Harikesa-Bala was born in a family of Svapakas (Kandalas); he became a monk and a sage, possessed of the highest virtues, who had subdued his senses.

He observed the rules with regard to walking, begging, speaking, easing nature, and receiving and keeping (of things necessary for a monk) [2] controlled himself, and was always attentive (to his duty).

He protected from sin his thoughts, speech, and body [3], and subdued his senses.

Once on his begging tour, he approached the enclosure of a Brahmanical sacrifice.

When (the priests) saw him coming up, emaciated by austerities, in a miserable condition, and with the poorest outfit, they laughed at him, the ruffians.

Stuck up by pride of birth, those killers of animals, who did not subdue their senses, the unchaste sinners, made the following speech:

'Who is that dandy coming there? he is swarthy, dreadful, with a turned-up nose, miserably clad, a very devil [1] of a dirty man, with a filthy cloth put on his neck?

'Who are you, you monster? or for what purpose have you come here? you miserably clad devil of a dirty man! go, get away! why stand you there?'

At this turn the Yaksha, who lived in the Tinduka-tree, had compassion on the great sage, and making his own body invisible spoke the following words:

“I am a chaste Sramana, controlling myself; I have no property, nothing belonging to me, and do not cook my food; I have come for food which is dressed for somebody else at the time when I call.

“You give away, eat, and consume plenty of food; know that I subsist by begging; let the mendicant get what is left of the rest.”

'The dinner has been prepared for Brahmanas, it has been got ready especially for ourselves and for us exclusively; we shall not give you such food and drink; why stand you there?'

“The husbandmen throw the corn on high ground and on low ground [1], hoping (for a return). For the like motive give unto me; I may be the field which may produce merit (as the return for your benevolence).”

'All the world knows that we are (as it were) the field on which gifts sown grow up as merit; Brahmanas of pure birth and knowledge are the blessed fields.'

“Those who are full of anger and pride, who kill, lie, steal, and own property, are Brahmanas without pure birth and knowledge; they are very bad fields.

“You are only the bearer of words as it were, you do not understand their meaning, though you have learned the Vedas. The saints call at high and lowly (houses); they are the blessed fields.”

'Detractor of the learned doctors, how dare you speak thus in our presence! This food and drink should rather rot, than we should give it you, Nirgrantha [2].'

“If you do not give me what I ask for, I who observe the Samitis, who am protected by the Guptis [3], who subdue my senses, what benefit, then, will you gain by your sacrifices?”

'Are here no Kshattriyas, no priests who tend the fire, no teachers with their disciples, who will beat him with a stick, or pelt him with a nut, take him by the neck, and drive him off?'

On these words of the teachers, many young fellows rushed forward, and they all beat the sage with sticks, canes, and whips.

At that turn king Kausalika's daughter, Bhadra, of faultless body, saw that the monk was beaten, and appeased the angry youngsters.

'He is the very man to whom the king, impelled by the devil (who possessed me), had given me, but who would not think of me; he is the sage whom princes and gods adore, who has refused me.

'He is that austere ascetic, of noble nature, who subdues his senses and controls himself; the chaste man, who would not accept me when my own father, king Kausalika, gave me to him.

'He is the man of great fame and might, of awful piety and power; do not injure him who cannot be injured, lest he consume you all by the fire (of his virtue).'

When the Yakshas heard these well-spoken words of (the Purohita's) wife Bhadra, they came to the assistance of the sage, and kept the young men off.

Appearing in the air with hideous shapes, the Asuras beat the people. When Bhadra saw them with rent bodies spitting blood, she spoke again thus:

'You may as well dig rocks with your nails, or eat iron with your teeth, or kick fire with your feet, as treat contemptuously a monk.

'Like a poisonous snake is a great sage of severe austerities, of tremendous piety and power; like a swarm of moths you will rush into a fire, if you beat a monk on his begging tour.

'Prostrate yourself before him for protection, you together with all of them, if you want to save your life and your property; for in his wrath he might reduce the world to ashes.'

When the Brahmana saw the disciples bowing their back and head, and holding out their hands, not minding their occupation; with streaming eyes, spitting blood, looking upwards, their eyes and tongues protruding, like as many logs of wood, he became heartbroken and dejected, and together with his wife he appeased the sage: 'Forgive us our injury and abuse, sir! (29, 30)

'Forgive, sir, these ignorant, stupid boys, that they injured you; sages are exceedingly gracious, nor are the saints inclined to wrath.'

“There is not the least hatred in me, neither now, nor before, nor in future. The Yakshas attend upon me, therefore they have beaten the boys.”

'You know the truth and the Law; you are not angry, compassionate sage; we take refuge at your feet, we together with all of them.

'We worship you, mighty sir; there is nothing in you that we do not worship; eat this dish of boiled rice seasoned with many condiments.

'I have got plenty of food; eat it to do us a favour!' The noble (monk) said 'yes,' and took food and drink after having fasted a whole month.

At that moment the gods caused a rain of perfumed water and flowers, and showered down heavenly treasures; they struck the drums, and in the air they praised the gift.

'The value of penance has become visible, birth appears of no value! Look at the holy Harikesa, the son of a Svapaka, whose power is so great.'

“O Brahmanas, why do you tend the fire, and seek external purity by water? The clever ones say that external purity which you seek for, is not the right thing.

“You (use) Kusa-grass, sacrificial poles, straw and wood, you touch water in the evening and in the morning; thereby you injure living beings, and in your ignorance you commit sins again and again.”

'How should we sacrifice, O monk, and how avoid sinful actions? Tell us, ascetic, whom the Yakshas hold in honour, what do the clever ones declare to be the right method of sacrificing?'

“Doing no injury to living beings of the six orders, abstaining from lying and from taking what is not freely given, renouncing property, women, pride, and deceit, men should live under self-restraint.

“He who is well protected by the five Samvaras [1] and is not attached to this life, who abandons his body [2], who is pure and does not care for his body, wins the great victory, the best of offerings.”

'Where is your fire, your fireplace, your sacrificial ladle? where the dried cowdung (used as fuel)? Without these things, what kind of priests can the monks be? What oblations do you offer to the fire?

“Penance is my fire; life my fireplace; right exertion is my sacrificial ladle; the body the dried cowdung; Karman is my fuel; self-control, right exertion, and tranquillity are the oblations, praised by the sages, which I offer.”

'Where is your pond, and where the holy bathing-place? how do you make your ablutions or get rid of impurity? Tell us, O restrained monk whom the Yakshas hold in honour; we desire to learn it from you.'

“The Law is my pond, celibacy my holy bathing-place, which is not turbid, and throughout clear for the soul [1]; there I make ablutions; pure, clean, and thoroughly cooled I get rid of hatred [2] (or impurity).

“The clever ones have discovered such bathing, it is the great bath praised by the seers, in which the great seers bathe, and, pure and clean, they obtain the highest place.”

Thus I say.


  • 50:1 The commentators relate a legend of the principal figure in the following lecture. We may skip his former births and begin with his last. Near the Ganges lived Balakoshtha, chief of a Kandala tribe, called Harikesa (the yellow-haired). With his wife Gauri he had a son Bala, who in the course of time became a Gaina monk and a great Rishi. On his wanderings he once stayed in the Tinduga-grove near Benares, the presiding deity of which, a Yaksha, became his most fervent follower. One day Bhadra, king Kausalika's daughter, came to the Yaksha's shrine and paid homage to the idol. But seeing the dirty monk, she did not conceal her aversion. The Yaksha, however, to punish her for her want of respect for the holy man, possessed her. As no physician or conjurer could cure her madness, the Yaksha, by whom she was possessed, said she would recover only if she were offered as bride to Bala, the monk. The king agreeing, Bhadra became sound as before and went to the monk to choose him for her husband. Bala of course refused her. She was then married by the king to his Purohita, Rudradeva, whose sacrifice-enclosure is the scene of the occurrences related in the Twelfth Lecture.
  • 50:2 These are the five Samitis. Compare Bhandarkar, Report on the Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts for 1883-84, p. 98, note +.
  • 50:3 These are the three Guptis. Compare Bhandarkar, loc. cit. p. 100, note *.
  • 51:1 Pisaka. A full description of a Pisaka is given in the Uvasaga Dasao, section 94 of Hoernle's edition.
  • 52:1 This reminds one of the biblical parable of the sower.
  • 52:2 The word Nirgrantha has here, besides its common meaning, Gaina monk, another derived from its etymological meaning, 'without any tie, without restraint,' i.e. shameless.
  • 52:3 For Samiti and Gupti see notes [2] and [3] on <page 50>.
  • 55:1 Samvara is preventing, by means of the Samitis and Guptis, the asrava, or flowing in of the Karman upon the soul. Bhandarkar, loc. cit. p. 106.
  • 55:2 This is the Kayotsarga, the posture of a man standing with all his limbs immovable, by which he fortifies himself against sins
  • 56:1 Attapasannalesa = atmaprasannalesya, 'in which the Lesya is favourable for the soul.' The Lesya is comparable to the subtile body of the orthodox philosophy. The theory of the Lesya forms the subject of the Thirty-fourth Lecture.
  • 56:2 Dosa, which means hatred (dvesha) and impurity (dosha).

13 - kitra and sambhuta

Being contemptuously treated for the sake of his birth (as a Kandala) Sambhuta took, in Hastinapura, the sinful resolution (to become a universal monarch in some later birth); descending from the heavenly region Padmagulma, he was born of Kulani in Kampilya as Brahmadatta; Kitra, however, was born in the town Purimatala in the great family of a merchant; when he had heard the Law, he entered the order. (1, 2)

In the town Kampilya, both Sambhuta and Kitra (as they were called in a former birth) met again and told each other the reward they had realised for their good and bad actions.

The universal monarch Brahmadatta, the powerful and glorious king, respectfully addressed the following words to him (who had been) his brother (in a former birth):

We were brothers once, kind to each other, loving each other, wishing well to each other.

'We were slaves in the country of the Dasarnas, then antelopes on mount Kalangara, then geese on the shore of Mritaganga, and Svapakas in the land of Kasi.

'And we were gods having great power, in the regions of the gods. This is our sixth birth, in which we are separated from each other.'

“Karman is produced by sinful thoughts, and you have entertained them, O king; it is by the influence of this Karman that we were separated.”

'I had done actions derived from truth and purity, and now I enjoy their effect; is this also true in your case, Kitra?'

“Every good deed will bear its fruit to men; there is no escape from the effect of one's actions. Through riches and the highest pleasures my soul has got the reward for its virtues.

“Know, Sambhuta, that you have got the reward of your virtues in the shape of great wealth and prosperity; but know, O king, that is just so with Kitra; he also obtained prosperity and splendour.

“A song of deep meaning condensed in words has been repeated in the midst of a crowd of men, (having heard) which monks of piety and virtues exert themselves in this (religion): I have become a Sramana.”

'Renowned are my beautiful palaces Ukka, Udaya, Madhu, Karka, and Brahman: this house, full of treasures and containing the finest products of the Pankalas, O Kitra [1], regard it as your own!

'Surround yourself with women who dance, and sing, and make music; enjoy these pleasures, O monk; I deem renunciation a hard thing.'

As the virtuous Kitra, for old friendship's sake, loved the king who was attached to sensual pleasures, and as he had at heart his welfare, he spoke to him the following words: (is)

“All singing is but prattle, all dancing is but mocking, all ornaments are but a burden, all pleasures produce but pains.

“O king, pleasures which the ignorant like, but which produce pains, do not delight pious monks who care not for pleasure, but are intent on the virtues of right conduct.

“Excellent king, the lowest caste of men is that of the Svapakas, to which we twice belonged; as such we were loathed by all people, and we lived in the hamlets of Svapakas.

“In that miserable birth we lived in the hamlets of Svapakas, detested by all people; then we acquired the Karman (the fruit of which we now enjoy).

“You are now a king of great power and prosperity, enjoying the reward of your good actions; put from you the transitory pleasures, and enter the order for the sake of the highest good [1]!

“He who in this life has done no good actions and has not practised the Law, repents of it in the next world when he has become a prey to Death.

“As a lion takes hold of an antelope, so Death leads off a man in his last hour; neither mother, nor father, nor brother will, at that time, save a particle (of his life).

“Neither his kinsmen, nor his friends, nor his sons, nor his relations will share his suffering, he alone has to bear it; for the Karman follows the doer.

“Leaving behind bipeds and quadrupeds, his fields, his house, his wealth, his corn, and everything; against his will, and accompanied only by his Karman [1], he enters a new existence, either a good or a bad one.

“When they have burned with fire on the funeral pile his forlorn, helpless corpse, his wife and sons and kinsfolk will choose another man to provide for them.

“Life drags on (towards death) continuously [2]; old age carries off the vigour of man. King of the Pankalas, mark my words: do no fearful actions.”

'I, too, know just as well as you, O saint, what you have told me in your speech: pleasures will get a hold on men and are not easily abandoned by such as we are, sir.

'O Kitra, in Hastinapura [3] I saw the powerful king (Sanatkumara), and I took that sinful resolution in my desire for sensual pleasures.

And since I did not repent of it, this has come of it, that I still long for sensual pleasures, though I know the Law.

'As an elephant, sinking down in a quagmire, sees the raised ground but does not get to the shore, so do we who long for sensual pleasures, not follow the path of monks.

'Time elapses and quickly pass the days; the pleasures of men are not permanent; they come to a man and leave him just as a bird leaves a tree void of fruit.'

“If you are unable to abandon pleasure, then do noble actions, O king; following the Law, have compassion on all creatures: then you will become a god on entering a new existence.

“If you have no intention of abandoning pleasure, and still long for undertakings and property, my long talk has been to no purpose. I go, king, farewell.”

And Brahmadatta, king of the Pankalas, did not act on the counsel of the saint; he enjoyed the highest pleasure, and (afterwards) sank into the deepest hell.

But Kitra the great sage, of excellent conduct and penance, was indifferent to pleasure; after he had practised the highest self-control, he reached the highest place of perfection.

Thus I say.


  • 56:3 The stories about Kitra and Sambhuta and the fate they [p. 57] underwent in many births are common to Brahmans, Gainas, and Buddhists. The whole subject has been exhaustively dealt with by Prof. Leumann in two learned papers in the Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. v, pp. 1 ff., 111 ff., where an analysis of the various documents which relate this legend is given, and the Prakrit text of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Lectures together with a German translation is published. For all details, therefore, the reader is referred to Prof. Leumann's papers.
  • 58:1 The commentator constructs Kitra with dhanappabhuya: full of manifold treasures; but Prof. Leumann is probably right in taking it as a vocative.
  • 59:1 Adana, explained karitradharma.
  • 60:1 This might be translated, as Professor Leumann suggests: possessing Karman as the germ (of his future destiny); still I prefer the meaning vouched for by the commentators, because karmabiga generally means the germ, i.e. cause of Karman, see below, Thirty-second Lecture, verse 7.
  • 60:2 See Professor Leumann's remarks on this verse, l.c., p. 137 f.
  • 60:3 When Sunanda, wife of Sanatkumara, paid homage to Sambhuta, then a Gaina monk, and touched his feet with the curls of her soft hair, he was possessed by the desire to become a universal monarch in reward for his penances. This is the nidana of which the text speaks, and what I render in this connection by 'taking a resolution.' For the story itself, see my Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharashtri, p. 5 f.

14 - ishukara

Having been gods in a former existence and lived in the same heavenly region, some were born (here below) in the ancient, wealthy, and famous town called Ishukara [1], which is beautiful like heaven.

By a remnant of the merit they had acquired in their former life, they were born in noble families. Disgusted with the world and afraid of the Samsara, they abandoned (pleasures ) and took refuge in the path of the Ginas.

Two males remained bachelors, (the third became) the Purohita (Bhrigu), (the fourth) his wife Yasa, (the fifth) the widely-famed king Ishukara, and (the sixth) his wife Kamalavati.

Overcome by fear of birth, old age, and death, their mind intent on pilgrimage, and hoping to escape the Wheel of Births, they examined pleasures and abandoned them.

Both dear sons of the Brahmanical Purohita, who was intent on works, remembered their former birth, and the penance and self-control they had then practised.

Averse to human and heavenly pleasures, desiring liberation, and full of faith, they went to their father and spoke thus:

'Seeing that the lot of man is transitory and precarious, and that his life lasts not long, we take no delight in domestic life; we bid you farewell: we shall turn monks.'

In order to dissuade them from a life of austerities, the father replied to those (would-be) monks: 'Those versed in the Vedas say that there will be no better world for men without sons.

'My sons, after you have studied the Vedas, and fed the priests, after you have placed your own sons at the head of your house, and after you have enjoyed life together with your wives, then you may depart to the woods as praiseworthy sages.'

The young men perceiving that the Purohita was wholly consumed, as it were, by the fire of grief, which was fed by his individual inclinations and blown into a huge flame by the wind of delusion; that he suffered much and talked a great deal in many ways; that he tried to persuade them by degrees, and that he would even bribe them with money and with objects of desire, (spoke) these words: (10, 11)

“The study of the Vedas will not save you; the feeding of Brahmanas will lead you from darkness to darkness, and the birth of sons will not save you. Who will assent to what you said?

“Pleasures bring only a moment's happiness, but suffering for a very long time, intense suffering, but slight happiness; they are an obstacle to the liberation from existence, and are a very mine of evils.

“While a man walks about without abandoning pleasures, and grieves day and night, while he is anxious about other people, and seeks for wealth, he comes to old age and death.

“I have this, and I have not that; I must do this, and I should not do that! While he talks in this strain, the robbers (viz. time) drag him away. What foolishness is this!”

'Great wealth and women, a family and exquisite pleasures: for such things people practise austerities. All this you may have for your asking.'

“What avail riches for the practice of religion, what a family, what pleasures? We shall become

'As fire is produced in the Arani-wood, as butter in milk, and oil in sesamum seed, so, my sons, is the soul [1] produced in the body; (all these things) did not exist before, they came into existence, and then they perish; but they are not permanent.'

”(The soul) cannot be apprehended by the senses, because it possesses no corporeal form [2], and since it possesses no corporeal form it is eternal. The fetter of the soul has been ascertained to be caused by its bad qualities, and this fetter is called the cause of worldly existence.

“Thus being ignorant of the Law, we formerly did sinful actions, and through our wrong-mindedness we were kept back and retained (from entering the order). We shall not again act in the same way.

“As mankind is harassed (by the one), and taken hold of (by the other), and as the unfailing ones go by, we take no delight in the life of a householder.”

'Who harasses the world? who takes hold of it? whom do you call unfailing? My sons, I am anxious to learn this.'

“Mankind is harassed by Death; it is taken hold of by Old Age; the days [1] are called unfailing: know this, Father!

“The day that goes by will never return; the days elapse without profit to him who acts contrary to the Law.

“The day that goes by will never return; the days elapse with much profit to him who acts up to the Law.”

'Having lived together in one place, and both parties [2] having acquired righteousness, we shall, O my sons, afterwards go forth (as monks) and beg alms from house to house.'

“He who can call Death his friend, or who can escape him, or who knows that he will not die, might perhaps decide: this shall be done tomorrow.

“We will even now adopt the Law, after the adoption of which we shall not be born again. The future has nothing in store for us (which we have not experienced already). Faith will enable us to put aside attachment.”

(Bhrigu speaks to his wife Vasishthi.) 'Domestic life ceases (to have attraction) for one who has lost his sons; Vasishthi, the time has arrived for me to turn mendicant friar. As long as a tree retains its branches, it is really a tree; when they are lopped off, it is called a trunk.

'As a bird without its wings, as a king in battle without his followers, as a merchant on a boat without his goods, even so am I without my sons.'

“You have brought together all these objects of desire, and have collected many exquisitely pleasant things. Let us, therefore, fully enjoy the pleasures; afterwards we shall go forth on the road of salvation.”

'We have finished enjoying pleasures, my dear; our life is drawing to its close. I do not abandon pleasures for the sake of an unholy life; but looking with indifference on gain and loss, on happiness and suffering, I shall lead the life of a monk.'

“May you not remember your brothers (when it is too late) like an old goose swimming against the current. Enjoy the pleasures together with me. A mendicant's life is misery.”

'My dear, as a snake casts off the slough of its body and goes along free and easy, even so have my sons abandoned pleasure. Why should I, being left alone, not follow them?

'As the fish Rohita [1] breaks through a weak net, even so wise men of exemplary character and famous for their austerities abandon pleasure and live as mendicants.

“As the herons fly through the air and the geese too, who had rent the net, even so my sons and my husband depart. Why should I, being left alone, not follow them?”

When the queen had heard that the Purohita with his wife and sons had entered the order, abandoning pleasures and all his large property, she spoke to the king:

'A man who returns, as it were,. to the vomit, is not praised; but you want to confiscate [1] the property left by the Brahmana.

'If the whole world and all treasures were yours, you would still not be satisfied, nor would all this be able to save you.

'Whenever you die, O king, and leave all pleasant things behind, the Law alone, and nothing else in this world, will save you, O monarch.

'As a bird dislikes the cage, so do I (dislike the world). I shall live as a nun, without offspring, poor, upright, without desire, without love of gain, and without hatred.

'As when by a conflagration of a forest animals are burned, other beasts greatly rejoice, being under the influence of love and hate; even so we, fools that we are, being attached to pleasure, do not perceive that the world is consumed by the fire of love and hatred. (42, 43)

'Those who have enjoyed pleasures, and have renounced them, move about like the wind, and go wherever they please, like the birds unchecked in their flight.

'When they [2] are caught, and held by my hand, sir, they struggle; we shall be like them, if we are attached to pleasures.

'As an unbaited (bird) [1] sees a baited one caught in the snare, even so shall we avoid every bait and walk about, not baited by anything.

'Being aware that pleasures are causes for the continuance of worldly existence, as illustrated in (the above) similes of the greedy man, one should be cautious and stir as little as possible, like a snake in the presence of Suparna.

'Like an elephant who has broken his fetters, go to your proper destination. O great king Ishukari; this is the wholesome truth I have learned.

'Leave your large kingdom and the pleasures which are so dear to all; abandon what pleases the senses, and what attracts; be without attachment and property; learn thoroughly the Law and give up all amusements; then practise famous and severe penance, being of firm energy [2].' (49, 50)

In this way all (these) professors of the Law gradually obtained enlightenment, being frightened by birth and death, and seeking for the end of misery.

Their doubts about the true doctrine were dispersed, and they realised the Bhavanas [1]; in a short time they reached the end of misery.

The king and the queen, the Brahmanical Purohita, his wife, and his sons, they all reached perfection.

Thus I say.


  • 62:1 In Prakrit Usuyara (or Isuyara). According to the Prakrit legend given in the commentary it was in the Kuru country.
  • 64:1 Satta in the original; it is rendered sattva by the commentators. Perhaps satta is the Prakrit for svatma; at any rate, the context of the next verse proves that soul is intended.
  • 64:2 Amurta. In later philosophy murtatva is defined as the possessing of definite and limited form (parikkhinnaparimanavattvam) or the possessing of action (kriyavattvam or vegavattvam). Amurta dravya are with the Vaiseshikas: the air (akasa), time, space, and Atman. These are also called nityadravya. Amurta is here apparently synonymous with arupin, formless, compare XXXVI, 4, where dharma, adharma, akasa, and kala are enumerated as the 'formless things without life.'
  • 65:1 Literally, the nights. It seems to have been the custom at the time when the Sutras were composed, to reckon the time by nights, though the reckoning by days is not quite uninstanced in the Sutras.
  • 65:2 This is the explanation of duhao by the commentators, who apparently think that the parents and the sons are meant. The word in question is originally an adverb, but it is also (cf. Thirteenth Lecture, verse 18) taken by the commentator as a numeral, and rendered dvayoh. A genitive of the dual occurs in XIX, 90.
  • 66:1 Cyprinus Rohita.
  • 67:1 It was considered a privilege of the king to confiscate the property of a man who had no heir; compare Gautama XXVIII, 42, Vasishtha XVII, 83-86
  • 67:2 This apparently refers to the birds mentioned in the last verse. [p. 68] The commentators labour to interpret them as 'pleasures,' but that will not make good sense.
  • 68:1 Kulala in the original. Kulala in Sanskrit denotes the wild cock, Phasianus Gallus. The word seems to be derived from kulaya by assimilation of the y to the preceding consonant, compare saliya for saliya = sarita = sarit. In the sense of bird the word kulala seems to be used in the well-known stanza of 'A Bhartrihari: brahma yena kulalavan niyamito brahmandabhandodare, unless here kulala is an early corruption for kulayin.
  • 68:2 The commentators assign these verses to the two sons of Bhrigu; but then the verses do not construe. Besides the mention of the 'large kingdom' in the first line seems to prove that the king, and not the Brahmans, is to be understood as the person addressed. In the last line I separate pagigghaha kkhayam (scil. tavam), instead of pagiggh'ahakkhayam. It is, however, just possible that the next verse is to be connected with the preceding ones; in that case, we must read pagiggh' and interpret it in conformity with the scholiast as a gerund.
  • 69:1 The bhavanas are certain meditations which are conducive to the purity of the soul. They are treated at length in a work by Hemakandra, called Bhavabhavana, which seems to be rather popular with the Svetambaras. The Digambaras seem to call them Anuprekshas. A work in Prakrit by Subhakandra, called Karttikeyanupreksha, is epitomised in Bhandarkar's Report for 1883-84, p. 113 ff.

15 - the true monk

He who adopts the Law in the intention to live as a monk, should live in company (with other monks), upright, and free from desire; he should abandon his former connections, and not longing for pleasures, he should wander about as an unknown beggar: then he is a true monk.

Free from love he should live, a model of righteousness [1], abstaining from sins, versed in the sacred lore, protecting his soul (from every wrong), wise, hardy, observing everything; he who is attached to nothing, is a true monk.

Ignorant of abuse and injury, a steadfast monk should be a model of righteousness, always protecting his soul (from sins), neither rash nor passionate; when he endures everything, then he is a true monk.

He who is content with lowly beds and lodgings, bears heat and cold, flies and gnats, is neither rash nor passionate, and endures everything, he is a true monk.

He does not expect respectful treatment, nor hospitality, nor reverence, nor, indeed, praises; he controls himself, keeps the vows, practises austerities, lives together with other monks, meditates on his soul; this is a true monk.

If he does not care for his life, or abandons every delusion, if he avoids men and women, always practises austerities, and does not betray any curiosity, then he is a true monk.

He who does not profess and live on divination from cuts and shreds [2], from sounds on the earth or in the air, from dreams, from diagrams, sticks, and properties of buildings, from changes in the body, from the meaning [1] of the cries (of animals)–he is a true monk.

Spells, roots, every kind of medical treatment, emetics, purgatives, fumigation, anointing of the eye, and bathing, the patient's lamentation, and his consolation–he who abstains from all these things, is a true monk.

He who does not praise, or pay attention to, the warriors, Ugras [2], princes, Brahmanas, Bhogas, and artists of all sorts, who abstains from this, he is a true monk.

He who does not, for earthly gain, improve his acquaintance with householders, with whom he fell in as a monk, or was in friendly relation before that time, he is a true monk. (to)

A Nirgrantha is forbidden to take from householders, if they do not give it themselves, bed, lodging, drink, food, or any dainties and spices; he who is not angry at such occasions, he is a true monk.

If a monk gets any food and drink, or dainties and spices, and does not feel compassion (on a sick fellow-monk) in thoughts, words, and deeds, (then he is not a true monk) [1]; but if he has his thoughts, words, and acts under strict discipline, then he is a true monk.

Dish-water [2], barley-pap, cold sour gruel [3], water in which barley has been washed: such loathsome food and drink he should not despise, but call at the lowliest houses (for alms); then he is a true monk.

There are many voices on the earth, of gods, of men, and of beasts, dreadful, frightful, and awful noises; if he hears them without trembling, then he is a true monk.

He who understands all religious disputations, [who lives together with fellow-monks] [4], who practises self-discipline [5], who meditates on his soul, who is wise, hardy, and observes everything, who is calm, and does not hurt anybody, he is a true monk.

He who, not living by any art, without house, without friends, subduing his senses, free from all ties, sinless, and eating but little, leaves the house and lives single, he is a true monk.

Thus I say.


  • 69:2 The name of this lecture, sa bhikkhu, is derived from the burden which runs through the whole of it and winds up every verse.
  • 70:1 Ladhe, explained sadanushthanataya pradhanah. Ladha is also the name of a country in western Bengal, inhabited, at Mahavira's time, by uncivilised tribes, see part i, p. 84, note 1. The etymology of both words is doubtful.
  • 70:2 Compare the note on p. 161 of part i. The 71st chapter of Varaha Mihira's Brihat Samhita treats of vastrakheda, rents of clothes; the 51st, of angavidya, forebodings from the body; and the 53rd, of vastuvidya, property of buildings; chapters 88, 90, and 95 are devoted to the forebodings from the cries of birds, female jackals, and crows.
  • 71:1 A conjectural rendering of vigaya, which cannot be taken in its ordinary meaning 'victory.' The commentary explains it subhasubhanirupanabhyasah.–Notice the absence of astrology from the above list of prophetical arts practised by strolling friars apparently to insinuate themselves into the good graces of laymen and women. If Greek nativity had already risen to importance, it certainly would have been mentioned. For it has ever since held a firm hold on the Hindu mind.–This remark also applies to XX, 45. But in Sutrakritanga I, 12, 9, astrology (samvakkhara) is mentioned; it is, however, the ancient astrology of the Hindus, not the Greek one.
  • 71:2 The Ugras and Bhogas were Kshattriyas. The former were, according to the Gainas, descendants of those whom Rishabha, the first Tirthakara, appointed to the office of kotwals or prefects of towns, while the Bhogas were descendants from those whom Rishabha acknowledged as persons deserving of honour. Comp. Hoernle, Uvasaga Dasao, Appendix, p. 58, and my edition of the Kalpa Sutra, p. 103, note on section 18.
  • 72:1 The commentators supply these words; something to that purport is wanted to make out a consistent meaning, but there is not so much as a hint of it in the text itself. As it stands now, the meaning would be just the opposite of that given in the translation, which is in better accordance with the established custom.
  • 72:2 Ayamaga, it is rendered akamaka in Sanskrit, and explained avasravana, i.e. avasravana. See also Leumann, Aupapatika Sutra, Glossar sv.
  • 72:3 Sauvira, explained kangika, the water of boiled rice in a state of spontaneous fermentation.
  • 72:4 This is a later addition, proved to be such by the metre, though the commentators comment upon it.
  • 72:5 Kheyanugae. The commentators explain kheda by samyama.

16 - the ten conditions of perfect chastity

O long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse from the Venerable (Mahavira):

Here [1], indeed, the venerable Sthaviras have declared ten conditions for the realisation of celibacy, by hearing and understanding which the monks will reach a high degree of self-discipline, of Samvara [2], and of contemplation, will be well protected (by the three Guptis), will guard their senses, guard their chastity, and will thus never be remiss (in the attendance on their religious duties).

What, then, are those ten conditions for the realisation of celibacy as declared by the venerable Sthaviras, by hearing and understanding which the monks will reach a high degree of self-discipline, of

These, then, are the ten conditions for the realisation of celibacy (all down to) duties.

1. A Nirgrantha may occupy various places for sleep or rest [1]; but a Nirgrantha should not occupy places, for sleep or rest, frequented by women, cattle, or eunuchs. The preceptor has explained the reason for this. If a Nirgrantha occupies places for sleep or rest, frequented by women, cattle, or eunuchs, then, though he be chaste, there may arise a doubt with regard to his chastity, or a sensual desire, or a feeling of remorse, or he will break the rules, or he will become a slave to passion, or he will acquire a dangerous illness of long duration, or he will desert the faith which the Kevalin has proclaimed. Therefore a Nirgrantha should not occupy places, for sleep or rest, frequented by women, cattle, or eunuchs.

2. A Nirgrantha should not converse with women [2]. The preceptor has explained the reason for this. If a Nirgrantha converses with women (all as above).

3. A Nirgrantha should not sit together with women on the same seat. The preceptor has explained the reason for this. If a Nirgrantha sits on the same seat with women (all as above).

4. A Nirgrantha should not look at, or contemplate, the charms and beauties of women. (The rest similar as above.)

5. A Nirgrantha should not, behind a screen, or curtain, or wall, listen to the screeching or screaming or singing or laughing or giggling or crying of women. (The rest similar as above.)

6. A Nirgrantha should not recall to his memory the pleasure and amusements which in the past he enjoyed together with women. (The rest similar as above.)

7. A Nirgrantha should not eat well-dressed food. (The rest similar as above.)

8. A Nirgrantha should not eat or drink to excess. (The rest similar as above.)

9. A Nirgrantha should not wear ornaments. The preceptor has explained the reason for this. If he wears ornaments, or adorns his body, he might become an object of desire to women. When he is an object of desire to women, then (the rest as in 1).

10. A Nirgrantha should not care for sounds, colours, tastes, smells, and feelings. (The rest similar as above.)

Here are some verses (to the same effect) [1]:

A monk should take up a detached lodging, free from, and not frequented by women, to preserve his chastity.

A chaste monk should avoid talking with women, which delights the mind and foments love and passion.

A chaste monk should always avoid the company of, and frequent conversation with women.

A chaste monk should avoid observing the body, limbs, and figure of women, their pleasant prattle and oglings.

A chaste monk should avoid listening to the screeching, screaming, singing, laughing, giggling, and crying of women.

A chaste monk should never recall to his mind how he had laughed and played with women, and had enjoyed them, how they became jealous, and what tricks he played to frighten them.

A chaste monk should always avoid well-dressed food and drink which will soon raise his sensuality.

A chaste monk should always eat his food, collected according to the rules, for the sustenance of life, in the prescribed quantity, and at the right time; concentrated in his thoughts he should not eat to excess.

A chaste monk should abstain from ornaments, he should not adorn his body after the fashion of amorous people.

He should always abstain from the five orders of pleasant things: sounds, colours, smells, tastes, and feelings of touch.

A lodging frequented by women, their pleasant talk, their company, and looking at their charms;

Their screeching, screaming, singing, and laughing, eating and sleeping together with them; well-dressed food and drink, or partaking of them to excess;

And ornaments and finery [1]: these pleasant things, which are hard to leave, are like the poison Talaputa [1], for a man who seeks after the true Self.

He should, once for all, abandon pleasant things which are hard to leave; and concentrated in his thoughts he should avoid whatever casts a doubt on his chastity.

A monk should be the steadfast charioteer, as it were, of the Law in the park of the Law [2], a vessel of righteousness, content, restrained, attentive to the duties of a chaste monk.

The gods, Danavas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Kinnaras pay homage to a chaste monk who performs his difficult duties.

This unchangeable, permanent, and eternal Law has been proclaimed by the Ginas; through it the Siddhas have reached perfection, and others will reach it.

Thus I say.


  • 73:1 The word 'here' is explained as meaning 'in this religion of the Gainas.' See <page 8>, note .
  • 73:2 Samvara is the stopping of the asravas by means of the Samitis and Guptis, see above, <page 55>, note .
  • 74:1 Literally, beds and seats.
  • 74:2 This might also be rendered: he should not talk about women.
  • 75:1 The preceding part of this lecture is in prose.
  • 76:1 Ittham ka, i.e. ishtam ka. The commentators connect the [p. 77] words with the second part of the sentence. By giving to ka the meaning of api they interpret the two words in question as meaning 'though very pleasant.'
  • 77:1 Talauda. According to the Dipika it is a poison which kills by merely touching the palate (talukasparsanamatrad eva); but this is a mere guess prompted by a wrong etymology. Talauda stands perhaps for talakuta, which may have been a variant of kalakuta, the deadly poison swallowed by Siva.
  • 77:2 Here we have twice the same word dhammarame, which [p. 78] I have once translated 'park of the Law,' and then 'vessel of righteousness.' It is obvious that a play on this word is intended, though I may have failed to hit the meaning of the author.

17 - the bad sramana

A Nirgrantha who has entered the order, who has learned the Law, who has received religious discipline, and who has obtained the benefit of Bodhi which is difficult to obtain, may perhaps afterwards begin to live as he likes.

(He will say:) I have a good bed and wherewithal to cover me; I obtain food and drink; I know everything that comes to pass, friend; why then should I study, sir?

He who, after entering the order, always sleeps, eats, and drinks as much as he likes, and lives comfortably, is called a bad Sramana.

The sinner who despises the learning and discipline which his preceptor and teachers have taught him, is called a bad Sramana.

He who does not, as he should, strive to please his preceptor and teachers, and does not, in his arrogance, treat them with respect, is called a bad Sramana.

He who hurts living beings, seeds, and sprouts, who does not control himself, though he believes himself well-controlled, is called a bad Sramana.

He who uses a bed, a plank, a chair, a seat, or his duster [1], without having well wiped these things, is called a bad Sramana.

He who walks with great haste and without care, being overbearing and fierce, is called a bad Sramana.

He who carelessly inspects things [1], throwing down his duster at random, not being attentive to the inspection of things, is called a bad Sramana.

He who carelessly inspects things, his attention being absorbed by what he hears, who always slights his teachers, is called a bad Sramana. (to)

He who is deceitful, talkative, arrogant, greedy, who does not control himself, nor share (his food with those who are in want), and is not of an amiable disposition, is called a bad Sramana.

He who is a controversialist, and ill-behaved, who perverts the truth, and delights in quarrels and contentions, is called a bad Sramana.

He who sits down on a weak, shaking seat wherever he lists, and is not careful in sitting down, is called a bad Sramana.

He who sleeps with dusty feet and does not inspect his couch, being careless about his bed, is called a bad Sramana.

He who eats milk, curds, and other things produced from milk, and does not practise austerities, is called a bad Sramana.

He who eats after sunset, and when admonished, makes an angry reply, is called a bad Sramana.

He who leaves his own teacher, and follows heretical ones, who continuously changes his school [2], being of a bad disposition, is called a bad Sramana.

He who has left his own house, and busies himself in another's house, who lives by fortune-telling, is called a bad Sramana.

He who eats the food of his relations, and does not like living by alms [1], who reposes on the seat of the householder, is called a bad Sramana.

Such a monk, who, like the heretics [2], does not protect himself from sins, who though having the appearance (of a monk) is the lowest among his worthy brethren, is despised in this world like poison; he is nobody in this world and in that beyond.

But he who always avoids these sins, and is pious amongst his brethren, is welcomed in this world like nectar; he conquers this world and the next [3].

Thus I say.


  • 78:1 Padakambala, usually called ragoharana. One commentator suggests, as a possible rendering, patrakambala 'a cloth to cover his almsbowl.'
  • 79:1 It is a monk's duty closely to inspect everything that he uses or comes in contact with, in order to avoid hurting inadvertently anything considered to possess life. This is called padileha.
  • 79:2 Ganamganika, according to the commentators one who attaches himself to another gana every half-year.
  • 80:1 Samudaniya, explained bhaiksham.
  • 80:2 Pankakusila, literally, those who practise the five wrong silas, whereby probably those are denoted who do not keep the five great vows of the Gainas. Note that the Buddhists too have their pankasila. They could therefore have been called pankakusila by the Gainas.
  • 80:3 The text is not settled in the last line; but there can be no doubt about the meaning.

18 - sangaya

In the town of Kampilya there was a king, named Sangaya, who possessed numerous troops and war-chariots; once he went a-hunting.

He was surrounded on all sides by a large host of horses, elephants, chariots, and footmen.

He chased the deer on horseback in the Kesara-park of Kampilya; and intent on his sport he killed there the frightened deer.

Now in the Kesara-park there was a houseless ascetic intent on sacred study and meditating on the Law.

Annihilating sinful inclinations [1], he meditated in the Asphota-bower [2]. But the king killed the deer that fled to him.

Now the king on horseback came quickly there; he saw the killed deer and saw the monk there.

The king in his consternation (thought) 'I had nearly hurt the monk; ill-fated and cruel me that is mad for the sport.'

Having dismissed his horse, the king bowed respectfully to the monk's feet (saying), 'Forgive me this, Reverend sir.'

But the venerable monk, being plunged in silent meditation, made no reply to the king, who, therefore, was seized with fear.

'I am Sangaya; answer me, Reverend sir; a monk might by the fire of his wrath reduce millions of men to ashes.'

'Be without fear, O king; but grant safety to others also; in this transient world of living beings, why are you addicted to cruelty?

'As you must, of necessity, one day part with everything, in this transient world of living beings, why do you cling to kingly power?

'Transient like a stroke of lightning are life and beauty, which you love so much; you do not comprehend what will benefit you in the next life.

'Wives and children, friends and relations, all are dependent on a man during his life; but they will not follow him in death.

'The sons, in great sorrow, will remove the corpse of their father (to the cemetery); and so will parents do with their sons and relations; O king, do penance!

'O king, other men, glad, and pleased, and well attired, will enjoy the riches (the deceased) had amassed, and will dally with the wives he had so well guarded.

'And whatever actions he has done, good or wicked ones, with their Karman he will depart to his next existence.'

Then the king was taught the Law by this monk, and was filled with a great desire for purity, and disregard of worldly objects.

Sangaya gave up his kingly power and adopted the faith of the Ginas in the presence of the venerable monk Gardabhali.

A Kshattriya, who had abandoned his kingdom and had turned monk, said to him: 'As you look so happy in outward appearance, you must have peace of mind.

'What is your name, to which Gotra do you belong, and why have you become an ascetic [1]?

“My name is Sangaya; I belong to the Gotra of Gotama; my teacher is Gardabhali, who is conversant with the sacred lore and good conduct.

“O great sage, the man of limited knowledge talks foolishly on these four heads [2], viz. the existence of the soul, its non-existence, idolatry, and the inefficiency of knowledge.

“This has been declared by him who is enlightened, wise, liberated, conversant with the sacred lore and good conduct, who is truthful and of right energy.

“Men who commit sins will go to hell; but those who have walked the road of righteousness, will obtain a place in heaven.

“All this delusive talk (of the heretics) is untrue and without any meaning; I live and walk about according to the rules of self-control.

“I know all these heresies to be contemptible; I know that there will be a life hereafter, and I know my Self.

“I was an illustrious god in the Mahaprana heaven, and reached old age as we here would say of a man who is a hundred years old; but in heaven, hundred years consist of as many Mahapalis of Palis [1].

“Descending from the Brahmaloka, I was born as a man. I know exactly the length of my life as well as that of other men.

“A monk should abandon the manifold doctrines (of heretics), and his own fancies, and such deeds as are productive of evil everywhere. One should live up to this wisdom [2].

“I keep clear of the (superstitious) questions and the spells of laymen, exerting myself day and night (in the true religion). Thinking thus, one should practise austerities.

“And what you of a pure mind asked me just now, that has been revealed by the enlightened one [3]; such knowledge makes part of the creed of the Ginas.

“A wise man believes in the existence of the soul [4], he avoids the heresy of the non-existence of the soul; possessing true faith one should practise the very difficult Law according to the faith.

“Having learned this pure creed, which is adorned by truth and righteousness, Bharata [1] gave up Bharatavarsha and all pleasures, and entered the order.

“King Sagara [2] also gave up the ocean-girt Bharatavarsha and his unrivalled kingly power, and reached perfection through his compassion.

“After having given up Bharatavarsha, the famous universal monarch of great power, called Maghavan [3], entered the order.

“King Sanatkumara [4], a universal monarch of great power, placed his son on the throne, and then practised austerities.

“Santi [5], a universal monarch of great power, the bringer of peace to the world, gave up Bharatavarsha and reached perfection.

“King Kunthu, the bull of the Aikshvaka race, the widely famed lord, reached perfection.

“King Ara, after he had given up the sea-girt Bharatavarsha, reached perfection on becoming exempt from defilement.

“After having given up his large kingdom, his army and war-chariots, his exquisite pleasures, Mahapadma [1] practised austerities.

“Having brought the (whole) earth under his sceptre, king Harishena [2], who humbled the pride (of other kings), reached perfection.

“Gaya [3], together with thousands of kings, renouncing the world, practised self-restraint. He reached perfection which has been taught by the Ginas.

“Dasarnabhadra [1], giving up his flourishing kingdom of Dasarna, turned monk; he renounced the world, being directed to do so by Sakra himself.

“Karakandu was king of Kalinga; Dvimukha, of Pankala; Nami, of Videha; Naggati (or rather Nagnagit), of Gandhara [2].

“Nami humbled himself, being directed to do so by Sakra himself; the king of Videha left the house and became a Sramana.

“These bulls of kings have adopted the faith of the Ginas; after having placed their sons on the throne, they exerted themselves as Sramanas.

“Udayana [3], the bull of the kings of Sauvira, renounced the world and turned monk; he entered the order and reached perfection.

“And thus the king of Kasi [4], exerting himself for the best truth, abandoned all pleasures, and hewed down, as it were, his Karman like a forest.

“And thus king Vigaya [5], whose sins were not quite annihilated [6], turned monk after he, the famous man, had quitted his excellent kingdom.

“And thus the royal seer Mahabala [1] practised severe penance with an undistracted mind, and took upon himself the glory (of self-control).

“Why should a wise man, for bad reasons, live on earth like a madman, since those persons (mentioned above) who reached eminence, exerted themselves strongly?

“I have spoken true words able to promote virtue; some have been saved, some are being saved, and some will be saved.

“Why should a wise man, for bad reasons, bring affliction upon himself? He who has become free from all ties and sins, will reach perfection.”

Thus I say.


  • 80:4 The commentators Sanskritise this name in Samyata. But however appropriate it may be to a Gaina, it certainly does not [p. 81] look like a king's name. The Sanskrit form of the name was probably Sangaya or Sringaya, both of which frequently occur in Sanskrit literature.
  • 81:1 To render asrava.
  • 81:2 Apphova in the original; there are several plants which are called asphota.
  • 82:1 Literally, a Brahman.
  • 83:1 Buddhe, explained akaryan, preceptors.
  • 83:2 These are the four great heresies: that of the kriyavadinas, who maintain that the soul exists; that of the akriyavadinas, who hold the reverse of the preceding doctrine; that of the vainayikas, which seems to be identical with salvation by bhakti; that of the agnanavadinas, who contend that knowledge is not necessary for salvation, but t a p a s; this seems identical with the karmapatha. The commentators explain kriyavadinah 'those who believe the soul or atman to be characterised by the verb to be (i.e. by a permanent and unchangeable existence), and ascribe to it such qualities as ubiquity or non-ubiquity, activity or non-activity.' This they treat as heresy, but from Mahavagga VI, 31, 2 (vol. xvii, p. 109) it is evident that the Gainas were considered kriyavadins. The akriyavada is also identified with the kshanikavada or doctrine, usually ascribed to Buddhists, that everything has but a momentary existence and is in the next moment replaced by a facsimile of itself. About these heresies compare the Sutrakritanga I, 12; II, 2, 77.
  • 84:1 According to the commentary a pali seems to be what is commonly called palyopama, and mahapali a sagaropama. However the longest life of a god in Brahmaloka is but ten Sagaropamas, see below, XXXVI, 225. The construction of the verse is very involved, but the drift of it cannot be mistaken.
  • 84:2 ii viggam anusamkare. I believe that viggam here stands for vidvan, as in the following verse. The meaning would then be, 'knowing this one should live as a monk.'
  • 84:3 Buddha.
  • 84:4 The Gainas do not deny the existence of the soul, but the unalterable character of the soul. Hence they object to the kriyavada.
  • 85:1 Bharata was the eldest son of Rishabha, the first Tirthakara. He became the first Kakravartin, or universal monarch, and resided in Ayodhya. At his renunciation he was ordered by Indra himself to pluck out five handfuls of his hair as is the custom of Gaina monks on entering the order.
  • 85:2 Sagara, king of Ayodhya, was, according to the legend contained in the commentary , the younger brother of Agita, the second Tirthakara. He became the second Kakravartin, and, in the end, he was ordained by Agita. The Gaina legend seems to be but a strangely distorted version of the story of Sagara told in the first book of the Ramayana.
  • 85:3 Maghavan, son of king Samudravigaya of Sravasti, and his wife Bhadra, became the third Kakravartin.
  • 85:4 Sanatkumara, son of king Asvasena of Hastinapura, and his wife Sahadevi, became the fourth Kakravartin. The adventures of Sanatkumara are told in a Prakrit legend, which I have published in my Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharashtri, Leipzig, x886, p. 20 ff.
  • 85:5 Santi was the sixteenth Tirthakara, Kunthu the seventeenth, and [p. 86] Ara the eighteenth Tirthakara. Kunthu sounds strange for a proper name. I think it just possible that it is a popular or Prakrit corruption of Kakutstha, who was an Aikshvaka. As is well known, Rama is frequently called after him Kakutstha, and so are other kings of the same line, in which he stands as the twenty-fifth according to the list in the Ramayana I, 70.
  • 86:1 Mahapadma was the ninth Kakravartin. His elder brother was Vishnukumara, who was ordained by Suvrata, a disciple of Munisuvrata, the twentieth Tirthakara. He wrenched the sovereignty of the world from Namuki, minister of his father Padmottara, who had ascended the throne, by making him promise as much of his territory as he could cover with three strides. This is the Brahmanical story of Vishnu and Bali, for whom the Gainas have substituted Namuki. According to them the minister Namuki was, in a disputation, defeated by the Gaina monks, and to revenge himself on them, he ordered them to quit his kingdom as soon as he got it.–Mahapadma's residence was Hastinapura.
  • 86:2 Harishena, son of king Mahahari of Kampilya, became the tenth Kakravartin.
  • 86:3 Gaya, son of king Samudravigaya of Ragagriha, became the eleventh Kakravartin.
  • 87:1 King Dasarnabhadra was a contemporary of Mahavira.
  • 87:2 These are the four Pratyekabuddhas; see <page 35>, note .
  • 87:3 The story of Udayana (or perhaps Uddayana) will be found in my Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharashtri, p. 28 ff. He was contemporary with Mahavira.
  • 87:4 He was Nandana, the seventh Baladeva, son of king Agnisikha of Benares.
  • 87:5 He was the son of king Brahmaraga of Dvarakavati, and eldest brother of the Vasudeva Dviprishta or Dvipushti.
  • 87:6 To render anatthakati, of which the commentators offer several explanations, rendering it anarttakirti and anashtakirti. A various reading anatthakitti is mentioned, and explained agna-artha-akriti.
  • 88:1 Mahabala was the son of king Bala of Hastinapura. He lived at the time of Vimala, the thirteenth Tirthakara.

19 - the son of mriga

In the pleasant town of Sugriva, which is adorned with parks and gardens, there was the king Balabhadra and Mriga, the principal queen.

Their son Balasri, also known as Mrigaputra (i.e. son of Mriga), the darling of his father and mother, was crown-prince, a (future) lord of ascetics.

In his palace Nandana he dallied with his wives, like the god Dogundaga [2], always happy in his mind.

Standing at a window of his palace [1], the floor of which was inlaid with precious stones and jewels, he looked down on the squares, places, and roads of the town.

Once he saw pass there a restrained Sramana, who practised penance, self-restraint, and self-control, who was full of virtues, and a very mine of good qualities.

Mrigaputra regarded him with fixed eyes, trying to remember where he had seen the same man before.

While he looked at the saint, and his mind became pure, the remembrance of his former birth carne upon him as he was plunged in doubt.

When the remembrance of his former birth came upon the illustrious Mrigaputra, he remembered his previous birth and his having been then a Sramana.

Being not delighted with pleasures, but devoted to self-control, he went to his father and mother, and spoke as follows:

'I have learned the five great vows; (I know) the suffering (that awaits the sinner) in hell or in an existence as a brute; I have ceased to take delight in the large ocean (of the Samsara); therefore, O mother, allow me to enter the order. (to)

'O mother, O father, I have enjoyed pleasures which are like poisonous fruit: their consequences are painful, as they entail continuous suffering.

'This body is not permanent, it is impure and of impure origin; it is but a transitory residence (of the soul) and a miserable vessel of suffering.

'I take no delight in this transitory body which one must leave sooner or later, and which is like foam or a bubble.

'And this vain human life, an abode of illness and disease, which is swallowed up by old age and death, does not please me even for a moment.

'Birth is misery, old age is misery, and so are disease and death, and ah, nothing but misery is the Samsara, in which men suffer distress.

'Leaving behind my fields, house, and gold, my son and wife, and my relations, leaving my body needs must, one day, depart.

'As the effect of Kimpaka-fruit [1] is anything but good, so the effect of pleasures enjoyed is anything but good.

'He who starts on a long journey with no provisions, will come to grief on his way there, suffering from hunger and thirst.

'Thus he who without having followed the Law, starts for the next world, will come to grief on his way there, suffering from illness and disease.

'He who starts on a long journey with provisions, will be happy on his way there, not suffering from hunger and thirst.

'Thus he who after having followed the Law, starts for the next world, will be happy on his journey there, being exempt from Karman and suffering.

'As when a house is on fire, the landlord carries away valuable things and leaves behind those of no value; so when the whole world is on fire, as it were, by old age and death, I shall save my Self, if you will permit me.' (22, 23)

To him his parents said: “Son, difficult to perform, are the duties of a Sramana; a monk must possess thousands of virtues.

“Impartiality towards all beings in the world, whether friends or enemies, and abstention from injury to living beings throughout the whole life: this is a difficult duty.

“To be never careless in abstaining from falsehood, and to be always careful to speak wholesome truth: this is a difficult duty.

“To abstain from taking of what is not given, even of a toothpick ; and to accept only alms free from faults: this is a difficult duty.

“To abstain from unchastity after one has tasted sensual pleasures, and to keep the severe vow of chastity: this is a very difficult duty.

“To give up all claims on wealth, corn, and servants, to abstain from all undertakings, and not to own anything: this is a very difficult duty.

“Not to eat at night any food of the four kinds [1], not to put away for later use or to keep a store (of things one wants): this is a very difficult duty.

“Hunger and thirst, heat and cold, molestation by flies and gnats, insults, miserable lodgings, pricking grass, and uncleanliness, blows and threats, corporal punishment and imprisonment, the mendicant's life and fruitless begging: all this is misery. (31, 32)

“Such a life is like that of pigeons (always afraid of dangers); painful is the plucking out of one's hair; difficult is the vow of chastity and hard to keep (even) for a noble man.

“My son, you are accustomed to comfort, you are tender and cleanly [1]; you are not able, my son, to live as a Sramana.

“No repose as long as life lasts; the great burden 4 of duty is heavy like a load of iron, which is difficult to be carried, O son.

“As it is difficult to cross the heavenly Ganges, or to swim against the current, or to swim with one's arms over the sea, so it is difficult to get over the ocean of duties.

“Self-control is untasteful like a mouthful of sand, and to practise penance is as difficult as to walk on the edge of a sword.

“It is difficult (always to observe the rules of) right conduct with one's eyes for ever open like (those of) a snake [2], O son; it is difficult to eat iron grains, as it were.

“As it is very difficult to swallow burning fire, so is it difficult for a young man to live as a Sramana.

“As it is difficult to fill a bag [3] with wind, so is it difficult for a weak man to live as a Sramana.

“As it is difficult to weigh Mount Mandara in a balance, so it is difficult to live as a Sramana with a steady and fearless mind.

“As it is difficult to swim over the sea with one's arms, so it is difficult for one whose mind is not pacified, (to cross) the ocean of restraint.

“Enjoy the fivefold [1] human pleasures. After you have done enjoying pleasures, O son, you may adopt the Law.”

He answered: 'O father and mother, it is even thus as you have plainly told; but in this world nothing is difficult for one who is free from desire.

'An infinite number of times have I suffered dreadful pains of body and mind, repeatedly misery and dangers.

'In the Samsara, which is a mine of dangers and a wilderness of old age and death, I have undergone dreadful births and deaths.

'Though fire be hot here, it is infinitely more so there (viz. in hell) [2]; in hell I have undergone suffering from heat.

'Though there may be cold here, it is of infinitely greater intensity there; in hell I have undergone suffering from cold.

'An infinite number of times have I been roasted over a blazing fire in an oven, screaming loud, head down and feet aloft.

'In the desert which is like a forest on fire, on the Vagravaluka and the Kadambavaluka [1] rivers, I have been roasted an infinite number of times.

'Being suspended upside down over a boiler, shrieking, with no relation to help me, I was cut to pieces with various saws [2], an infinite number of times.

'I have suffered agonies when I was fastened with fetters on the huge Salmali tree, bristling with very sharp thorns, and then pushed up and down.

'An infinite number of times have I been crushed like sugar-cane in presses, shrieking horribly, to atone for my sins, great sinner that I was.

'By black and spotted wild dogs [3] I have, ever so many times, been thrown down, torn to pieces, and lacerated, screaming and writhing.

'When I was born in hell for my sins, I was cut, pierced, and hacked to pieces with swords and daggers, with darts and javelins.

'I have been forcibly yoked to a car of red-hot iron full of fuel [4], I have been driven on with a goad and thongs, and have been knocked down like an antelope [1].

'On piles, in a blazing fire, I have forcibly been burnt and roasted like a buffalo, in atonement for my sins.

'An infinite number of times have I violently been lacerated by birds whose bills were of iron and shaped like tongs, by devilish vultures [2].

'Suffering from thirst I ran towards the river Vaitarani to drink its water, but in it I was killed (as it were) by blades of razors [3].

'When suffering from the heat, I went into the forest in which the trees have a foliage of daggers; I have, ever so many times, been cut to pieces by the dropping dagger-leaves.

'An infinite number of times have I suffered hopelessly from mallets and knives, forks and maces, which broke my limbs.

'Ever so many times have I been slit, cut, mangled, and skinned with keen-edged razors, knives, and shears.

'As [4] an antelope I have, against my will, been caught, bound, and fastened in snares and traps, and frequently I have been killed.

'As a fish I have, against my will, been caught with hooks and in bow-nets; I have therein been scraped, slit, and killed, an infinite number of times.

'As a bird I have been caught by hawks, trapped in nets, and bound with bird-lime, and I have been killed, an infinite number of times.

'As a tree I have been felled, slit, sawn into planks, and stripped of the bark by carpenters with axes [1], hatchets, an infinite number of times.

'As iron I have been malleated, cut, torn, and filed by blacksmiths [2], an infinite number of times.

'I have been made to drink hissing molten copper, iron, tin, and lead under horrid shrieks, an infinite number of times.

'You like meat minced or roasted; I have been made to eat, ever so many times, poisoned meat, and red-hot to boot.

'You like wine, liquor, spirits, and honey [3]; I have been made to drink burning fat and blood.

'Always frightened, trembling, distressed, and suffering, I have experienced the most exquisite pain and misery.

'I have experienced in hell sharp, acute and severe, horrible, intolerable, dreadful, and formidable pain.

'O father, infinitely more painful is the suffering in hell than any suffering in the world of men.

'In every kind of existence I have undergone suffering which was not interrupted by a moment's reprieve.'

To him his parents said: “Son, a man is free to enter the order, but it causes misery to a Sramana that he may not remedy any ailings.”

He answered: 'O father and mother, it is even thus as you have plainly told; but who takes care of beasts and birds in the woods?

'As a wild animal [1] by itself roams about in the woods, thus I shall practise the Law by controlling myself and doing penance.

'When in a large forest a wild animal falls very sick at the foot of a tree, who is there to cure it?

'Or who will give it medicine? or who will inquire after its health? or who will get food and drink for it, and feed it?

'When it is in perfect health, it will roam about in woods and on (the shores of) lakes in search of food and drink.

'When it has eaten and drunk in woods and lakes, it will walk about and go to rest according to the habits of wild animals.

'In the same way a pious monk goes to many places and walks about just as the animals, but afterwards he goes to the upper regions.

'As a wild animal goes by itself to many places, lives in many places, and always gets its food; thus a monk on his begging-tour should not despise nor blame (the food he gets).

'I shall imitate this life of animals.' “Well, my son, as you please.” With his parents' permission he gave up all his property.

'I shall imitate this life of animals, which makes one free from all misery, if you will permit me.' “Go, my son, as you please.”

When he had thus made his parents repeat their permission, he gave up for ever his claims in any property, just as the snake casts off its slough.

His power and wealth, his friends, wives, sons, and relations he gave up as if he shook off the dust from his feet, and then he went forth.

He observed the five great vows, practised the five Samitis, and was protected by the three Guptis [1]; he exerted himself to do mental as well as bodily penance.

He was without property, without egoism, without attachment, without conceit [2], impartial towards all beings, whether they move or not.

He was indifferent to success or failure (in begging), to happiness and misery, to life and death, to blame and praise, to honour and insult.

He turned away from conceit and passions, from injurious, hurtful, and dangerous actions [3], from gaiety and sadness; he was free from sins and fetters.

He had no interest in this world and no interest in the next world; he was indifferent to unpleasant and pleasant things [1], to eating and fasting.

He prevented the influx of Karman (asrava) through all bad channels [2]; by meditating upon himself he obtained praiseworthy self-purification and sacred knowledge.

Thus he thoroughly purified himself by knowledge, right conduct, faith, penance, and pure meditations, and after having lived many years as a Sramana, he reached perfection after breaking his fast once only every month. (94, 95)

Thus act the enlightened ones, the learned, the clever; like Mrigaputra they turn away from pleasures.

When you have heard the words of the illustrious and famous son of Mriga, his perfect practise of austerities, and his liberation, famous in the three worlds, you will despise wealth, the cause of misery, and the fetter of egoism, the cause of many dangers, and you will bear the excellent and pleasant yoke of the Law that leads to the great happiness of Nirvana. (97, 98)

Thus I say.


  • 88:2 According to the commentators the Dogundaka gods are the trayastrimsa gods. The Sanskrit of dogundaga would be dvikundaka.
  • 89:1 I separate the words pasay'aloyanatthio. The commentators take them for a compound; but then the preceding part of the sentence would not construe. It is an irregular sandhi, instances of which, however, are not unfrequent.
  • 90:1 Cucumis Colocynthus.
  • 91:1 I.e. food, drink, dainties, and spices.
  • 92:1 Literally, well washed or bathed.
  • 92:2 This appears to be the meaning of the words ahiv'egantaditthie. We might perhaps take ahiv for ahivam = ahivat, in which case the construction of the sentence would be grammatically correct. An alternative rendering would be: '(A monk) like a snake must have his eyes always open on the difficult conduct, O son.' It is a well-known fact that snakes cannot shut their eyes as other animals.
  • 92:3 Kotthala, a Desi-word for kusula, granary, see Hemakandra, Desi Kosha 2, 48. The commentators render it by 'cloth.'
  • 93:1 Viz. those of the five senses.
  • 93:2 The description of hell is a favourite theme with the monks of all ages and all religions; and the Gaina monks are not behind others in the treatment of this gruesome subject. A detailed description of the different hells will be found in the fifth lecture of the first book of the Sutrakritanga. I remember a yati showing me, with much complacency, a manuscript of the latter work adorned with lively illustrations of the most exquisite tortures.
  • 94:1 These are two rivers in hell; the sand of the one consists of vagra (either steel-filings or diamonds), and that of the other, of turmeric.
  • 94:2 Karavattakarakayaihim = karapattrakrakakadibhih.
  • 94:3 Kolasunaya, explained by sukarasvan, hog-dog, which may be a kind of hog or dog, probably the latter.
  • 94:4 Samila gue. The commentators render gue by yuga and yuta, and do not explain samila, which they treat as a Sanskrit word. I think it is the Prakrit of samidh, compare viggula = vidyut, salila = sarit.
  • 95:1 Roggho = risya, see Hemakandra, Desi Kosha 7, 12.
  • 95:2 Dhanka gridhra. The commentators offer no explanation of dhanka, but only say that they are not real vultures as there are no animals in hell. Therefore they must be vaikriya, i.e., in our case, demons who have adopted the shape of vultures.
  • 95:3 The water of the river Vaitarani consists of a very caustic acid.
  • 95:4 Here and in the following verses the suffering of Mrigaputra as an animal and a plant seems to be described. But in verse 68 the scene is again laid in hell. The first word in verse 63, 'as,' would literally be 'like' (viva in the original text), but in rendering it by 'like,' we have to assume that as a denizen of hell he is treated in the manner described, which seems rather strained.
  • 96:1 Kuhada = kuthara; comp. pihada = pithara. The form kuhara occurs in Guzerati, Sindhi, and Panjabi.
  • 96:2 Kumara; this is obviously the modern kamar 'blacksmith' (derived from karmakara); and it is of interest to find this form in an old text like the Uttaradhyayana.
  • 96:3 To render sura, sidhu, maireya, and madhu.
  • 97:1 Miga = mriga, literally 'antelope;' but here as frequently the word has apparently the more general meaning 'wild animal.'
  • 98:1 See notes and on <page 50>.
  • 98:2 Garava = gaurava or garva. Dipika: riddhigarava-rasagarava-satagarava iti garvatrayarahitah.
  • 98:3 To render dandasallabhaesu.
  • 99:1 Vasikandanakappo. The author of the Avakuri explains this phrase thus: he did not like more a man who anoints himself with sandal than a mason. Apparently he gives to vasa the meaning 'dwelling;' but I think that the juxtaposition of kandana calls for a word denoting a bad-smelling substance, perhaps ordure.'
  • 99:2 Literally 'door.' The meaning of the line will be fully rendered and the simile at least partially be preserved by the following less literal translation: he shut the door, as it were, to evil influences. For the asrava, see above, <page 55>, note .

20 - the great duty of the nirgranthas

Piously adoring the perfected and the restrained saints, listen to my true instruction which (teaches the real) profit (of men), religion, and liberation [1].

King Srenika [2], the ruler of Magadha, who possessed many precious things, once made a pleasure-excursion to the Mandikukshi Kaitya [3].

It was a park like Nandana [4], with trees and creepers of many kinds, peopled by various birds, and full of various flowers.

There he saw a restrained and concentrated saint sitting below a tree, who looked delicate and accustomed to comfort.

When the king saw his figure, his astonishment at that ascetic's figure was very great and unequalled.

'O his colour, O his figure, O the loveliness of the noble man, O his tranquillity, O his perfection, O his disregard for pleasures!'

Adoring his feet and keeping him on his right side (he sat down), neither too far off nor too close by, and asked him with his hands clasped:

'Though a young nobleman, you have entered the order; in an age fit for pleasure you exert yourself as a Sramana, O ascetic; I want to hear you explain this.'

“I am without a protector, O great king; there is nobody to protect me, I know no friend nor any one to have sympathy with me.”

Then king Srenika, the ruler of Magadha, laughed: 'How should there be nobody to protect one so accomplished as you?' (to)

'I am the protector of religious men [1]; O monk; enjoy pleasures together with your friends and relations; for it is a rare chance to be born as a human being.'

“You yourself are without a protector, Srenika, ruler of Magadha; and as you are without a protector, how can you protect anybody else?”

When the saint had addressed this unprecedented speech to the king, who was greatly moved and astonished, and struck with astonishment, (he answered) [2]:

'I have horses, elephants, and subjects, a town and a seraglio, power and command: enjoy human pleasures.

'In possession of so great means, which permit the owner to enjoy all pleasures, how could he be without protection? Reverend sir, you speak untruth.'

“O king, you do not know the meaning and origin [1] of (the word) 'without protection,' nor how one comes to be without protection or with protection, O ruler of men.

“Hear, O great king, with an undistracted mind in what way a man can be said to be 'without protection,' and with what purpose I have said all this.

“There is a town Kausambi by name, which is among towns what Indra [2] is (among the gods); there lived my father, who possessed great wealth.

“In my childhood, O great king, I caught a very bad eye-disease and a severe burning fever in all my limbs, O ruler of men.

“My eyes ached as if a cruel enemy thrust a sharp tool in the hollow of my body.

“In the back, the heart [3], and the head, I suffered dreadful and very keen pains equal to a stroke of lightning.

“Then the best physicians came to my help, who cure by their medical art and by spells, who were versed in their science, and well knew spells and roots.

“They tried to cure me according to the fourfold science [1] which they had been taught; but they could not rid me of my pains: hence I say that I am without protection.

“My father would have spent all he possessed, for my sake; but he could not rid me of my pains, hence I say that I am without protection.

“My mother, O great king, was agonized with grief about her son; but she could not

“O great king, my own brothers, the elder and younger ones, could not rid me of my pains

“O great king, my own sisters, the elder and younger ones, could not

“O great king, my loving and faithful wife moistened my breast with the tears of her eyes.

“The poor lady did not eat, nor drink, nor bathe, nor use perfumes, wreaths, and anointment, with my knowledge or without it.

“O great king, she did not leave [2] my side even for a moment; but she could not rid me of my pains, hence I say that I am without protection.

“Then I said: It is very hard to bear pains again and again in the endless Circle of Births.

“If I, for once, shall get rid of these great pains, I shall become a houseless monk, calm, restrained, and ceasing to act.

“While I thought so, I fell asleep, O ruler of men; and after that night my pains had vanished.

“Then in the morning of the next day I took leave of my relations and became a houseless monk, calm, restrained, and ceasing to act.

“Thus I became the protector of myself and of others besides, of all living beings, whether they move or not.

“My own Self is the river Vaitarani, my own Self the Salmali tree [1]; my own Self is the miraculous cow Kamaduh, my own Self the park Nandana.

“My own Self is the doer and undoer of misery and happiness; my own Self, friend and foe, according as I act well or badly.

“But there is still another want of protection, O king; hear, therefore, O king, attentively with concentrated thoughts, how some easily discouraged men go astray after having adopted the Law of the Nirgranthas [2].

“If an ordained monk, through carelessness, does not strictly keep the great vows, if he does not restrain himself, but desires pleasure, then his fetters will not be completely cut off.

“One who does not pay constant attention to his walking, his speaking, his begging, his receiving and keeping (of things necessary for a monk), and his easing nature [1], does not follow the road trod by the Lord.

“One who for a long time wears a shaven crown and mortifies himself, but who is careless with regard to the vows, and neglects penance and self-control, will not be a winner in the battle (of life). (4t)

“He is empty like a clenched [2] fist, (of no value) like an uncoined [3] false Karshapana or like a piece of glass resembling turquoise, he is held lightly by men of discernment.

“He who has the character of a sinner, though he lays great stress on the outward signs of his calling [4] as a means of living; he who does not control himself, though he pretends to do so; will come to grief for a long time.

“As the poison Kalakuta kills him who drinks it; as a weapon cuts him who awkwardly handles it; as a Vetala kills him who does not lay him; so the Law harms him who mixes it up with sensuality.

“He who practises divination from bodily marks and dreams, who is well versed in augury and superstitious rites, who gains a sinful living by practising magic tricks [5], will have no refuge at the time (of retribution).

“The sinner, always wretched, goes from darkness to darkness, to utter misery; the unholy man who breaks the rules of monks, rushes, as it were, to hell, and to be born again as a brute.

“He who accepts forbidden alms, viz. such food as he himself asks for, as has been bought for his sake, or as he gets regularly (as by right and custom), who like fire devours everything, will go to hell from here, after having sinned.

“A cut-throat enemy will not do him such harm as his own perversity will do him; the man without pity will feel repentance in the hour of death.

“In vain he adopts nakedness, who errs about matters of paramount interest; neither this world nor the next will be his; he is a loser in both respects in the world.

“Thus the self-willed sinner who leaves the road of the highest Ginas, who with the appetite of an osprey is desirous of pleasure, will grieve in useless sorrow.

“A wise man who hears this discourse, an instruction full of precious wisdom, and who deserts every path of the wicked, should walk the road of the great Nirgranthas.

“He who possesses virtuous conduct and life, who has practised the best self-control, who keeps from sinful influences [1], and who has destroyed his Karman, will reach (in the end) the greatest, best, and permanent place (viz. mukti),”

Thus the austere and calm, great ascetic and great sage who kept great vows and possessed great fame, preached at great length this great sermon: the great duty of the Nirgranthas.

And king Srenika, pleased, spoke thus: 'You have truly shown what it is to be without protection.

'You have made the best use of human birth, you have made a true gain, O great sage, you are a protector (of mankind at large) and of your relations, for you have entered the path of the best Ginas.

'You are the protector of all unprotected beings, O ascetic; I ask you to forgive me: I desire you to put me right.

'That by asking you I have disturbed your meditation, and that I invited you to enjoy pleasures, all this you must forgive me.'

When the lion of kings had thus, with the greatest devotion, praised the lion of houseless monks, he, together with his wives, servants, and relations, became a staunch believer in the Law, with a pure mind.

The ruler of men, with the hair on his body joyfully erected, bowed his head (to the monk), keeping him on his right side, and departed.

And the other, rich in virtues, protected by the three Guptis, and abstaining from injuring (living beings) in the three ways (viz. by thought, words, and acts), travelled about on the earth, free like a bird, and exempt from delusion.

Thus I say.


  • 100:1 Atthadhammagaim = arthadharmagati. I think this equal to artha dharma moksha, though the commentators offer a different explanation by making gati mean gnana. The phrase is derived from the typical expression kamarthadharmamoksha by leaving out kama, which of course could not be admitted by ascetics.
  • 100:2 He is identical with Bimbisara of the Buddhists; see my edition of the Kalpa Sutra, introduction, p. 2.
  • 100:3 The following verses prove that kaitya denotes park here as the word is explained by the scholiast in IX, 9.
  • 100:4 Nandana is Indra's park.
  • 101:1 Bhadantanam.
  • 101:2 The verb is wanting in this verse, and there is an apparent tautology in the words as they now stand. This is an obvious mark of a corruption in the text, which, however, I do not know how to remove by a plausible conjecture.
  • 102:1 Pottham or pokkham. The commentators are at a loss to give an etymology of this word, or rather have a choice of them to offer, which comes to the same thing, and proves that nothing certain was known. If pottha is the correct form, it may be derived from pra + ut + stha, and mean 'origin;' if pokkha or pukka is the right spelling it is prikkha, and may mean 'etymology.'
  • 102:2 Purana purabhedani. As usual the commentators give a purely etymological explanation. But it is obvious that purabhedana must have a similar meaning as purandara = Indra, or purabhid Siva. The latter word occurs in later literature only, and, besides, Siva does not yet seem to have been generally acknowledged as the supreme god, when and where the Gaina Sutras were composed. The Vedic word purbhid, 'destroyer of castles,' also presents itself as an analogy; though it is not yet the exclusive epithet of a god, it is frequently applied to Indra.
  • 102:3 To render antarikkha or antarittha. The Guzerati translation renders it hriday a.
  • 103:1 Kauppaya = Katuhpada. Four branches of medical science are intended.
  • 103:2 Phittai = bhrasyati, Hemakandra's Prakrit Grammar, iv, 177.
  • 104:1 See above, <page 94>.
  • 104:2 The verses 38-53 are apparently a later addition because the subject treated in them is not connected with that of the foregoing part, and they are composed in a different metre.
  • 105:1 These are the five Samitis, see above, p. 50.
  • 105:2 Polla or pulla, explained antah-sushira 'hollow in the middle.'
  • 105:3 Ayantita = ayantrita. My translation is but conjectural. Perhaps the regular coins are not meant, but stamped lumps of metal, which were current long before coins were introduced.
  • 105:4 Literally, 'the flag of the seers;' the broom are meant.
  • 105:5 Kuhedavigga.
  • 106:1 Nirasava = nirasrava. For the asravas, see <page 55>, note .

21 - samudrapala

In Kampa there lived a Sravaka, the merchant Palita, who was a disciple of the noble and venerable Mahavira.

As a Sravaka he was well versed in the doctrines of the Nirgranthas. Once he went by boat to the town of Pihunda on business.

A merchant gave him his daughter while he was doing business in Pihunda. When she was big with child, he took her with him on his returning home.

Now the wife of Palita was delivered of a child at sea; as the boy was born at sea (samudra), he was named Samudrapala.

Our merchant, the Sravaka, went leisurely to Kampa, to his house; in his house the boy grew up surrounded by comfort.

He studied the seventy-two arts, and acquired knowledge of the world [1]; he was in the bloom of youth, and had a fine figure and good looks. His father procured him a beautiful wife, Rupini, with whom he amused himself in his pleasant palace, like a Dogundaga god [2].

Once upon a time he saw from the window of his palace a man sentenced to death, dressed for execution, on his way to the place of execution.

Agitated by what he saw, Samudrapala spoke thus: 'Of wicked actions this is the bad result.'

He became enlightened at once, the venerable man, and he was immensely agitated; he took leave of his parents, and entered the state of houselessness.

Abandoning the great distress to which the worldly [1] are liable, the great delusion, and whatever causes fear, one should adopt the Law of monks [2], the vows, the virtues, and the (endurance of) calamities.

One should keep the five great vows, viz. not to kill, to speak the truth, not to steal, to be chaste, to have no property whatever; a wise man should follow the Law taught by the Ginas.

A monk should have compassion on all beings, should be of a forbearing character, should be restrained and chaste, and abstaining from everything sinful; he should live with his senses under control.

Now and then [3] he should travel in one country, taking into consideration its resources and his own ability; like a lion he should not be frightened by any noise; and whatever words he hears, he should not make an improper reply.

In utter indifference he should walk about, and bear everything, be it pleasant or unpleasant; he should not approve of everything everywhere, nor care for [1] respectful treatment or blame.

There are many opinions here among men, which a monk places in their true light; there will rise many dangerous and dreadful calamities, caused by gods, men, or animals, which are difficult to be borne and cause easily-discouraged men to sink under them; but a monk who comes in contact with them will not be afraid, like a stately elephant at the head of the battle. (16, 17)

Cold and heat, flies and gnats, unpleasant feelings, and many diseases attack the body; without flinching [2] he should bear them, and should not recall to his memory the pleasures he once enjoyed.

Giving up love, hatred, and delusion, a monk who is always careful and who is steadfast even as Mount Meru cannot be shaken by the storm, should bear calamities, guarding himself.

A great sage should be neither too elevated by pride nor too humble, he should not care for respectful treatment nor blame; an ascetic who has ceased (to act), will by means of his simplicity enter the path of Nirvana.

He is neither grieved nor pleased (by anything) [1], he abandons his relations with men, he ceases (to act), is intent on the benefit of his soul, he strives for the highest good (viz. mukti), and uses the means to reach it, free from sorrow, egoism, and any kind of property.

A merciful (monk) should use beds distant from others, which are not got ready for his sake [2] nor strewn (with leaves or things considered to be possessed of life); he should sustain such hardships as the sages are accustomed to.

The great sage (Samudrapala), understanding the sacred lore and practising completely the best Law, shone forth like the sun in the sky, being possessed of the highest knowledge and glory.

Having annihilated his Karman both meritorious and sinful, being steadfast [1], and free from all fetters, Samudrapala crossed the ocean-like Flood of worldly existence and obtained exemption from transmigration.

Thus I say.


  • 108:1 To render nitikovida.
  • 108:2 For Dogundaga, see above, <page 88>, note .
  • 109:1 Saggantha = sagrantha, which is obviously the opposite of nirgrantha. The commentators correct samgamtha in samgam ka. The original reading is in MS. B. A. has samgamtha, and so had C. originally, but it corrects the tha into ka. According to the commentators we should translate: abandoning worldly attachment which causes great distress, great delusion, black (Lesya), and dangers, one should
  • 109:2 Paryaya-dharma. Paryaya means a state under which a substance presents itself. Here is meant the state of the soul in pravragya, i.e. sramanya-paryaya; compare the expressions khadmastha-paryaya and kevali-paryaya. Paryaya-dharma is here equal to prayragya-dharma, Law of the monks.
  • 109:3 Kalena kalam, the commentators supply kurvan, and explain the passage as follows: kalena, i.e. in a paurushi (four [p. 110] hours) less one quarter of it, kalam, i.e. what is proper for the time. The meaning would be 'doing at every time what is proper or prescribed to do at it.' But this explanation looks very artificial; I think that the expression kalena kalam is an adverb of the same type as maggham magghena and many others.
  • 110:1 Samgae. This word may be samyata in this place; but in verse 20, where the same line occurs again, it cannot be so interpreted, because there the word samgae occurs twice; once it has the meaning of samgata, but in the passage under discussion it must be a verb, and it is rendered there sangayet = sangam kuryat by the commentators.
  • 110:2 Akukkuo, translated akukuga, derived from the root kug 'to warble, to groan;' it would therefore mean 'without complaint.' But in I, 30 we have appakukkue, derived from the root kuk to bend, to be crooked,' and it is rendered alpaspandana. The same meaning applies in the present case.
  • 111:1 This is the meaning commonly given to the frequently occurring phrase arairaisahe. Another interpretation is: samyama-samyamavishaye, tabhyam na badhate.
  • 111:2 Nirovalevai = nirupalipta. By upalepa may be meant 'dirt,' but the author of the Avakuri explains upalepa as consisting in abhishvanga affection: It is almost impossible to render satisfactorily so vague an expression.
  • 112:1 Nirangana = samyame niskala, immovable with regard to self-control.

22 - rathanemi

In the town of Sauryapura [2] there was a powerful king, Vasudeva by name, who possessed the characteristic marks of a king.

He had two wives, Rohini and Devaki; each of them had a beloved son, Rama and Kesava.

In the town of Sauryapura there was (another) powerful king, Samudravigaya by name, who possessed the characteristic marks of a king.

His wife was Siva by name; and her famous son was the venerable Arishtanemi, the saviour of the world and the lord of ascetics.

This Arishtanemi, who was gifted with an excellent voice and possessed the thousand and eight lucky marks of the body, was a Gautama, and his skin was black.

His body was strong like that of a bull, and hard like steel; he was well proportioned, and had a belly like that of a fish.

Kesava asked the girl Ragimati [1] in marriage for him.

Now this daughter of an excellent king [2] was virtuous and well looking; she possessed all lucky marks of the body, and shone forth like the lightning Saudamani.

Her father said to the powerful Vasudeva: 'Let the prince come here that I may give him my daughter.'

He had taken a bath containing all (lucky) herbs, and had performed the customary ceremonies; he wore a suit of heavenly clothes and was decked out with ornaments.

Riding on the best mast elephant [3] of Vasudeva he looked beautiful, like a jewel worn on the head.

He sat under a raised umbrella, fanned by two chowries, and he was surrounded on all sides by a host of Dasarhas [4] and by a complete army drawn up in rank and file, while the heavenly sound of musical instruments reached the sky. (11, 12)

With such pomp and splendour the hero of the Vrishnis started from his own palace.

On his way he saw animals, kept in cages and enclosures, overcome by fear and looking miserable.

Seeing them on the point of being killed for the sake of their flesh, and to be eaten afterwards, the great sage spoke to his charioteer [1] thus:

'Why are [2] all these animals, which desire to be happy, kept in cages and enclosures?'

Then the charioteer answered: 'Lucky are these animals because at thy wedding they will furnish food for many people.'

Having heard these words, which announced the slaughter of many animals, the great sage, full of compassion and kindness to living beings, meditated thus:

'If for my sake many living beings are killed, I shall not obtain happiness in the next world.'

Then the famous man presented the charioteer with his pair of earrings, his neck-chain, and all his ornaments.

When he had formed his resolution, the gods descended (from heaven), according to the established custom, to celebrate, with great pomp together with their retinue, the event of his renunciation.

Surrounded by gods and men, and sitting on an excellent palankin, the Venerable One left Dvaraka and ascended mount Raivataka [1]

On arriving at the park he descended from his excellent palankin, surrounded by a crowd of thousands, and then his renunciation took place, while the moon was in conjunction with Kitra [2].

Then he himself plucked out his delightfully-perfumed, soft, and curled hair in five handfuls.

And Vasudeva said to that subduer of the senses, who had plucked out his hair: 'O lord of ascetics, may you soon obtain what you wish and desire.

'Increase in knowledge, faith, and right conduct, in forbearance and perfection!'

In this manner Rama and Kesava, the Dasarhas, and many people paid homage to Arishtanemi and then returned to the town of Dvaraka.

When the daughter of the king heard of the ordination of the Gina, laughter and gaiety forsook her, and she was overwhelmed with affliction' [3].

Ragimati thought: 'Shame upon my life, that I have been forsaken by him! it is better I should turn nun.'

Firm and decided she cut off her tresses which were black like bees and dressed with a brush and comb [1].

And Vasudeva said to her who had cut off her hair, and subdued her senses: 'Lady, cross the dreadful ocean of the Samsara without difficulty!'

When she had entered the order, the virtuous and very learned lady induced there many people, her relations and servants, to enter the order too.

On her way to mount Raivataka it began to rain; her clothes being wet, she entered a cave and waited there in the darkness while it was raining.

She took off her clothes and was naked as she was born, thus she was seen by Rathanemi [2], whose

She was frightened when she discovered herself alone with the monk; folding her arms over her breast she sank down trembling.

When the prince, Samudravigaya's son, saw her frightened and trembling, he spoke the following words:

'I am Rathanemi, O dear, beautiful, sweetly-speaking lady! Do accept me for your lover, O slender one [1], you shall have no cause to complain.

'Come, let us enjoy pleasures, for it is a rare chance to be born a human being; after we have enjoyed pleasures, we shall enter on the path of the Ginas.'

When Ragimati perceived that Rathanemi's strength of will was broken, and temptation had got the better of him, she did not lose her presence of mind and defended her Self on that occasion.

The daughter of the best king, true to self-control and her vows, maintained the honour of her clan and family, and her virtue, and spoke to him:

'If you owned the beauty of Vaisramana [2], the pleasing manners of Nalakubara [3], if you were like Purandara [4] himself, I should have no desire for you.

'Fie upon you, famous knight, who want to quaff the vomited drink for the sake of this life; it would be better for you to die [1].

'I am the daughter of the Bhoga-king [2], and you are an Andhakavrishni; being born in a noble family let us not become like Gandhana-snakes [3]; firmly practise self-control!

'If you fall in love with every woman you see, you will be without hold like the Hatha-plant [4], driven before the wind.

'As a herdsman or a keeper of goods does not own the things (he has the care of), so you will not truly own Sramanahood.'

Having heard these well-spoken words of the virtuous lady, he returned to the Law like an elephant driven by the hook [5].

Protected in thoughts, words, and acts, subduing his senses and keeping the vows, he practised true Sramanahood throughout life.

After practising severe austerities both of them became Kevalins, and having completely annihilated their Karman, they reached the highest perfection.

Thus act the enlightened, the wise, the clever ones; they turn from pleasures as did this best of men [1].

Thus I say.


  • 112:2 According to the Brahmanical account Vasudeva lived in Mathura. The name given to the town by the Gainas is apparently derived from Sauri, an epithet of Krishna, whose grandfather was Sura. Soriyapura may be Saurikapura or Sauryapura. The latter rendering adopted by our commentators is based on a wrong etymology.
  • 113:1 Raimai, Raimai, and Rayamati are the forms of her name in Prakrit; the spellings Ragimati and Ragamati are also met with in Sanskrit.
  • 113:2 Viz. Ugrasena. He was placed on the throne by Krishna on the death of Kamsa, cf. Vishnu Purana V, 21. He and Devaka were the sons of Ahuka, Kamsa was a son of Ugrasena, and Devaki a daughter of Devaka, loc. cit. IV, 14. According to the legend of Krishna, as told by the Brahmans and Gainas, Garasandha afterwards repeatedly attacked Mathura. Krishna therefore built Dvaraka on the shore of the western ocean, and sent thither the Yadava tribe, loc. cit. V, 22 and 23. The events narrated in the text must be understood to have occurred in Dvaraka, as is evident from verse 21.
  • 113:3 Gandhahastin, an elephant of the best class, whose very smell is sufficient, as is believed, to frighten common elephants, see verse 55.
  • 113:4 Dasara in Prakrit. They are a clan descended from Yadu.
  • 114:1 In verse 10 Arishtanemi rides on an elephant, but in the sequel he is supposed to travel in a car. Unless the poet can be charged with having made this blunder, which I think just possible, verse 10 must be considered a later addition.
  • 114:2 The form of the verb akkhahim for akkhanti is worthy of note, because him as ending of the third person plural belongs to Apabhramsa. It is interesting to find a true Apabhramsa form in a text so old as ours, for it seems to prove that at all times Apabhramsa went along with the common Prakrit, a vulgar or low with a high middle-Indian language.
  • 115:1 Raivataka is mount Girnar in Kathiawad. The hill is one of the most sacred places of the Gainas, and is covered with temples of the Ginas. It is also sacred to the Hindus on account of its connection with the history of Krishna. The poetical description of mount Raivataka forms the subject of the fourth sarga of the Sisupalavadha by Magha.
  • 115:2 The lunar mansion, the chief star of which is Spica or a Virginis.
  • 115:3 The lamentation of Ragimati on her husband's becoming an ascetic forms the subject of a curious Sanskrit poem called Nemidutakavya, by Vikrama, son of Sanghana, which has been edited in [p. 116] the Kavyamala of 1886. It is what is technically called a samasyapurana or gloss. The last line of each stanza is taken from the Meghaduta of Kalidasa, and the first three lines are added by the poet to make the whole fit the circumstances of his tale.
  • 116:1 Kukkaphanaga, in Sanskrit kurkaphanaka. According to the scholiasts phanaka is a comb made of bamboo.–I have translated, 'cut off her tresses,' but literally it is: 'plucked out her hair.' However, I do not think that women also are to pluck out their hair.
  • 116:2 Rathanemi was her husband's elder brother. According to a legend told in Haribhadra's Tika of the Dasavaikalika Sutra , Rathanemi fell in love with Ragimati. But that lady in order to make him see his wrong, vomited a sweet beverage she had drunk, in a cup and offered it him. On his turning away with disgust she explained to him her meaning: she too had been vomited, as it were, by Arishtanemi, notwithstanding which he wanted to have her. She then taught him the Gaina creed, and he became a monk.
  • 117:1 Suyanu = sutanu. This may, however, be a proper name, a synonym of Ragimati, for according to the Harivamsa 2029 and the Vishnu Purana IV, 14, Sutanu was a daughter of Ugrasena.
  • 117:2 Vaisramana is a Prakrit spelling for Vaisravana = Kubera.
  • 117:3 Nalakubara is Vaisramana's son.
  • 117:4 Indra.
  • 118:1 The verses 42, 43, 44, 46 have been received in the Dasavaikalika Sutra II, 7-10, see Leumann's edition of that Sutra quoted in the note, p. 116. A metrical German translation will be found in the same place.
  • 118:2 On the Bhogas see p. 71, note 2. It is perhaps here misspelt for Bhoga. In the Vishnu Purana, Kamsa, Ugrasena's son, is twice called Bhogaraga , in contradiction to the common tradition which makes him an Andhaka, compare Patangali on Panini IV, 1, 114.
  • 118:3 There are said to be two kinds of snakes, the gandhana and the agandhana. The former can be made to suck the poison from the wound they have inflicted; the other will rather die than do so. Cf. Leumann, loc. cit., p. 597, note *.
  • 118:4 Pistia Stratiotes, an aquatic plant.
  • 118:5 Devendra here refers to the story of the Nupurapandita, of which he gives a small portion in Prakrit. The whole story 's related in the Parisishtaparvan of Hemakandra, see the introduction to my edition of that work in the Bibliotheca Indica.
  • 119:1 Compare the last verse of the Ninth Lecture.

23 - kesi and gautama

There was a Gina, Parsva [3] by name, an Arhat, worshipped by the people, who was thoroughly enlightened and omniscient, a prophet of the Law, and a Gina.

And there was a famous disciple of this Light of the World, the young Sramana Kesi, who had completely mastered the sciences and right conduct.

He possessed the light of Sruta and Avadhi knowledge [1], and was surrounded by a crowd of disciples; wandering from village to village he arrived in the town of Sravasti.

In the district of that town there is a park, called Tinduka; there he took up his abode in a pure place to live and sleep in.

Now at that time there lived the Prophet of the Law, the Gina, who in the whole world is known as the venerable Vardhamana.

And there was a famous disciple of this Light of the World, the venerable Gautama by name, who had completely mastered the sciences and right conduct.

He knew the twelve Angas, was enlightened, and was surrounded by a crowd of disciples; wandering from village to village he too arrived in Sravasti.

In the district of that town there is a park Koshthaka; there he took up his abode in a pure place to live and sleep in.

The young Sramana Kesi and the famous Gautama, both lived there, protecting themselves (by the Guptis) and being careful.

The pupils of both, who, controlled themselves, who practised austerities, who possessed virtues, and who protected their Self, made the following reflection:

'Is our Law the right one, or is the other Law [1] the right one? are our conduct and doctrines right, or the other? (it)

'The Law as taught by the great sage Parsva, which recognises but four vows [2], or the Law taught by Vardhamana, which enjoins five vows?

'The Law which forbids clothes (for a monk), hr that which (allows) an under and upper garment? Both pursuing the same end, what has caused their difference?'

Knowing the thoughts of their pupils, both Kesi and Gautama made up their minds to meet each other.

Gautama, knowing what is proper and what is due to the older section (of the church), went to the Tinduka park, accompanied by the crowd, his pupils.

When Kesi, the young monk, saw Gautama approach, he received him with all becoming attention.

He at once offered Gautama the four pure kinds of straw and hay [3] to sit upon.

Kesi, the young Sramana, and the famous Gautama, sitting together, shone forth with a lustre like that of sun and moon.

There assembled many heretics out of curiosity, and many thousands of laymen;

Gods, Danavas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Kinnaras (assembled there), and there came together invisible ghosts [1] too.

Kesi said to Gautama, 'I want to ask you something, holy man.' Then to these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply: “Sir, ask whatever you like.” Then with his permission Kesi spoke to Gautama: (21, 22)

'The Law taught by the great sage Parsva, recognises but four vows, whilst that of Vardhamana enjoins five.

'Both Laws pursuing the same end, what has caused this difference? Have you no misgivings about this twofold Law, O wise man?'

Then to these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply: “Wisdom recognises the truth of the Law and the ascertainment of true things.

“The first [2] saints were simple but slow of understanding, the last saints prevaricating and slow of understanding, those between the two simple and wise; hence there are two forms of the Law [3].

“The first could but with difficulty understand the precepts of the Law, and the last could only with difficulty observe them, but those between them easily understood and observed them.”

'Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have destroyed my doubt; but I have another doubt which you must explain to me, Gautama.

'The Law taught by Vardhamana forbids clothes, but that of the great sage Parsva allows an under and upper garment.

'Both Laws pursuing the same end, what has caused this difference? Have you no misgivings about this twofold Law, O wise man?'

To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply: “Deciding the matter by their superior knowledge, (the Tirthakaras) have fixed what is necessary for carrying out the Law.

“The various outward marks (of religious men) have been introduced in order that people might recognise them as such; the reason for the characteristic marks is their usefulness for religious life and their distinguishing character.

“Now the opinion (of the Tirthakaras) is that knowledge, faith. and right conduct are the true causes of final liberation, (and not the outward marks).”

'Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have destroyed my doubt; but I have another doubt, which you must explain to me, Gautama.

'Gautama, you stand in the midst of many thousand (foes) who make an attack on you; how have you vanquished them [1]?

“By vanquishing one, five are vanquished; by vanquishing five, ten are vanquished; by this tenfold victory, I vanquish all foes.”

Kesi said to Gautama: 'Whom do you call a foe?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“Self is the one invincible foe, (together with the four) cardinal passions [2], (viz. anger, pride, deceit, and greed, they are five) and the (five) senses (make ten). These (foes), O great sage, I have regularly vanquished.”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'We see many beings in this world who are bound by fetters; how have you got rid of your fetters and are set free, O sage?'

“Having cut off all fetters, and having destroyed them by the right means, I have got rid of my fetters and am set free, O sage.”

Kesi said to Gautama: 'What do you call fetters?'

“Love, hatred, are heavy fetters, attachment is a dangerous one; having regularly destroyed them, I live up to the rules of conduct.”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'O Gautama, in the innermost heart there grows a plant which brings forth poisonous fruit; how have you torn it out?'

“I have thoroughly clipped that plant, and torn it out altogether with its roots; thus I have got rid of the poisonous fruit.”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What do you call that plant?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“Love of existence is that dreadful plant which brings forth dreadful fruit; having regularly torn it out, I live pleasantly.”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'Gautama, there is blazing up a frightful fire which burns [1] the embodied beings; how have you put it out?'

“Taking water, excellent water, from (the river) produced by the great cloud, I always pour it over my body; thus sprinkled the fire does not burn me.”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What do you call the fire?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“The passions are the fire; knowledge, a virtuous life, and penances are the water; sprinkled with the drops of knowledge the fire of the passions is extinguished and does not burn me.”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'The unruly, dreadful, bad horse, on which you sit, runs about, Gautama! how comes it to pass that it does not run off with you?'

“I govern it well in its course by the bridle of knowledge; it does not go astray with me, it keeps to the right path.”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this horse?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“The mind is that unruly, dreadful, bad horse; I govern it by the discipline of the Law (so that it becomes a well-) trained Kamboga-steed [1].”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'There are many bad roads in this world, which lead men astray; how do you avoid, Gautama, going astray as you are on the road?'

“They all are known to me, those who are in the right path and those who have chosen a wrong path; therefore I do not go astray, O sage!”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What do you call the path?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“The heterodox and the heretics have all chosen a wrong path; the right path is that taught by the Ginas; it is the most excellent path.”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'Is there a shelter, a refuge, a firm ground for the beings carried away by the great flood of water? do you know the island, O Gautama?'

“There is a large, great island in the midst of water, which is not inundated by the great flood of water.”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this island?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“The flood is old age and death, which carry away living beings; Law is the island, the firm ground, the refuge, the most excellent shelter.”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'On the ocean with its many currents there drifts a boat; how will you, Gautama, on board of it reach the opposite shore?'

“A boat that leaks will not reach the opposite shore; but a boat that does not leak, will reach it.”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this boat?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“The body is the boat, life is the sailor, and the Circle of Births is the ocean which is crossed by the great sages.”

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'In this dreadfully dark gloom there live many beings; who will bring light into the whole world of living beings?'

“The spotless sun has risen which illuminates the whole world; he will bring light into the whole world of living beings.”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this sun?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“Risen has he who put an end to the Circle of

'Well, Gautama (as in verse 28).

'Do you, O sage, know a safe, happy, and quiet place for living beings which suffer from pains [1] of body and mind?'

“There is a safe place in view of all, but difficult of approach, where there is no old age nor death, no pain nor disease.”

Kesi said to Gautama, 'What is this place called?' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the following reply:

“It is what is called Nirvana, or freedom from pain, or perfection, which is in view of all; it is the safe, happy, and quiet place which the great sages reach.

“That is the eternal place, in view of all, but difficult of approach. Those sages who reach it are free from sorrows, they have put an end to the stream of existence.”

'Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have destroyed my doubt; obeisance to you, who are not troubled by doubts, who are the ocean, as it were, of all Sutras.'

After his doubt had been solved, Kesi, of enormous sanctity, bowed his head to the famous Gautama.

And in the pleasant (Tinduka park) he sincerely adopted the Law of the five vows, which was proclaimed by the first Tirthakara, according to the teaching of the last Tirthakara.

In that meeting of Kesi and Gautama, knowledge and virtuous conduct were for ever brought to eminence, and subjects of the greatest importance were settled.

The whole assembly was greatly pleased and fixed their thoughts on the right way. They praised Kesi and Gautama: 'May the venerable ones show us favour!'

Thus I say.


  • 119:2 In this lecture we have a very interesting legend about the way in which the union of the old church of Parsva and the new church of Mahavira was brought about. A revival of this ancient difference seems to have caused the united church afterwards to divide again into the present Svetambara and Digambara sects. They do not continue the two primitive churches, but seem to have grown out of the united church.
  • 119:3 Parsva is the last but one Tirthakara, his Nirvana took place 250 years before that of Mahavira. This statement, which has been generally accepted, is, however, in seeming contradiction to the account of our text, according to which a disciple of Parsva, who is called a young monk kumara-sramana, met Gautama, i.e. Sudharman, the disciple of Mahavira. We therefore must take the word disciple, sise, as paramparasishya, that is not in its literal sense. See note [3], <page 122>.
  • 120:1 These are the second and third kinds of knowledge according to the Gaina classification. Sruta is the knowledge derived from the sacred books, and avadhi is limited or conditioned knowledge. See Bhandarkar, Report, p. 106.
  • 121:1 Viz. the Law of Parsva or the Law of Mahavira.
  • 121:2 Hence it is called kauggama katuryama. Chastity (maithunaviramana) was not explicitly enumerated, but it was understood to be contained in the fourth commandment: to have no property (aparigraha).
  • 121:3 The four kinds of straw are: sali vihi koddava ralaga, to which is added hay: ranne tanani.
  • 122:1 Bhuya = bhuta, explained Vyantara. The vantara or vanamantara are a class of ghosts. The second part of the word apparently is tara 'crossing,' and the first seems to contain an accusative vam or vanamam which may be connected with viha or vyoman 'air.'
  • 122:2 Those under the first Tirthakaras.
  • 122:3 The meaning of this explanation is as follows. As the vow of chastity is not explicitly mentioned among Parsva's four vows, but was understood to be implicitly enjoined by them, it follows that only such men as were of an upright disposition and quick understanding would not go astray by observing the four vows literally, i.e. by not abstaining from sexual intercourse, as it was not expressly forbidden.–The argumentation in the text presupposes a decay of the morals of the monastic order to have occurred between Parsva and Mahavira, and this is possible only on the assumption of a sufficient interval of time having [p. 123] elapsed between the last two Tirthakaras. And this perfectly agrees with the common tradition that Mahavira came 250 years after Parsva.
  • 124:1 This question does not refer to the difference in doctrines between Parsva and Mahavira, but is discussed here, as the commentator states, for the benefit of the pupils of both sages who are engaged in conversation. I think, however, that this and the following questions are asked and answered here by the disciples of the two Tirthakaras for a better reason than that given by the scholiast. For in them the leading topics of Gainism are treated in a symbolical way. Gautama at once understands the true meaning of the similes and interprets them to the satisfaction of Kesi. In this way the unity in doctrine subsisting between the Law of Parsva and that of Mahavira is demonstrated to the hearers of the dispute, after the differences had been explained away.
  • 124:2 Kashaya.
  • 125:1 In the original 'fire' is put in the plural because the four kashayas or cardinal passions are denoted by it.
  • 126:1 Kanthaka, see above, p. 47, note 2.
  • 128:1 Manase dukkhe stands for manasehim dukkhehim. It is an interesting instance of the dropping of case affixes, which probably was more frequent in the vernacular.

24 - the samitis

The eight articles [1] of the creed are the Samitis and the Guptis; there are five Samitis and three Guptis.

The Samitis [2] are: 1. irya-samiti (going by paths trodden by men, beasts, carts, and looking carefully so as not to occasion the death of any living creature); 2. bhasha-samiti (gentle, salutary, sweet, righteous speech); 3. eshana-samiti (receiving alms in a manner to avoid the forty-two faults that are laid down); 4. adana-samiti (receiving and keeping of the things necessary for religious exercises, after having carefully examined them); 5. ukkara-samiti (performing the operations of nature in an unfrequented place). The three Guptis (which are here included in the term Samiti in its wider application) are: 1. mano-gupti (preventing the mind from wandering in the forest of sensual pleasures by employing it in contemplation, study ); 2. vag-gupti (preventing the tongue from saying bad things by a vow of silence ); 3. kaya-gupti (putting the body in an immovable posture as in the case of Kayotsarga).

The eight Samitis are thus briefly enumerated, in which the whole creed taught by the Ginas and set forth in the twelve Angas, is comprehended.

1. The walking of a well-disciplined monk should be pure in four respects: in respect to 1. the cause [1]; 2. the time; 3. the road; 4. the effort [2].

The cause is: knowledge, faith, and right conduct; the time is day-time; the road excludes bad ways.

The effort is fourfold, viz. as regards: 1. substance, 2. place, 3. time, and 4. condition of mind. Hear me explain them.

With regard to substance: the (walking monk) should look with his eyes; with regard to place: the space of a yuga (i.e. four hastas or cubits); with regard to time: as long as he walks; and with regard to condition of mind: carefully [3].

He walks carefully who pays attention only to his walk and his body (executing it), whilst he avoids attending to the objects of sense, but (minds) his study, the latter in all five ways [1].

2. To give way to: anger, pride, deceit and greed, laughter, fear, loquacity and slander [2]; these eight faults should a well-disciplined monk avoid; he should use blameless and concise speech at the proper time. (9, 10)

3. As regards begging [3], a monk should avoid the faults in the search [4], in the receiving [5], and in the use [6] of the three kinds of objects, viz. food, articles of use, and lodging.

A zealous monk should avoid in the first (i.e. in the search for alms) the faults occasioned either by the giver (udgama) or by the receiver (utpadana); in the second (i.e. in the receiving of alms) the faults inherent in the receiving; and in the use of the articles received, the four faults [7].

4. If a monk takes up or lays down the two kinds of things belonging to his general and supplementary [1] outfit, he should proceed in the following way.

A zealous monk should wipe the thing after having inspected it with his eyes, and then he should take it up or put it down, having the Samiti in both respects [2]. (I 4)

5. Excrements, urine, saliva, mucus, uncleanliness of the body, offals of food, waste things, his own body (when he is about to die), and everything of this description (is to be disposed of in the way to be described).

[A place may be not frequented and not seen (by people), or not frequented but seen, or frequented and not seen, or frequented and seen. ] [3]

In a place neither frequented nor seen by other people, which offers no obstacles to self-control, which is even, not covered with grass or leaves [4], and has been brought into its present condition [1] not long ago, which is spacious, has an inanimate surface-layer [2], not too near (the village ), not perforated by holes, and is exempt from insects and seeds–in such a place he should leave his excrements (17, 18)

The five Samitis are thus briefly enumerated, I shall now explain in due order the three Guptis [3].

1. There is, 1. truth; 2. untruth; 3. a mixture of truth and untruth; 4. a mixture of what is not true, and what is not untrue. The Gupti of mind refers to all four [4].

A zealous monk should prevent his mind from desires for the misfortune of somebody else [5], from thoughts on acts which cause misery to living beings [6], and from thoughts on acts which cause their destruction [7].

2. The Gupti of speech is also of four kinds (referring to the four divisions as in verse 20).

A zealous monk should prevent his speech from (expressing) desires (as in verse 21).

3. In standing, sitting, lying down, jumping, going, and in the use of his organs, a zealous monk should prevent his body from intimating obnoxious desires, from doing acts which cause misery to living beings, or which cause their destruction. (24, 25)

These are the five Samitis for the practice of the religious life, and the Guptis for the prevention of everything sinful.

This is the essence of the creed, which a sage should thoroughly put into practice; such a wise man will soon get beyond the Circle of Births.

Thus I say.


  • 129:1 The word I have rendered 'article' is maya, the Sanskrit form of which may be mata or matra. The word is derived from the root ma 'to find room in,' and denotes that which includes in itself other things, see verse 3. The word may also mean matri 'mother,' as Weber understands it. But this is an obviously intentional double meaning.
  • 129:2 The definitions placed in parentheses in the text are taken from Bhandarkar's Report for 1883-1884, p. 98, note +, p. 100, note *.
  • 130:1 Alambana, literally support; explained: supported by which the mind becomes pure.
  • 130:2 Gayana = yatna; it consists chiefly in compassion with living creatures (givadaya).
  • 130:3 Upayukta.
  • 131:1 The 'five ways' are vakana, as explained in the Twenty-ninth Lecture, section section 39-23, below, p. 165 f. The commentators supply kuryat 'he should carry on his study.'
  • 131:2 Vikaha = vikatha, which does not occur in common Sanskrit. Perhaps it stands for vikattha 'boasting.'
  • 131:3 Eshana.
  • 131:4 Gaveshana.
  • 131:5 Grahanaishana.
  • 131:6 Paribhogaishana.
  • 131:7 There are altogether forty-six faults to be avoided. As they are frequently alluded to in the sacred texts, a systematical enumeration and description of them according to the Dipika will be useful.

There are sixteen udgama-doshas by which food becomes unfit for a Gaina monk:

1. Adhakarmika, the fault inherent in food, which a layman has prepared especially for religious mendicants of whatever sect.

2. Auddesika, is food, which a layman has prepared for a particular monk.

3. Putika, is food, which is pure on the whole, but contains particles impure on account of the first fault.

4. Unmisra, is food, of which a part only had been especially prepared for the monk in question.

5. Sthapanakarmika, is food, which has been reserved for the monk.

6. Prabhritika, is food, which has been prepared for some festivity.

7. Praduhkarana, when the layman has to light a lamp in order to fetch the alms for the monk.

8. Krita, when he has to buy the things.

9. Pramitya, when he has to fetch a ladle (? uddharaka) in order to draw out the food

10. Paravritti, when he replaces bad particles of the food by good ones, and vice versa.

11. Adhyahrita, when he has to fetch the food, from some distance.

12. Udbhinna, when he has to open locks before he gets at the food

13. Malahrita, when he has to take the food, from some raised or underground place.

14. Akkhidya, when the food, was taken by force from somebody.

15. Anisrishta, when a man gives from a store he possesses in common with other men, without asking their permission.

16. Adhyavapura, when the mendicant calls while the dinner is being cooked, and for his sake more food is put in the pot on the fire.

(Some of these faults are enumerated in the Aupapatika Sutra, section 96, III.)

There are sixteen utpadana-doshas; or such faults as are occasioned by the monk's using some means to make the layman give him alms:

1. Dhatrikarman, when the monk plays with the layman's children.

2. Dutakarman, when he gives him information about what his people are doing.

3. Nimitta, when he speaks in praise of almsgiving.

4. Agivika, when he makes his birth and family known to him.

5. Vapanika, when he expatiates upon his misery.

6. Kikitsa, when he cures sick people.

7. Krodhapinda, when he extorts alms by threats.

8. Manapinda, when he tells the layman that he has laid a wager with other monks that he would get alms from him.

9. Mayapinda, when he employs tricks or buffoonery in order to procure alms.

10. Lobhapinda, when he goes begging from a desire of good fare.

11. Samstava-pinda, when he flatters the layman.

12. Vidyapinda, when he makes a show of his learning; or when he conjures a god from whom to get alms.

13. Mantradosha, when he obliges the layman in some way or other.

14. Kurnayoga, when he makes himself invisible and then takes away the food

15. Yogapinda, when he teaches people spells, tricks

16. Mulakarman, when he teaches them how to obviate evils by roots, charms

There are ten faults of grahanaishana:

1. Sankita, when a monk accepts alms from a frightened layman.

2. Mrakshita, when the food is soiled (kharantita) by animate or inanimate matter.

3. Nikshipta, when the food is placed among animate things.

4. Pihita, when animate food is covered with inanimate matter, and vice versa.

5. Samhrita, when the layman has to take out the thing to be given from one vessel and puts it into another.

6. Dayaka, when the condition or occupation of the giver forbids accepting alms from him.

7. Unmisrita, when the layman mixes up pure with impure food.

8. Aparita (?), when one joint possessor gives away from the store against the other's will.

9. Lipta, when the layman gives food, with a ladle or his hand, soiled with milk, butter

10. Khardita, when in giving alms he spills milk

There are four faults of paribhogaishana:

1. Samyogana, when the monk puts together the ingredients for a good meal.

2. Apramana, when he accepts a greater than the prescribed quantity of food.

3. Ingala, when he praises a rich man for his good fare, or dhuma, when he blames a poor man for his bad fare.

4. Akarana, when he eats choice food on other occasions than those laid down in the sacred texts.

  • 133:1 See next page. [p. 135] Aughika and aupagrahika. The former is explained samudayika, the other denotes such things as are wanted occasionally only, as a stick. I cannot make out with certainty from the commentaries whether the broom is reckoned among the former or the latter.
  • 134:2 This means, according to the commentator, either in taking up or putting down, or with respect to the ogha and aupagrahika outfit, or with respect to substance and condition of mind.
  • 134:3 This verse, which is in a different metre (Arya), is apparently a later addition, and has probably been taken from an old commentary, the Kurni or the Bhashya.
  • 134:4 Agghusire = asushire, not perforated, not having holes. I translate according to the author of the Avakuri. The literal [p. 135] translation would give a wrong idea, as it would come to the same as the word bilavargita in the next verse.
  • 135:1 I.e. where the ground has been cleared not long ago by burning the grass
  • 135:2 Ogadhe, where the animate ground is covered by at least five digits of inanimate matter.
  • 135:3 Viz. of mind (20, 21), of speech (22, 23), and of the body (24, 25).
  • 135:4 See part i, p. 150, note 2.
  • 135:5 Samrambha.
  • 135:6 Samarambha.
  • 135:7 Arambha.

25 - the true sacrifice

There was a famous Brahmana, Gayaghosha by name, who was born in a Brahmanical family, but who was pledged to the performing of the yamas [1].

This great sage, who subdued all his senses, and who walked on the right road, came, on his wandering from village to village, to the town of Benares.

There outside of Benares he took up his lodgings in a pleasant park; there he took up his abode in a pure place to live and sleep in.

At the same time a Brahmana, versed in the Vedas, Vigayaghosha by name, offered a sacrifice in that town.

Now this houseless (monk) at the end of a fast of a month's duration, went to the sacrifice of Vigayaghosha to beg alms.

The priest wanted to turn the approaching monk off: 'I shall not give you alms, mendicant, beg somewhere else.

'Priests who are versed in the Vedas and are chaste as behoves offerers, who are versed in the Gyotishanga [1] and are well grounded in the sacrificial science, who are able to save themselves. and others, such priests ought to be presented with food and all they desire.' (7, 8)

When the great sage was thus refused by the priest, he was neither angry nor pleased, as he always strove for the highest good.

Not to obtain food, or drink, or whatever else he wanted, but to save these people he spoke the following words:

“You do not know what is most essential [2] in the Vedas, nor in sacrifices, nor in the heavenly bodies [3], nor in duties [4].

“Nor do you know those who are able to save themselves and others; but if you do, then speak out!”

The priest did not make a reply to defend himself against his insinuation; but he and all there assembled joined their hands and questioned the great sage:

'Tell us the most essential subject in the Vedas, and tell us what is most essential in the sacrifice; tell us the first of the heavenly bodies, and tell us the best of dharmas.

'Who are able to save themselves and others (viz. tell me). I ask you to solve this my doubt, O saint.'

“The most essential subject in the Vedas is the agnihotra, and that of the sacrifice is the purpose of the sacrifice [1]; the first of the heavenly bodies is the moon, and the best of dharmas is that of Kasyapa (i.e. Rishabha).

“The beautiful (gods) with joined hands praise and worship the highest Lord (i.e. the Tirthakara) as the planets, (praise) the moon.

“The ignorant (priests) pretend to know the sacrifice, those whose Brahmanical excellence consists in (false) science; they shroud themselves in study and penance, being like fire covered by ashes.

“He who is called by people a Brahmana and is worshipped like fire (is no true Brahmana). But him we call a true Brahmana, whom the wise point out as such.

“He who has no worldly attachment after entering the order, who does not repent of having become a monk [2], and who takes delight in the noble words, him we call a Brahmana.

“He who is exempt from love, hatred, and fear,

“A lean, self-subduing ascetic, who reduces his flesh and blood, who is pious and has reached Nirvana, him we call a Brahmana.

“He who thoroughly knows living beings, whether they move or not, and does not injure them in any of the three ways [2], him we call a Brahmana.

“He who does not speak untruth from anger or for fun, from greed or from fear, him we call a Brahmana.

“He who does not take anything that is not given him, be it sentient or not sentient, small or large, him we call a Brahmana.

“He who does not carnally love divine, human, or animal beings, in thoughts, words, or acts, him we call a Brahmana.

“He who is not defiled by pleasures as a lotus growing in the water is not wetted by it, him we call a Brahmana.

“He who is not greedy, who lives unknown, who has no house and no property, and who has no friendship with householders, him we call a Brahmana.

“He who has given up his former connections (with his parents ), with his kinsmen and relations, and who is not given to pleasure, him we call a Brahmana.

“The binding of animals (to the sacrificial pole), all the Vedas, and sacrifices, being causes of sin, cannot save the sinner; for his works (or Karman) are very powerful.

“One does not become a Sramana by the tonsure, nor a Brahmana by the sacred syllable om, nor a Muni by living in the woods, nor a Tapasa by wearing (clothes of) Kusa-grass and bark.

“One becomes a Sramana by equanimity, a Brahmana by chastity, a Muni by knowledge, and a Tapasa by penance.

“By one's actions one becomes a Brahmana, or a Kshattriya, or a Vaisya, or a Sudra.

“The Enlightened One has declared these (good qualities) through which one becomes a (true) Snataka [1]; him who is exempt from all Karman, we call a Brahmana.

“The most excellent twice-born men [2] who possess these good qualities, are able to save themselves and others.”

When thus his doubt had been solved, Vigayaghosha, the Brahmana, assented [3] to the great sage Gayaghosha and to his (speech).

Vigayaghosha, pleased, folded his hands and spoke as follows: 'You have well declared to me what true Brahmanahood consists in.

'You are a sacrificer of sacrifices, you are the most learned of those who know the Vedas, you know the Gyotishanga, you know perfectly the Law.

'You are able to save yourself and others; therefore do us the honour to accept our alms, O best of monks.'

“I do not want any alms; but, O Brahmana, enter the order at once, lest you should be drifted about on the dreadful ocean of the Samsara, whose eddies are dangers.

“There is glue (as it were) in pleasure: those who are not given to pleasure, are not soiled by it; those who love pleasures, must wander about in the Samsara; those who do not, will be liberated.

“If you take two clods of clay, one wet, the other dry, and fling them against the wall, the wet one will stick to it.

“Thus foolish men, who love pleasure, will be fastened (to Karman), but the passionless will not, even as the dry clod of clay (does not stick to the wall).”

When Vigayaghosha had learned the excellent Law from the houseless Gayaghosha, he entered the order.

Gayaghosha and Vigayaghosha both annihilated their Karman by self-control and penance, and reached the highest perfection.

Thus I say.


  • 136:1 Yama etymologically means 'restraint;' here it denotes the great vows of the Gainas; cf. XXIII, 12, p. 121 and note 2.
  • 137:1 It is worthy of note that, according to the opinion of our author, the knowledge of astronomy, as taught in the Gyotisha, was one Of the principal accomplishments of a priest. This quality of a priest must therefore have been more conspicuous to an outsider than Brahmanical books would make us believe.
  • 137:2 To render muha = mukha.
  • 137:3 Nakshatra.
  • 137:4 Dharma.
  • 138:1 Gannatthi veyasa muham = yagnarthi vedasam mukham. According to the Dipika sacrifice here means the ten virtues: truth, penance, content, patience, right conduct, simplicity, faith, constancy, not injuring anything, and Samvara.
  • 138:2 According to the commentators we should translate: He who does not embrace (his people) on meeting them, and is not sorry on leaving them.
  • 139:1 Niddhantamalapavagam. The commentator assumes a transposition of the members in this compound. Such irregular compounds are not unfrequent in our Prakrit. If, however, pavaga stands for papaka, the compound would be regular, and would refer not to 'gold,' but to the person described. In that case we must translate: whose impurities and sins had been annihilated.
  • 139:2 I.e. by thoughts, words, and acts.
  • 140:1 Snataka denotes a Brahman who has finished his studies; it here means as much as 'a perfect sage.'
  • 140:2 A various reading in one MS. adds, 'Ginas and Brahmanas' before dvigas.
  • 140:3 Samudaya tayam tam tu. The text is evidently corrupted. Samudaya stands, according to the commentators, for samadaya, but there is no finite verb with which to construe the absolute participle, either expressed or easily supplies'. Perhaps we must read samuvaya vayam = samuvaka vakas; for the perfect is retained in some cases. However, if this conjecture be right, the next line would be superfluous.

26 - the correct behaviour

I shall declare the correct behaviour (samakari) which causes freedom from all misery; by practising it the Nirgranthas have crossed the ocean of Samsara.

The correct behaviour of monks consists of (the following) ten parts: 1. avasyika; 2. naishedhiki; 3. aprikkhana; 4. pratiprikkhana; 5. khandana; 6. ikkhakara; 7. mithyakara; 8. tathakara; 9. abhyutthana; 10. upasampad. (2-4)

The avasyika is required when he leaves a room (or the presence of other monks on some necessary business); the naishedhiki, on entering a place; aprikkhana, (or asking the superior's permission) for what he is to do himself; pratiprikkhana, for what somebody else is to do; khandana, (or placing at the disposal of other monks) the things one has got; ikkhakara, in the execution (of one's intention by oneself or somebody else); mithyakara, in the blaming oneself (for sins committed); tathakara, (assent) in making a promise; abhyutthana, in serving those who deserve respect; and upasampad, in placing oneself under another teacher. Thus the twice fivefold behaviour has been declared. (5-7)

After sunrise during the first quarter (of the first Paurushi) [1] he should inspect (and clean) his things and pay his respects to the superior.

Then, with his hands joined, he should ask him:

If he is ordered to do some work, he should do it without tiring; if he is ordered to study, he should do it without allowing himself to be affected by any pains.

A clever monk should divide the day into four (equal) parts (called paurushi), and fulfil his duties (uttaraguna) in all four parts.

In the first Paurushi he should study, in the second he should meditate, in the third he should go on his begging-tour, and in the fourth he should study again.

In the month Ashadha the Paurushi (of the night) contains two feet (pada) [1]; in the month Pausha, four; in the months Kaitra and Asvayuga, three.

(The Paurushi) increases or decreases a digit [2] (angula) every week, two digits every fortnight, four digits every month.

The dark fortnight of Ashadha, Bhadrapada, Karttika, Pausha, Phalguna, and Vaisakha are known as avamaratras [3].

In the quarter of the year comprising the three months Gyeshthamula, Ashadha, and Sravana, the (morning-) inspection is to last six digits (beyond 1/4 Paurushi); in the second quarter, eight; in the third, ten; in the fourth, eight [1].

A clever monk should divide the night too into four parts, and fulfil his duties (uttaraguna) in all four parts.

In the first Paurushi he should study, in the second he should meditate, in the third he should leave off sleep, and in the fourth he should study again. 08)

When the nakshatra which leads the night [2] has reached the first quarter of the heaven, at dawn he should cease to study.

When a small part of the quarter is left [3], in which the (leading) nakshatra stands, during that space of time, being considered intermediate [4] (between two) days, a monk should watch.

In the first quarter (of the first Paurushi) he should inspect (and clean) his things, pay his respects to his superior, and then begin to study, not allowing himself to be affected by any pains [5].

In the (last) quarter of the first Paurushi, after paying his respect to the Guru, a monk should inspect his almsbowl, without, however, performing the Kala-pratikramana [1].

He should first inspect his mouth-cloth [2], then his broom [3], and taking the broom in his hand he should inspect his cloth.

Standing upright he holds his cloth firmly and inspects it first leisurely, then he spreads it, and at last he wipes it.

(He should spread the cloth) without shaking or crushing it, in such a way as to make the folds disappear, and to avoid friction of its parts against each other; he should fold it up six times in length, and nine times in breadth, and then he should remove living beings with his hand (spreading the cloth on the palm of his hand) [4].

He must avoid want of attention: 1. in beginning his work; 2. in taking up the corners of the cloth; 3. in folding it up; 4. in shaking out the dust; 5. in putting it down (on some other piece of cloth); 6. in sitting upon the haunches [5].

(One must further avoid) to hold the cloth loosely, or at one corner, or so as to let it flap, or so as to subject it to friction, or so as to shake it in different ways, or if one has made a mistake in the number of foldings [1]

There should be neither too little nor too much of inspection, nor an exchange (of the things to be inspected); this is the right way to do (the inspection), all other methods are wrong:–

(This is) if one engaged in inspecting his things converses or gossips (with anybody), renounces something [2], teaches another his lesson, or receives his own lesson from another, (he neglects his inspection).

He who is careful in the inspection, protects the six kinds of living beings, viz. the earth-bodies, water-bodies, fire-bodies, wind-bodies, plants, and animals.

He who is careless in the inspection, injures the six kinds of living beings (just enumerated) [3].

In the third Paurushi he should beg food and drink, (he may do so) for any of the following six reasons:

1. To prevent an illness; 2. to serve the Guru; 3. to be able to comply with the rules about walking [1]; 4. to be able to comply with the rules of self-control [2]; 5. to save one's life; 6. to be able to meditate on the Law.

A zealous Nirgrantha or Nirgranthi may omit to beg food for the following six reasons, when it will not be considered a transgression of his duties:

1. In case of illness; 2. in case of a disaster; 3. to preserve one's chastity and the Guptis; 4. out of compassion for living beings; 5. in the interest of penance; 6. to make an end of one's life [3].

Taking his whole outfit a monk should inspect it with his eye; he then may walk about, but not beyond half a Yogana.

In the fourth Paurushi he should put away his almsbowl (after having eaten his meal), and then begins his study which reveals all existent things.

In the last quarter of the fourth Paurushi he should pay his reverence to the Guru, and after having performed Kala-pratikramana [4], he should inspect his lodging.

A zealous monk should also inspect the place where to discharge his excrements and urine, and then (till the sun sets) he should go through Kayotsarga without allowing himself to be affected by any pains.

Then he should, in due order, reflect on all transgressions he has committed during the day, with regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct.

Having finished Kayotsarga, and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess his transgressions committed during the day.

Then having recited the Pratikramana Sutra [1], and having annihilated his sins, he should pay his reverence to the Guru (asking absolution) [2], and go through Kayotsarga without allowing himself to be affected by any pains.

Having finished Kayotsarga, and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should pronounce the customary (three) praises, and then wait for the proper time.

In the first Paurushi (of the night) he should study; in the second he should meditate; in the third he should leave off sleep; and in the fourth he should study again [3].

In the fourth Paurushi he should wait for the proper time and then begin to study without waking the householders.

In the last quarter of the fourth Paurushi he should pay his reverence to the Guru, and performing Kala-pratikramana [4] he should wait for the proper time.

When the (time for) Kayotsarga has arrived, he should go through it, without allowing himself to be affected by any pains.

Then he should, in due order, reflect on all transgressions he has committed during the night with regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct.

Having finished Kayotsarga and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess his transgressions committed during the night.

Then having recited the Pratikramana Sutra .

He should consider what kind of austerities he will undertake. Having finished his Kayotsarga, he pays his reverence to the Guru.

Having finished Kayotsarga and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should practise those austerities which he has decided upon, and praise the perfected saints.

Thus has been summarily declared the correct behaviour, by practising which many souls have crossed the ocean of Samsara.

Thus I say.


  • 142:1 The southern half of the sky or horizon, between east and west, is divided into four quarters, each of which corresponds in time to a paurushi, the fourth part of a day or a night.
  • 143:1 A paurushi is the fourth part of a day or a night; about the time of the equinoxes, when the day as well as the night contains twelve hours, the paurushi contains three hours. At the same time, in the months Kaitra and Asvina, as we learn from our verse, the paurushi has three feet, padas. The pada therefore is equal to one hour exactly. The duration of the night at the summer solstice was therefore estimated at eight hours and at the winter solstice at sixteen, just as in the Vedic Gyotisha.
  • 143:2 A digit, angula, is apparently the twelfth part of a foot, pada = one hour. The digit is therefore equal to five minutes.
  • 143:3 The fortnights, mentioned in the text, consist of fourteen days only, the remaining ones of fifteen days. In this way the lunar year is made to consist of 354 days.
  • 144:1 Or thirty, forty, fifty, forty minutes respectively.
  • 144:2 I.e. the nakshatra which is in opposition to the sun, and accordingly rises at the same time with the setting sun, and sets with the rising sun, compare Ramayana III, 16, 12.
  • 144:3 I.e. is about to set.
  • 144:4 Verattiya, translated vairatrika; but there is no such word in Sanskrit. It apparently stands for dvairatrika, belonging to two days. As the Hindus reckon the day from sunrise, the time immediately preceding it may be considered to belong to two days.
  • 144:5 Compare verse 8.
  • 145:1 I.e. expiation of sins concerning time, cf. Bhandarkar's Report, p. 98, note ++. It seems to consist in Kayotsarga.
  • 145:2 This is a piece of muslin which the Gaina monks place before their mouth in speaking, in order to prevent insects being drawn in the mouth by the breath.
  • 145:3 It is here called gokkhaga = gukkhaka, originally a bunch of peacocks' feathers, it is so still, if I am not mistaken, with the Digambaras, whilst the Svetambaras use other materials, especially cotton threads.
  • 145:4 Much in my translation is conjectural. There are some technicalities in these verses which I fail to understand clearly, notwithstanding the explanations of the scholiasts.
  • 145:5 Vedika.
  • 146:1 I am not sure of having hit the true meaning. The commentators reckon this counting as a fault, while the text itself seems to enjoin it.
  • 146:2 Dei pakkakkhanam. The meaning is, I believe, that during the time of inspection one should not make up one's mind to abstain from this or that because one is to devote one's whole attention to the inspection of one's things.
  • 146:3 The Dipika places this verse before the last and construes it with verse 29, making out the following meaning: if one, engaged in inspecting his things, converses or gossips, then, being careless in the inspection, he injures
  • 147:1 Iriyatthae; for one will not be careful about walking (irya-samiti) if too hungry or thirsty.
  • 147:2 For one might eat forbidden food if too hungry.
  • 147:3 It may be remarked here that the verses 25, 16, 19, 20, 24, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34, 35 are in the Arya-metre while the rest of the lecture is in Sloka.
  • 147:4 Compare note [1], <page 145>.
  • 148:1 Padikamittu = pratikramya, explained pratikramanasutram uktva.
  • 148:2 According to the Dipika: having repeated the three Gathas beginning ariyauvagghaya.
  • 148:3 This verse is the same as verse 18, except a verbal difference in the last line.
  • 148:4 Padikamittu kalassa, see <page 145>, note [1]. The Dipika here explains this phrase by: doing acts proper for that time.

27 - the bad bullocks

There was a Sthavira and Ganadhara [1], the learned sage Garga. This leader of the Gana once made the following reflections:

'He who rides in a car, crosses a wilderness; he who rides, as it were, in (the car of) religious exercise, crosses the Samsara.

'But he who puts bad bullocks [1] before his car, will be tired out with beating them; he will feel vexation, and his goad will be broken (at last).

'(A bad bullock) will bite its mate in the tail; it will wound the other [2]; it will break the pin of the yoke [3], or it will leave the road.

'It will fall down on its side, or sit down, or lie down; it will jump up or caper, or it will obstinately make for a young cow.

'It will furiously advance with its head lowered for an attack, or angrily go backward; it will stand still as if dead, or run at full speed.

'The cursed beast [4] will rend asunder the rope, or in its unruliness break the yoke; and roaring it will break loose and run off.

'Just as bad bullocks are when put before a car, so are bad pupils when yoked, as it were, to the car of the Law; they break down through want of zeal.

'Some attach great importance [5] to their success; some to their good fare; some to their comfort; some nurse their anger.

'Some are averse to begging; some are afraid of insults and are stuck up; (how can) I convince them by reasons and arguments [1] (?)

'(A bad pupil) makes objections, and points out (imagined) difficulties; he frequently acts in opposition to the words of the superiors.

'(He will say if sent to a lady): “She does not know me, she will give me nothing; I suppose she will be gone out; send some other monk there.”

'If sent on an errand, they do not do what they were bidden [2], but stroll about wherever they like; or deporting themselves like servants of the king [3], they knit their brows (when speaking to other people).

'After they have been instructed, admitted into the order, and nourished with food and drink, they disperse in all directions like geese whose wings have grown.'

Now this driver (viz. Garga), who had to deal with bad bullocks, thought: 'What have I to do with bad pupils? I am disheartened.

'As are bad pupils, so are bad bullocks; I shall leave these lazy donkeys, and shall practise severe austerities.'

That noble man, who was full of kindness, grave, and always meditating, wandered about on the earth, leading a virtuous life.

Thus I say.


  • 149:1 Gana seems to correspond to the modern Gakkha; see part i, p. 288, note 2. Ganadhara, therefore, does not denote here, as usual, a disciple of Tirthakara.
  • 150:1 Khalumka = galivrishabha. Gali is explained in the dictionaries: a strong but lazy bull. In verse 16 we meet with galigaddaha = galigardabha, as synonymous with khalumka.
  • 150:2 The commentator understands the first line of this verse as having reference to the angry driver. But though an angry driver will perhaps, for all I know, put his bullock's tail to his teeth, still it is harder to supply another subject in the first line than in the second, and in the following verses.
  • 150:3 Samila = yugarandhrakilaka, Avakuri.
  • 150:4 Khimala = gara, see Hemakandra, Desi Kosha 3, 27. It is a coarse term, which I replace by another, though probably the language of our coach-drivers might supply us with a more idiomatic rendering.
  • 150:5 Garava, cf. <page 98>, note .
  • 151:1 The metre of this verse seems to have originally been Arya, but an attempt has been made to change it into Anushtubh. We meet here with the interesting form anusasammi (read anusasammi) = anusasmi.
  • 151:2 This seems to be the meaning of the word paliumkanti. The commentators say, after other explanations, that they pretend not to have met the person to whom they were sent.
  • 151:3 Ragavetthim va mannanta; vetthi = vishti, hire.

28 - the road to final deliverance

Learn the true road leading to final deliverance, which the Ginas have taught; it depends on four causes and is characterised by right knowledge and faith.

I. Right knowledge; II. Faith; III. Conduct; and IV. Austerities; this is the road taught by the Ginas who possess the best knowledge.

Right knowledge, faith, conduct, and austerities; beings who follow this road, will obtain beatitude.

I. Knowledge is fivefold: 1. Sruta, knowledge derived from the sacred books; 2. Abhinibodhika, perception [1]; 3. Avadhi, supernatural knowledge; 4. Manahparyaya [2], knowledge of the thoughts of other people; 5. Kevala, the highest, unlimited knowledge.

This is the fivefold knowledge. The wise ones have taught the knowledge of substances, qualities, and all developments [1].

Substance is the substrate of qualities; the qualities are inherent in one substance; but the characteristic of developments is that they inhere in either (viz. substances or qualities).

Dharma, Adharma, space, time, matter, and souls (are the six kinds of substances [2]); they make up this world, as has been taught by the Ginas who possess the best knowledge.

Dharma, Adharma, and space are each one substance only; but time, matter, and souls are an infinite number of substances.

The characteristic of Dharma is motion, that of Adharma immobility, and that of space [3], which contains all other substances, is to make room (for everything) [4].

The characteristic of time is duration [5], that of soul the realisation [6] of knowledge, faith, happiness, and misery.

The characteristic of Soul is knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities, energy, and realisation (of its developments).

The characteristic of matter is sound, darkness, lustre (of jewels ), light, shade, sunshine; colour, taste, smell, and touch.

The characteristic of development is singleness, separateness [1], number, form, conjunction, and disjunction.

1. giva, Soul; 2. agiva, the inanimate things; 3. bandha, the binding of the soul by Karman; 4. punya, merit; 5. papa, demerit; 6. asrava, that which causes the soul to be affected by sins; 7. samvara, the prevention of asrava by watchfulness; 8. the annihilation of Karman; 9. final deliverance: these are the nine truths (or categories).

He who verily believes the true teaching of the (above nine) fundamental truths, possesses righteousness.

II. Faith is produced by 1. nisarga, nature; 2. upadesa, instruction; 3. agna, command; 4. sutra, study of the sutras; 5. biga, suggestion; 6. abhigama, comprehension of the meaning of the sacred lore; 7. vistara, complete course of study; 8. kriya, religious exercise; 9. samkshepa, brief exposition; 10. dharma, the Law.

1. He who truly comprehends, by a spontaneous effort of his mind [2], (the nature of) soul, inanimate things, merit, and demerit, and who puts an end to sinful influences [3], (believes by) nature.

He who spontaneously believes the four truths (explicitly mentioned in the last verse), which the

2. But he who believes these truths, having learned them from somebody else, either a Khadmastha [1] or a Gina, believes by instruction.

3. He who has got rid of love, hate, delusion, and ignorance, and believes because he is told to do so, believes by command.

4. He who obtains righteousness by (the study of) the Sutras, either Angas or other works [2], believes by the study of Sutras.

5. He who by correctly comprehending one truth arrives at the comprehension of more – just as a drop of oil expands on the surface of water–believes by suggestion.

6. He who truly knows the sacred lore, viz. the eleven Angas, the Prakirnas [3], and the Drishtivada, believes by the comprehension of the sacred lore.

7. He who understands the true nature of all substances by means of all proofs (pramana) and nayas [4], believes by a complete course of study.

8. He who sincerely performs (all duties implied) by right knowledge, faith, and conduct, by asceticism and discipline, and by all Samitis and Guptis, believes by religious exercise.

9. He who though not versed in the sacred doctrines [1] nor acquainted with other systems [2], holds no wrong doctrines, believes by brief exposition.

10. He who believes in the truth [3] of the realities [4], the Sutras, and conduct, as it has been explained by the Ginas, believes by the Law.

Right belief depends on the acquaintance with truth [5], on the devotion to those who know the truth, and on the avoiding of schismatical and heretical tenets.

There is no (right) conduct without right belief [6], and it must be cultivated (for obtaining) right faith; righteousness and conduct originate together, or righteousness precedes (conduct).

Without (right) faith there is no (right) knowledge, without (right) knowledge there is no virtuous conduct [7], without virtues there is no deliverance [8], and without deliverance there is no perfection.

(The excellence of faith depends on the following) eight points: 1. that one has no doubts (about the truth of the tenets); 2. that one has no preference (for heterodox tenets); 3. that one does not doubt its saving qualities [1]; 4. that one is not shaken in the right belief (because heretical sects are more prosperous); 5. that one praises (the pious); 6. that one encourages (weak brethren); 7. that one supports or loves the confessors of the Law; 8. that one endeavours to exalt it.

III. Conduct, which produces the destruction of all Karman, is 1. samayika [2], the avoidance of everything sinful; 2. khedopasthapana, the initiation of a novice; 3. pariharavisuddhika, purity produced by peculiar austerities [3]; 4. sukshma samparaya, reduction of desire; 5. akashaya yathakhyata, annihilation of sinfulness according to the precepts of the Arhats, as well in the case of a Khadmastha as of a Gina. (32, 33)

IV. Austerities are twofold: external and internal; both external and internal austerities are sixfold. By knowledge one knows things, by faith one believes in them, by conduct one gets (freedom from Karman), and by austerities one reaches purity.

Having by control and austerities destroyed their Karman, great sages, whose purpose is to get rid of all misery, proceed to (perfection).

Thus I say.


  • 152:1 This is usually called mati, and is placed before sruta. The same enumeration recurs in XXXIII, 4, p. 193. Umasvati in Moksha Sutra I, 14, gives the following synonyms of mati: smriti, kinta, abhinibodha.
  • 152:2 Manananam.
  • 153:1 Dravya, guna, paryaya (paggava in Gaina Prakrit). Guna, quality, is generally not admitted by the Gainas as a separate category, see Silanka's refutation of the Vaiseshika doctrines at the end of his comments on Sutrakritanga I, 12 (Bombay edition, p. 482).
  • 153:2 They are frequently called astikayas, or realities.
  • 153:3 It is here called nabhas instead of akasa.
  • 153:4 Avagaha.
  • 153:5 Vartana.
  • 153:6 Upayoga.
  • 154:1 Singleness (ekatva) makes a thing appear as one thing, separateness (prithaktva) as different from others.
  • 154:2 Sahasamuiya = svayamsamudita. It is usually rendered sahasammati.
  • 154:3 Asravasamvara, see above, verse 14, 6 and 7.
  • 155:1 A khadmastha is one who has not yet obtained Kevala, or the highest knowledge; he is in the two gunasthanas (the fourteen stages in the development of the soul from the lowest to the highest) characterised as 1. upasantamoha, and 2. kshinamoha; viz. 1. that in which delusion is only temporarily separated from the soul, and 2. that in which delusion is finally destroyed.
  • 155:2 Bahira; apparently the same works are intended which are elsewhere called anangapravishta.
  • 155:3 The original has the singular.
  • 155:4 The seven nayas are 'points of view or principles with reference to which certain judgments are arrived at or arrangements made.' Bhandarkar, Report, p. 112.
  • 156:1 Pravakana.
  • 156:2 E. g. that of Kapila, Comm.
  • 156:3 Dharma.
  • 156:4 Astikaya; see note on verse 7.
  • 156:5 I.e. true things as soul
  • 156:6 Samyaktva righteousness.'
  • 156:7 Karanaguna. The commentators make this a dvandva compound, and interpret karana as vratadi, and guna as pindavisuddhi
  • 156:8 By deliverance I have rendered moksha, and by final perfection nirvana. Moksha denotes freedom from Karman, a condition which in Brahmanical philosophy is called givanmukti.
  • 157:1 Nivvitigikkha = nirvikikitsa. According to the commentary it may stand for nir-vid-gugupsa 'without loathing the saints.'
  • 157:2 See Bhandarkar, Report, p. 98, note ++.
  • 157:3 The Dipika contains the following details. Nine monks resolve to live together for eighteen months. They make one of their number their superior, kalpasthita, four become pariharikas, and the remaining four serve them (anupariharikas). After six months the pariharikas become anupariharikas and vice versa. After another six months the kalpasthita does penance and all the other monks serve him as anupariharikas.

29 - the exertion in righteousness

O long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following discourse from the venerable (Mahavira).

Here, forsooth, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, of the Kasyapa Gotra, has delivered this lecture called the exertion in righteousness. Many creatures, who truly believe in the subject (taught in this lecture), put their faith in it, give credence to it, accept it, practise it, comply with it, study it, understand it, learn it, and act up to it according to the precept (of the Ginas) [1]–have obtained perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, final beatitude, and have put an end to all misery.

This lecture treats of the following subjects:

1. samvega, longing for liberation;

2. nirveda, disregard of worldly objects;

3. dharmasraddha, desire of the Law;

4. gurusadharmikasusrushana, obedience to co-religionists and to the Guru.

5. alokana, confession of sins before the Guru;

6. ninda, repenting of one's sins to oneself;

7. garha, repenting of one's sins before the Guru;

8. samayika, moral and intellectual purity of the soul;

9. katurvimsatistava, adoration of the twenty-four Ginas;

10. vandana, paying reverence to the Guru;

11. pratikramana, expiation of sins;

12. kayotsarga, a particular position of the body;

13. pratyakhyana, self-denial;

14. stavastutimangala, praises and hymns;

15. kalasya pratyupekshana, keeping the right time;

16. prayaskittakarana, practising penance;

17. kshamapana, begging forgiveness;

18. svadhyaya, study;

19. vakana, recital of the sacred texts;

20. pariprikkhana, questioning (the teacher);

21. paravartana, repetition;

22. anupreksha, pondering;

23. dharmakatha, religious discourse;

24. srutasyaradhana, acquisition of sacred knowledge;

25. ekagramanahsannivesana, concentration of thoughts;

26. samyama, control;

27. tapas, austerities;

28. vyavadana, cutting off the Karman;

29. sukhasata, renouncing pleasure;

30. apratibaddhata, mental independence;

31. vikitrasayanasanasevana, using unfrequented lodgings and beds;

32. vinivartana, turning from the world;

33. sambhogapratyakhyana, renouncing collection of alms in one district only;

34. upadhipratyakhyana, renouncing articles of use;

35. aharapratyakhyana, renouncing food;

36. kashayapratyakhyana, conquering the passions;

37. yogapratyakhyana, renouncing activity;

38. sarirapratyakhyana, renouncing the body;

39. sahayapratyakhyana, renouncing company;

40. bhaktapratyakhyana, renouncing all food;

41. sadbhavapratyakhyana, perfect renunciation;

42. pratirupata, conforming to the standard;

43. vaiyavritya, doing service;

44. sarvagunasampurnata, fulfilling all virtues;

45. vitaragata, freedom from passion;

46. kshanti, patience;

47. mukti, freedom from greed;

48, argava, simplicity;

49. mardava, humility;

50. bhavasatya, sincerity of mind;

51. karanasatya, sincerity of religious practice;

52. yogasatya, sincerity of acting;

53. manoguptata, watchfulness of the mind;

54. vag-guptata, watchfulness of the speech;

55. kayaguptata, watchfulness of the body;

56. manahsamadharana, discipline of the mind;

57. vaksamadharana, discipline of the speech;

58. kayasamadharana, discipline of the body;

59. gnanasampannata, possession of knowledge;

60. darsanasampannata, possession of faith;

61. karitrasampannata, possession of conduct;

62. srotrendriyanigraha, subduing the ear;

63. kakshurindriyanigraha, subduing the eye;

64. ghranendriyanigraha, subduing the organ of smell;

65. gihvendriyanigraha, subduing the tongue;

66. sparsanendriyanigraha, subduing the organ of touch;

67. krodhavigaya, conquering anger;

68. manavigaya, conquering pride;

69. mayavigaya, conquering deceit;

70. lobhavigaya, conquering greed;

71. premadveshamithyadarsanavigaya, conquering love, hate, and wrong belief;

72. sailesi, stability;

73. akarmata, freedom from Karman.

1. Sir, what does the soul obtain by the longing for liberation? By the longing for liberation the soul obtains an intense desire of the Law; by an intense desire of the Law he quickly arrives at an (increased) longing for liberation; he destroys anger, pride, deceit, and greed, which reproduce themselves infinitely; he acquires no (bad) Karman, and ridding himself of wrong belief which is the consequence of the latter, he becomes possessed of right faith; by the purity of faith some will reach perfection after one birth; nobody, however, who has got this purity, will be born more than thrice before he reaches perfection.

2. Sir, what does the soul obtain by disregard of worldly objects [1]? By disregard of worldly objects the soul quickly feels disgust for pleasures enjoyed by gods, men, and animals; he becomes indifferent to all objects; thereby he ceases to engage in any undertakings, in consequence of which he leaves the road of Samsara and enters the road to perfection.

3. Sir [1], what does the soul obtain by the desire of the Law? By the desire of the Law the soul becomes indifferent to pleasures and happiness to which he was attached; he abandons the life of householders, and as a houseless monk he puts an end to all pains of body and mind, which consist in (the suffering of) cutting, piercing, union (with unpleasant things) ; and he obtains unchecked happiness.

4. By obedience to co-religionists and to the Guru the soul obtains discipline (vinaya). By discipline and avoidance of misconduct (towards the teacher [2]) he avoids being reborn as a denizen of hell, an animal, a (low) man, or a (bad) god; by zealous praise of, devotion to, and respect for (the Guru) he obtains birth as a (good) man or god, gains perfection and beatitude, does all praiseworthy actions prescribed by discipline, and prevails upon others to adopt discipline.

5. By confession of sins (before the Guru) the soul gets rid of the thorns, as it were, of deceit, misapplied austerities [3], and wrong belief, which obstruct the way to final liberation and cause an endless migration of the soul; he obtains simplicity, whereby the soul which is free from deceit does not acquire that Karman which results in his having a carnal desire for a woman or eunuch [4], and annihilates such Karman as he had acquired before.

6. By repenting of one's sins to oneself the soul obtains repentance, and becoming indifferent by repentance he prepares for himself an (ascending) scale of virtues [1], by which he destroys the Karman resulting from delusion.

7. By repenting of one's sins before the Guru the soul obtains humiliation; feeling humiliated, he will leave off all blameable occupations [2], and apply himself to praiseworthy occupations, whereby a houseless monk will stop infinite disabling [3] developments.

8. By moral and intellectual purity (literally, equilibrium) the soul ceases from sinful occupations.

9. By the adoration of the twenty-four Ginas the soul arrives at purity of faith.

10. By paying reverence (to the Guru) the soul destroys such Karman as leads to birth in low families, and acquires such Karman as leads to birth in noble families; he wins the affection of people, which results in his being looked upon as an authority, and he brings about general goodwill.

11. By expiation of sins he obviates transgressions of the vows; thereby he stops the Asravas, preserves a pure conduct, practises the eight articles [4], does not neglect (the practice of control), and pays great attention to it.

12. By Kayotsarga he gets rid of past and present (transgressions which require) Prayaskitta [1]; thereby his mind is set at ease like a porter who is eased of his burden; and engaging in praiseworthy contemplation he enjoys happiness.

13. By self-denial he shuts, as it were, the doors of the Asravas; by self-denial he prevents desires rising in him; by prevention of desires he becomes, as it were, indifferent and cool towards all objects.

14. By praises and hymns he obtains the wisdom consisting in knowledge, faith, and conduct; thereby he gains such improvement, that he will put an end to his worldly existence [2], (or) be born afterwards in one of the Kalpas and Vimanas [3].

15. By keeping the right time he destroys the Karman which obstructs right knowledge.

16. By practising Prayaskitta [1] he gets rid of sins, and commits no transgressions; he who correctly practises Prayaskitta, gains the road and the reward of the road [4], he wins the reward of good conduct.

17. By begging forgiveness he obtains happiness of mind; thereby he acquires a kind disposition towards all kinds of living beings [5]; by this kind disposition he obtains purity of character and freedom from fear.

18. By study he destroys the Karman which obstructs right knowledge.

19. By the recital of the sacred texts he obtains destruction of Karman, and contributes to preserve the sacred lore, whereby he acquires the Law of the Tirtha [1], which again leads him to the complete destruction of Karman, and to the final annihilation of worldly existence.

20. By questioning (the teacher) he arrives at a correct comprehension of the Sutra and its meaning, and he puts an end to the Karman which produces doubts and delusion.

21. By repetition he reproduces the sounds (i.e. syllables) and commits them to memory.

22. By pondering (on what he has learned) he loosens the firm hold which the seven kinds of Karman, except the Ayushka [2] (have upon the soul); he shortens their duration when it was to be a long one; he mitigates their power when it was intense; (he reduces their sphere of action when it was a wide one) [3]; he may either acquire Ayushka-karman or not, but he no more accumulates Karman which produces unpleasant feelings, and he quickly crosses the very large forest of the fourfold Samsara, which is without beginning and end.

23. By religious discourses he obtains destruction of the Karman; by religious discourses he exalts the creed, and by exalting the creed he acquires Karman, which secures, for the future, permanent bliss.

24. By acquisition of sacred knowledge he destroys ignorance, and will not be corrupted by worldliness.

25. By concentration of his thoughts he obtains stability of the mind.

26. By control he obtains freedom from sins.

27. By austerities he cuts off the Karman [1].

28. By cutting off the Karman he obtains (the fourth stage of pure meditation characterised by) freedom from actions, by doing no actions he will obtain perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, and final beatitude, and will put an end to all misery.

29. By renouncing pleasures he obtains freedom from false longing, whereby he becomes compassionate, humble, free from sorrow, and destroys the Karman produced by delusion regarding conduct.

30. By mental independence he gets rid of attachment, whereby he will concentrate his thoughts (on the Law), and will for ever be without attachment and fondness (for worldly things).

31. By using unfrequented lodgings and beds he obtains the Gupti of conduct, whereby he will use allowed food, be steady in his conduct, be exclusively delighted with (control), obtain a yearning for deliverance, and cut off the tie of the eightfold Karman.

32. By turning from the world he will strive to do no bad actions, and will eliminate his already acquired Karman by its destruction; then he will cross the forest of the fourfold Samsara.

33. By renouncing collection of alms in one district only [1] he overcomes obstacles [2]; unchecked by them he exerts himself to attain liberation; he is content with the alms he gets, and does not hope for, care for, wish, desire, or covet those of a fellow-monk; not envying other monks he takes up a separate, agreeable lodging [3].

34. By renouncing articles of use [4] he obtains successful study; without articles of use he becomes exempt from desires, and does not suffer misery.

35. By renouncing (forbidden) food he ceases to act for the sustenance of his life; ceasing to act for the sustenance of his life he does not suffer misery when without food.

36. By conquering his passions he becomes free from passions; thereby he becomes indifferent to happiness and pains.

37. By renouncing activity he obtains inactivity, by ceasing to act he acquires no new Karman, and destroys the Karman he had acquired before.

38. By renouncing his body he acquires the pre-eminent virtues of the Siddhas, by the possession of which he goes to the highest region of the universe, and becomes absolutely happy.

39. By renouncing company he obtains singleness; being single and concentrating his mind, he avoids disputes, quarrels, passions, and censoriousness, and he acquires a high degree of control, of Samvara, and of carefulness [1].

40. By renouncing all food he prevents his being born again many hundreds of times.

41. By perfect renunciation [2] he enters the final (fourth stage of pure meditation), whence there is no return; a monk who is in that state, destroys the four remnants of Karman which even a Kevalin possesses, viz. vedaniya, ayushka, naman, and gotra [3]; and then he will put an end to all misery.

42. By conforming to the standard of monks [4] he obtains ease, thereby he will be careful, wear openly the excellent badges of the order, be of perfect righteousness, possess firmness and the Samitis, inspire all beings with confidence, mind but few things [5], subdue his senses, and practise, in a high degree, the Samitis and austerities.

43. By doing service he acquires the Karman which brings about for him the naman and gotra of a Tirthakara.

By fulfilling all virtues he secures that he will not be born again; thereby he will become exempt from pains of the body and mind.

45. By freedom from passion he cuts off the ties of attachment and desire; thereby he becomes indifferent to all agreeable and disagreeable sounds, touches, colours, and smells.

46. By patience he overcomes troubles.

47. By freedom from greed he obtains voluntary poverty, whereby he will become inaccessible to desire for property.

48. By simplicity he will become upright in actions, thoughts, and speech, and he will become veracious; thereby he will truly practise the Law.

49. By humility he will acquire freedom from self-conceit; thereby he will become of a kind and meek disposition, and avoid the eight kinds of pride.

50. By sincerity of mind he obtains purity of mind, which will cause him to exert himself for the fulfilment of the Law which the Ginas have proclaimed; and he will practise the Law in the next world too.

51. By sincerity in religious practice he obtains proficiency in it; being proficient in it he will act up to his words.

52. By sincerity of acting he will become pure in his actions.

53. By watchfulness [1] of the mind he concentrates his thoughts; thereby he truly practises control.

54. By watchfulness of speech he keeps free from prevarication; thereby he enables his mind to act properly.

55. By watchfulness of the body he obtains Samvara [1]; thereby he prevents sinful Asravas.

56. By discipline of the mind he obtains concentration of his thoughts; thereby he obtains development of knowledge, which produces righteousness and annihilates wrong belief.

57. By discipline of the speech he obtains development of faith, whereby he acquires facility of becoming enlightened, and destroys preventing causes.

58. By discipline of the body he obtains development of conduct, which causes him to conduct himself according to the regulation; thereby he destroys the four remnants of Karman which even a Kevalin possesses [2]; after that he obtains perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, and final beatitude, and he puts an end to all misery.

59. By possession of knowledge he acquires an understanding of words and their meaning; thereby he will not perish in the forest of the fourfold Samsara; as a needle with its thread will not be lost, thus the soul possessing the sacred lore [3] will not be lost in the Samsara; he performs all prescribed actions relating to knowledge, discipline, austerities, and conduct, and well versed in his own and in heterodox creeds he will become invincible.

60. By possession of faith he annihilates wrong belief which is the cause of worldly existence, and he will not lose his inner light; but he endues his Self with the highest knowledge and faith, and purifies it [1].

61. By possession of conduct he obtains a stability like that of the king of mountains [2] (viz. Meru), whereby a houseless monk destroys the four remnants of Karman which even a Kevalin possesses; after that he obtains perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, and final beatitude, and puts an end to all misery.

62. By subduing the organ of hearing he overcomes his delight with or aversion to all pleasant or unpleasant sounds, he acquires no Karman produced thereby, and destroys the Karman he had acquired before.

63-66. (All this applies also to his) subduing the organs of sight, of smelling, of tasting, and of touch (with regard to) pleasant colours, smells, tastes, and touches. (63-66)

67. By conquering anger he obtains patience; he acquires no Karman productive of anger [3], and destroys the Karman he had acquired before.

68. By conquering pride he obtains simplicity (as in 67, substituting pride for anger).

69. By conquering deceit he obtains humility (as in 67, substituting deceit for anger).

70. By conquering greed he obtains content (as in 67, substituting greed for anger).

71. By conquering love, hate, and wrong belief he exerts himself for right knowledge, faith, and conduct, then he will cut off the fetters of the eightfold Karman; he will first destroy the twenty-eight kinds [1] of Karman, which are productive of delusion; (then) the five kinds of obstruction to right knowledge [2], the nine kinds of obstruction to right faith [3], and the five kinds of obstacles (called Antaraya): the last three remnants of Karman he destroys simultaneously; afterwards he obtains absolute knowledge and faith, which is supreme, full, complete, unchecked, clear, faultless, and giving light (or penetrating) the whole universe; and while he still acts [4], he acquires but such Karman as is inseparable from religious acts [5]; the pleasant feelings (produced by it) last but two moments: in the first moment it is acquired, in the second it is experienced, and in the third it is destroyed; this Karman is produced, comes into contact (with the soul), takes rise, is experienced, and is destroyed; for all time to come he is exempt from Karman.

72. Then [6] when his life is spent up to less than half a muhurta, he discontinues to act, and enters upon the (third degree of) pure meditation [1], from which there is no relapse (to lower degrees), and which requires most subtile functions only (of his organs); he first stops the functions of his mind, then the functions of speech, then those of the body, at last he ceases to breathe. During the time required for pronouncing five short syllables, he is engaged in the final pure meditation, in which all functions (of his organs) have ceased, and he simultaneously annihilates the four remnants of Karman, viz. vedaniya, ayushka, naman, and gotra [2].

73. Then having, by all methods, got rid of his audarika, karmana (and taigasa) bodies, the soul takes the form of a straight line, goes in one moment, without touching anything and taking up no space, (upwards to the highest Akasa), and there develops into its natural form, obtains perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, and final beatitude, and puts an end to all misery.

This indeed is the subject of the lecture called exertion in righteousness, which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira has told, declared, explained, demonstrated.

Thus I say.


  • 158:1 Here we have no less than ten verbs, many of which are synonyms, with probably no well-defined difference in their meaning. This heaping of synonymous words is a peculiarity of the archaic style. The commentators always labour hard to assign to each word an appropriate meaning, but by sometimes offering different sets of explanations they show that their ingenuity of interpretation was not backed by tradition.
  • 161:1 Or aversion to the Circle of Births.
  • 162:1 In this way all paragraphs up to section 72 open with a question of always the same form. I drop the question in the sequel.
  • 162:2 Atyasatana.
  • 162:3 Nidana, cf. <page 60>, n. .
  • 162:4 This is the meaning of the words itthiveya napumsagaveyam [p. 163] = striveda, napumsakaveda, as explained by the commentators on XXXII, 102.
  • 163:1 Karanagunasredhim pratipadyate. It is difficult to render this phrase adequately; the meaning is that by successively destroying moral impurities one arrives at higher and higher virtues.
  • 163:2 Yoga, i.e. the cause of the production of Karman.
  • 163:3 Ghati, compare Bhandarkar, Report, p. 93, note *.
  • 163:4 See Twenty-fourth Lecture, p. 129 ff.
  • 164:1 Expiatory rites, alokana
  • 164:2 Antakriya, explained by mukti.
  • 164:3 The Kalpas and the Vimanas are the heavens of the Vaimanika gods, see below, <page 226>.
  • 164:4 By road is meant the means of acquiring right knowledge, and by the reward of the road, right knowledge. The reward of good conduct is mukti.
  • 164:5 Savvapanabhuyagivasatta. The pranas possess from two to four organs of sense, the givas five, the bhutas are plants, and the sattvas are all remaining beings.
  • 165:1 According to the commentaries, by Tirtha are meant the Ganadharas.
  • 165:2 Concerning the eight kinds of Karman, see XXXIII, 2 and 3, <page 192>. Ayushka is that Karman which determines the length of time which one is to live. A somewhat different explanation of this Karman is given by Bhandarkar, loc. cit., p. 97, note.
  • 165:3 The passage in question is an addition in some MSS., as the commentators tell us. The meaning seems to be that the Karman which was attached to many parts of the soul is restricted to fewer places by the influence of the purity superinduced on the soul by pondering.
  • 166:1 Vyavadana is the cutting off of the Karman and the subsequent purity of the soul.
  • 167:1 Sambhoga = ekamandalyam aharakaranam.
  • 167:2 Alambana, glanatadi.
  • 167:3 Dukkam suhase.ggam uvasampaggittanam viharai.
  • 167:4 Except such as are obligatory, e.g. his broom, the mukhavastrika
  • 168:1 Samahie = samahita or samadhiman.
  • 168:2 Sadbhava pratyakhyana. The Dipika gives the following explanation: he makes the renunciation in such a way that he need not make it a second time.
  • 168:3 Vedaniya is that Karman which produces effects that must be experienced, as pleasure or pain; ayushka is the Karman that determines the length of life; naman and gotra cause him to be born as such or such an individual in this or that family; see Thirty-third Lecture, verses 2 and 3, <page 192> f.
  • 168:4 Explained: sthavirakalpasadhuveshadharitvam.
  • 168:5 Appadileha = alpapratyupeksha; he has to inspect few things, because he uses only few.
  • 169:1 Gupti.
  • 170:1 For Samvara and Asrava, see above, <page 55>, note , and <page 73>, note .
  • 170:2 See above, section 41.
  • 170:3 Here is a pun on the word sutta = sutra, which means thread and Sutra, sacred lore, or knowledge acquired by the study of the Sutras.
  • 171:1 I.e. makes it contain nothing foreign to its own nature.
  • 171:2 Selesi = sailesi; sailesa is Meru, and its avastha, or condition, is sailesi.
  • 171:3 Or, perhaps, which results in experiencing anger.
  • 172:1 There are sixteen kashayas, nine no-kashayas, and three mohaniyas.
  • 172:2 These are the obstacles to the five kinds of knowledge: mati, sruta, avadhi, manahparyaya, kevala.
  • 172:3 They are: the obstacles to kakshurdarsana, to akakshurdarsana, to avadhidarsana, and to kevaladarsana, and five kinds of sleep (nidra). Concerning Antaraya, see <page 193>.
  • 172:4 Sayogin, i.e. while he has not yet reached the fourteenth gunasthana, the state of a Kevalin.
  • 172:5 Airyapathika.
  • 172:6 I.e. when he has become a Kevalin, as described in the preceding paragraph.
  • 173:1 Sukladhyana.
  • 173:2 See note on section 41.

30 - the road of penance

Now hear with concentrated mind, how a monk destroys by austerities the bad Karman which he had acquired by love and hatred.

By abstaining 1. from destroying life; 2. from lying; 3. from taking anything which is not given; 4. from all sexual indulgence; 5. from having any property; and 6. from eating at night, the soul becomes free from Asravas [1].

By possessing the five Samitis and the three Guptis, by freedom from passions, by subduing the senses, by vanquishing conceit [2], and by avoiding delusions, the soul becomes free from Asravas.

Hear attentively how a monk destroys (the Karman) acquired by love and hatred in the absence of the above-mentioned (virtues).

As a large tank, when its supply of water has been stopped, gradually dries up by the consumption of the water and by evaporation, so the Karman of a monk, which he acquired in millions [3] of births, is annihilated by austerities, if there is no influx of bad Karman. (5, 6)

Austerities are of two kinds: external and internal; external austerities are of six kinds, and internal are of six kinds [1].

External austerities are:

1. anasana, fasting; 2. avamodarika, abstinence [2]; 3. bhikshakarya, collecting alms; 4. rasaparityaga, abstention from dainty food; 5. kayaklesa, mortification of the flesh; 6. samlinata, taking care of one's limbs [3].

1. Fasting is of two kinds: a. itvara, temporary, and b. maranakala, fasting which precedes, and ends with death. Temporary fasting is either such in which a desire (for food) is present, or such in which no such desire exists. a. The temporary fasting is briefly of six kinds: 1. in the form of a line [4]; 2. in the form of a square; 3. in the form of a cube; 4. of a sixth power; 5. of a twelfth power; 6. of any arrangement. Temporary fasting (can be practised) for different objects which one has in mind. (10, 11) b. Fasting which is to precede death, is of two kinds with regard to the motions of the body: with change (of position) and without change.

And again it is twofold: admitting of relief [1], or not; one may either leave the place (which one has chosen to die in), or not leave it; in both cases one may not take any food.

2. Abstinence is briefly of five kinds: with regard to a. substance; b. place; c. time; d. state of mind; e. development. a. He who takes less food than he usually does [2], in the extreme case but one mouthful, performs abstinence with regard to substance. b. (Place means) a village, a scotfree town [3], a capital, a camp of merchants [4], a mine, a settlement of a wild tribe [5], a place with an earth wall [6], a poor town [7], a town with a harbour [8], a large town [9], an isolated town [10], and an open town [11].

In a hermitage, a vihara [1], a halting-place for procession [2], a resting-place for travellers [3], a station of herdsmen, a camp on high ground, a caravan's camp, a fortified place of refuge.

In gardens, on roads, in houses–all this is meant by place. In these and similar places he may (wander about). In this way he performs abstinence with regard to place.

1. peta, 2. ardhapeta, 3. gomutrika, 4. patangavithika, 5. sambukavartta, 6. ayatam-gatva-pratyagata [4]. c. Abstinence with reference to time (is observed by him) who goes about in that time of the four Paurushis of the day (which he selects for that purpose).

Or if he collects alms in a part of the third Paurushi, or in its last quarter, then he observes abstinence with reference to time. d. Abstinence with reference to state of mind (is observed by him) who accepts alms from a woman or man, from an adorned or unadorned person, from one of any age or dress, of any temper or colour: if that person does not change his disposition or condition [5]. (22, 23) e. A monk who observes abstinence according to the particulars which have been enumerated with regard to substance, place, time, and state of mind, observes abstinence with regard to development [1] too.

3. With regard to collecting alms there are the eight principal ways [2] how to collect them; the seven eshanas (or modes of begging) and other self-imposed restrictions.

4. Abstention from dainty food means abstention from such highly nourishing [3] food and drink as milk, curds, ghee

5. Mortification of the flesh consists in the different postures as Virasana, which benefit the soul, and which are difficult to perform.

6. Using unfrequented lodgings and beds consists in living and sleeping in separate and unfrequented places where there are neither women nor cattle.

Thus external austerities have been briefly explained; I shall now explain internal austerities in due order.

Internal austerities are:

1. prayaskitta, expiation of sins;

2. vinaya, politeness;

3. vaiyavritya, serving the Guru;

4. svadhyaya, study;

5. dhyana, meditation;

6. vyutsarga [1], abandoning of the body.

1. Expiation of sins is tenfold, what must be confessed [2] ; this is to be strictly observed by a monk; this is called expiation of sins.

2. Politeness consists in rising (from one's seat), folding of the hands, offering of a seat, loving the Guru, and cordial obedience.

3. There are ten [3] kinds of service, as serving the Akarya [4]; doing service consists in giving one's assistance as well as one is able.

4. Study is fivefold: 1. saying or learning one's lesson; 2. (questioning the teacher about it); 3. repetition; 4. pondering; 5. religious discourse.

5. Abstaining to meditate on painful and sinful things [1], one should, with a collected mind, engage in pure meditations on the Law; this the wise call meditation.

6. If a monk remains motionless when lying down, sitting, or standing upright, this is called abandoning of the body, which is the sixth kind (of internal austerities).

If a sage truly performs these two kinds of austerities, he will soon be thoroughly released from the Circle of Births.

Thus I say.


  • 174:1 Karmopadanahetavas, that through which the soul becomes affected by Karman.
  • 174:2 Agarava = agaurava; but it is here explained, free from garva, cf. <page 98>, note .
  • 174:3 Literally krores, i.e. ten millions.
  • 175:1 Comp. Aupapatika Sutra, ed. Leumann, p. 38 ff. The general division is the same, but the subdivision differs in many details.
  • 175:2 Gradual reduction of food, from a full meal of thirty-two morsels to one of one morsel.
  • 175:3 Angopangadikam samvritya pravartanam, Tika.
  • 175:4 The meaning of this singular statement is as follows. If four fasts of two, three, four, and five days are performed in this order, they form a line. If this set of fasts is four times repeated, each time beginning with a different number, we get sixteen fasts; they form a square, viz.:
 [paragraph continues] The next class contains 64 fasts, the fourth 4,096, the fifth 16,777,216 fasts. Fasts of the last class require 700,000 years at least, and must be assumed to be restricted to former Tirthakaras, whose lives lasted enormous periods of time.
  • 176:1 Saparikarma = vaiyavrityasahita. This leads to inginimarana and bhaktapratyakhyana; the aparikarma to padapopagamana (i.e. prayopagamana); comp. part i, p. 72.
  • 176:2 Thirty-two mouthfuls is the usual quantity of food of men, twenty-eight that of women. A mouthful is of the size of an egg.
  • 176:3 Nagara, where no taxes (na kara) are levied, while villages pay eighteen taxes.
  • 176:4 Nigama, or a place where many merchants dwell.
  • 176:5 Palli.
  • 176:6 Kheta.
  • 176:7 Karvata. According to the dictionary, it means 'market-town;' but the commentators render it by kunagara, or say that it is karvataganavasa, the dwelling-place of the Karvata people.
  • 176:8 Dronamukha, a town to which there is access by water and land, like Bhrigukakkha or Tamralipti.
  • 176:9 Pattana.
  • 176:10 Matamba, a town which is more than three and a half yoganas distant from the next village.
  • 176:11 Sambadha, prabhutakaturvarnyanivasa.
  • 177:1 A dwelling-place of Bhikshus, or a devagriha.
  • 177:2 Sannivesa.
  • 177:3 Samaga.
  • 177:4 These are terms for different kinds of collecting alms; it is called peta (box), when one begs successively at four houses forming the corners of an imaginary square; gomutrika, when he takes the houses in a zigzag line; patangavithika (cricket's walk), when he goes to houses at a great distance from one another; sambukavartta (the windings of a conch), when he goes in a spiral line, either toward the centre (abhyantara) or from the centre outward (bahis); ayatam-gatva-pratyagata, when he first goes straight on and then returns.
  • 177:5 I give the traditional explanation of the verses, as handed [p. 178] down in the commentaries. If we might set it aside, I should translate: abstinence with reference to disposition is observed by him who in collecting alms preserves the same disposition, whether he has to do with a woman or man
  • 178:1 For development (paggava = paryaya) denotes any form or phase of existence which anything can assume. Therefore all particulars of place, e.g. are developments of Place. As all restrictions of place, indirectly diminish the food obtainable by a monk, they also come under the head Abstinence.
  • 178:2 According to the commentator, these are the six kinds enumerated in verse 29. Sambukavartta is of two kinds, as explained in the note; the eighth kind is rigvi, or the common way of begging. These eight ways have reference to the houses in which they collect alms. The seven eshanas refer to the quality or quantity of the food; their names are given in the Tika, partly in Prakrit, partly in Sanskrit: 1. samsattha; 2. asamsattha; 3. uddhada; 4. alpalepika; 5. udgrihita; 6. pragrihita; 7. ugghitadharma. According to another passage: 1. is samsprishta, 3. uddhrita, 5. avagrihita.
  • 178:3 Pranita, explained pushtikara.
  • 179:1 Viosagga, viussaga, viusagga. It is usually rendered vyutsarga, but the Sanskrit prototype is vyavasarga, as Leumann has pointed out, l.c., p. 152.
  • 179:2 Compare Aupapatika Sutra, ed. Leumann, p. 40.
  • 179:3 Ibidem, p. 42.
  • 179:4 They are enumerated in the following Gatha: ayariya-uvagghae thera-tavassi-gilana-sehana | sahhmmiya-kula-gana-sangha-samgayam tam iha kayavvam. The ten persons or body of persons entitled to 'service' are: 1. akarya; 2. upadhyaya; 3. sthavira; 4. tapasvin; 5. glana; 6. saiksha; 7. sadharmika; 8. kula; 9. gana; 10. sangha.
  • 180:1 This is the artaraudradhyana.

31 - mode of life

I shall declare the mode of life that benefits the soul; by practising it many souls have crossed the ocean of Samsara.

One should desist from one thing, and practise another: desist from neglect of self-control, and practise self-control.

Love and hatred are two evils which produce bad

A monk who always avoids the thrice threefold hurtful, conceited, and delusive acts [1], will not stand in the circle (of transmigration).

A monk who well bears calamities produced by gods, animals, or men, will not stand

A monk who always avoids the (four) different kinds of praises [2], passions, expressions (of the emotions) [3], and (of the four) meditations the two sinful ones, will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself [4] with regard to the (five) vows, the (five) objects of sense, the (five) Samitis, and (five) actions [5], will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the six lesyas [6], the six kinds of bodies, and the six (regular functions as) eating [7], will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (seven) rules of accepting alms [8], and the seven causes of danger (to other men) will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (eight) objects of pride [1], to that which protects his chastity [2], and to the tenfold Law of the monks [3].

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (eleven) duties of the upasakas, and the (twelve) duties of the bhikshus [4], will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (thirteen) actions (productive of Karman), to the various (fourteen) kinds of living beings, and the (fifteen) places of punishment of the wicked [5], will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the sixteen Gathas [6], and to the (seventeen kinds of) neglect of self-control, will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (eighteen kinds of) continence, to the (nineteen) gnatadhyayanas [7], and the (twenty) cases for not concentrating one's thoughts, will not

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the twenty-one forbidden [1] actions, and the twenty-two troubles [2], will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the twenty-three (lectures of the) Sutrakritanga, and to the gods whose number exceeds by an unit [3] (the number of the lectures of the Sutrakritanga), will not stand (t 6)

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the twenty-five clauses [4], and (to the recitation of the twenty-six) chapters of the Dasas [5], will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (twenty-seven) virtues of the laity, and the (twenty-eight lectures of the) Prakalpa [6], will not stand 08)

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (twenty-nine) causes of wrong knowledge, and the (thirty) causes of delusion, will not stand

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (thirty-one) qualities of Siddhas, the (thirty-two)

A clever monk who always exerts himself with regard to the above-mentioned points, will soon be thoroughly released from the Circle of Births

Thus I say.


  • 180:2 This lecture offers many difficulties to the translator, as it contains scarcely more than a dry list of articles of the Gaina faith. To fully understand or interpret it would require an accurate knowledge of the complete religious system of the Gainas, to which we can lay no claim at present. The order in which the articles are given follows the number of their subdivisions. In some cases the number is not given in the Sutra, but is supplied by the commentary.
  • 181:1 Compare XIX, 91, and XXX, 3. Hurtful acts (danda) are threefold, as referring to thoughts, words, and acts; conceited acts (garava), as pride of riches, of taste (rasa), and of pleasure or fashion (sata); delusive acts (salya), as maya, nidana, and mithyadarsana.
  • 181:2 Vikattha.
  • 181:3 Samgna.
  • 181:4 Yatate 'exerts himself;' supply 'to avoid, to know, or to do,' as the case may require.
  • 181:5 Kriya; they are: 1. kayiki; 2. adhikaraniki; 3. pradveshiki; 4. paritapaniki, and 5. pranatipatiki.
  • 181:6 On the lesyas see Thirty-fourth Lecture, p. 196 ff.
  • 181:7 From the commentaries I learn two more of these six karanas: vedana and vaiyavritya. I cannot say which are the remaining three.
  • 181:8 They are enumerated in note [2] on XXX, 25, <page 178>.
  • 182:1 Viz. caste, family, beauty ; see Sutrakrit. II, 2, 17.
  • 182:2 Brahmagupti. This is of nine kinds.
  • 182:3 Bhikshudharma. It consists of Nos. 46-49, 26, 27, of Lecture XXIX, truth, purity, poverty, and chastity.
  • 182:4 The details given in the commentary (Devendra) partly differ from the description of the twelve duties of Sravakas, and the ten duties of Bhikshus given by Bhandarkar from the Karttikeyanupreksha, see his Report, p. 114 ff.
  • 182:5 Paramadharmika. My translation is based on the enumeration of fifteen words, among which the names of some well-known hells occur.
  • 182:6 The sixteen lectures of the first part of the Sutrakritanga, the last of which is called Gatha, are meant by the sixteen Gathas. The whole book contains twenty-three lectures as stated in verse 16.
  • 182:7 The first srutaskandha of the Gnatadharmakatha, which contains nineteen adhyayanas, is intended by gnatadhyayana.
  • 183:1 Sabala, because they 'variegate' the conduct. The actions meant are sitting on an unwiped seat
  • 183:2 Parisaha, see above, <page 9> ff.
  • 183:3 Rupa. The twenty-four gods are: ten Bhavanapatis, eight Vyantaras, five Gyotishkas, one Vaimanika; or the 24 prophets.
  • 183:4 Bhavana, the subdivisions of the five great vows, see part i, p. 189 ff.
  • 183:5 The Dasasrutaskandha, Brihat Kalpa, and Vyavahara Sutras are meant, which together contain twenty-six uddesas.
  • 183:6 I.e. the Akaranga Sutra; it now contains but twenty-four lectures, but is said to have originally contained four more, see part i, introduction, p. xlix f. These four lectures were: Mahaparinna, Ugghaya, Anugghaya, Arovana.
  • 184:1 The pure operations of mind, speech, and body.
  • 184:2 As far as I can make out from the enumeration in the commentary, they are articles regulating the intercourse between monks, especially pupils and teacher.

32 - the causes of carelessness

With attentive mind hear me explain for your benefit the deliverance from the beginningless time, together with its causes [3], and from all misery: a truly wholesome subject.

By the teaching of true [4] knowledge, by the avoidance of ignorance and delusion, and by the destruction of love and hatred, one arrives at final deliverance which is nothing but bliss.

This is the road to it: to serve the Gurus and the old (teachers), to avoid throughout foolish people, to apply oneself earnestly to study, and to ponder zealously on the meaning of the Sutras.

A Sramana engaged in austerities, who longs for righteousness [1], should eat the proper quantity of allowed food, should select a companion of right understanding, and should live in a place suited to seclusion.

If he does not meet with a clever companion who surpasses or equals him in virtue, he should live by himself, abstaining from sins and not devoted to pleasures.

As the crane [2] is produced from an egg, and the egg is produced from a crane, so they call desire [3] the origin of delusion, and delusion the origin of desire.

Love and hatred are caused by Karman, and they say that Karman has its origin in delusion; Karman is the root of birth and death, and birth and death they call misery.

Misery ceases on the absence of delusion, delusion ceases on the absence of desire, desire ceases on the absence of greed, greed ceases on the absence of property.

I shall explain in due order the means which must be adopted by him who wants to thoroughly uproot love, hatred, and delusion.

Pleasant food [4] should not be enjoyed with preference, for it generally makes men over-strong [5]; and desires rush upon the strong, like birds upon a tree with sweet fruits.

As in a forest, full of fuel, a fire fanned by the wind cannot be extinguished, so the fire (as it were) of the senses of him who eats as he lists; it does not benefit any chaste man.

The mind of those who always live in unfrequented lodgings, who eat low food, and who subdue their senses, will not be attacked by the foe, Love, who is vanquished as disease is by medicine.

As it is not safe for mice to live near the dwelling of a cat, so a chaste (monk) cannot stay in a house inhabited by women.

A Sramana, engaged in penance, should not allow himself to watch the shape, beauty, coquetry, laughter, prattle, gestures, and glances of women, nor retain a recollection of them in his mind.

Not to look at, nor to long for, not to think of, nor to praise, womankind: this is becoming the meditation of the noble ones, and it is always wholesome to those who delight in chastity.

Though those who possess the three Guptis, cannot be disturbed even by well-adorned goddesses, still it is recommended to monks to live by themselves, as this is wholesome in every way.

To a man who longs for liberation, who is afraid of the Samsara, and lives according to the Law, nothing in the world offers so many difficulties [1] as women who delight the mind of the ignorant.

To those who have overcome the attachment (to women), all others will offer no difficulties [2]; even as to those who have crossed the great ocean, no river, though big like the Ganges, (will offer any difficulty).

From desire of pleasure arises the misery of the whole world, the gods included; whatever misery of body and mind there is, the dispassionate will put an end to it.

As the fruit of the Kimpaka [1] is beautiful in taste and colour, when eaten; but destroys the life when digested, (being) poison; similar in their effect are pleasures.

A Sramana, engaged in austerities, who longs for righteousness [2], should not fix his thoughts on the pleasant objects of the senses, nor turn his mind from them, if they be unpleasant.

'Colour' attracts the eye; it is the pleasant cause of Love, but the unpleasant cause of Hatred [3]; he who is indifferent to them (viz. colours), is called dispassionate.

The eye perceives 'colour,' and 'colour' attracts the eye; the cause of Love is pleasant, and the cause of Hatred is unpleasant.

He who is passionately fond of 'colours,' will come to untimely ruin; just as an impassioned moth which is attracted by the light rushes into death.

He who passionately hates (a colour), will at the same moment suffer pain. It is the fault of an undisciplined man that he is annoyed (by a colour); it is not the 'colour' itself that annoys him.

He who is very fond of a lovely 'colour,' hates all others; hence a fool will suffer misery, but a dispassionate sage is not affected by it.

He who has a passion for 'colours [1],' will kill many movable and immovable beings; a passionate fool, intent on his personal interest, pains and torments those beings in many ways.

How can a man who passionately desires 'colours [2],' be happy while he gets, keeps, uses, loses, and misses (those things). Even when he enjoys them, he is never satisfied.

When he is not satisfied with those 'colours,' and his craving for them grows stronger and stronger, he will become discontented, and unhappy by dint of his discontent; misled by greed he will take another's property.

When he is overcome by violent desire, takes another's property, and is not satisfied with those 'colours' and their possession, then his deceit and falsehood increase on account of his greed; yet he will not get rid of his misery.

After and before he has lied [3], and when he is on the point of lying, he feels infinitely unhappy. Thus when he takes another's property, and is (after all) not satisfied by the 'colours' (he has obtained), he becomes unhappy, and nobody will protect him [1].

How, then, can a man who is devoted to 'colours,' ever derive any happiness from anything? He suffers pain at the time of their enjoyment to procure which he had suffered misery.

In the same way he who hates 'colours,' incurs a long succession of pains; when his mind is filled with hatred, he accumulates Karman which in the end again produces misery.

But a man who is indifferent to 'colours,' is free from sorrows; though still in the Samsara, he is not affected by that long succession of pains, just as the leaf of the Lotus (is not moistened) by water.

[The whole set of verses 22-34 is, with few alterations, five times repeated in the original in order to apply to the other organs of sense.

Verses 35-47 treat of sounds; 'sound' is to be substituted for 'colour,' 'ear' for 'eye.'

The last line of verse 37, which corresponds to verse 24, runs thus:

As an impassioned deer allured (by a song) rushes into death, without being satisfied with the sound.

In the same way verses 48-60 apply to smells'; substitute 'smell' and 'organ of smell.'

Verses 61-73 apply to tastes; substitute 'tastes' and 'tongue.'

Verses 74-86 apply to touches; substitute touches' and 'body.'

Verses 87-99 apply to feelings; substitute 'feelings' and 'mind.'

The lines corresponding to the comparison in verse 24, run as follows:

Just as an impassioned snake which is allured by the smell of a drug, when it comes out of its hole.

Just as an impassioned fish which is eager to swallow the bait, has its body transfixed by a hook.

Just as an impassioned buffalo who dives in cold water, is taken hold of by a crocodile and dies.

Just as an impassioned elephant who is inflamed by carnal desires, is turned from his way by a female elephant (and is captured and at last killed in battle). ]

Thus the objects of the senses and of the mind cause pain to passionate men, but they never in the least cause any pain to the dispassionate.

Pleasant things (by themselves) do not cause indifference nor emotions (as anger ); but by either hating or loving them, a man undergoes such a change through delusion.

Anger, pride, deceit, greed; disgust, aversion to self-control and delight in sensual things [1]; mirth, fear, sorrow, carnal desire for women, men, or both; all these manifold passions arise in him who is attached to pleasures; and so do other emotions produced by those (before mentioned) arise in him who is to be pitied, who (ought to be) ashamed of himself, and who is hateful. (102, 103)

A monk should not desire a companion, not (even) one who is able to perform his religious duties; nor, if he regrets having taken the vows, (should he desire for) a worldly reward of his austerities [1]. Such emotions of an infinite variety arise in one who is the slave of his senses.

Desiring happiness and being submerged in the ocean of delusion, he forms many plans for warding off misery; and for their sake an impassioned man exerts himself.

But all kinds of objects of the senses, sounds, will cause to the indifferent neither a pleasant nor an unpleasant feeling.

He who endeavours to recognise the vanity of all desires [2], will arrive at perfect indifference. When he ceases to desire the objects (of the senses), his desire for pleasures will become extinct.

The dispassionate man who has performed all duties will quickly remove the obstructions to right knowledge and to right faith, and whatever Karman produces obstruction (to righteousness).

Then he knows and sees all things, he is free from delusion and hindrances, his Asravas have gone, and he is proficient in meditation and concentration of thoughts, and being pure he will arrive at beatitude when his life is spent.

He will get rid of all misery which always afflicts mankind; recovered from the long illness, as it were, and glorious, he becomes infinitely happy, and obtains the (final) aim.

We have taught the way how to become exempt from all misery which arises since time without beginning; those beings who follow it will in their time become infinitely happy.

Thus I say.


  • 184:3 By beginningless time the Samsara is meant; its causes are the kashayas or cardinal passions, and avirati.
  • 184:4 Sakkassa = satyasya. This is a various reading; the received text has savvassa. The commentators give the following explanation: by the property of knowledge to make everything known–this indicates that knowledge is the cause of moksha.
  • 185:1 Samadhi; the Dipika explains it by gnanadarsanakaritralabha.
  • 185:2 Balaka.
  • 185:3 Trishna.
  • 185:4 Rasa.
  • 185:5 Driptikara.
  • 186:1 Duttara.
  • 186:2 Suuttara.
  • 187:1 Trichosanthes Palmata, or Cucumis Colocynthus.
  • 187:2 Compare verse 4.
  • 187:3 Love and Hatred must of course be understood in their widest meaning. The same remark applies to the term 'colour,' which according to Hindu terminology denotes everything that is perceived by the eye. The first three sentences are, in the original, dependent on verbs as vadanti, ahus. I have, here and elsewhere, dropped them in the translation.
  • 188:1 Ruvanugasanuga = rupa-anuga-asa-anuga. This division of the compound looks artificial; I should prefer to divide ruva-anugasa-anuga = rupa-anukarsha-anuga; literally, possessed of attraction by colours.
  • 188:2 Ruvanuvaena pariggahena. Parigraha is explained as the desire to possess them.
  • 188:3 Instead of 'lying,' we can also adopt the rendering 'stealing,' as the word in the original mosa may stand either for mrisha, or for mosha.
  • 189:1 Anissa = anisra. Nisra does not occur in common Sanskrit; it is rendered avashtambha by the commentators.
  • 190:1 Arati and rati. Compare note on XXI, 21, where I have adopted another translation suited to the context. The first four numbers contain the cardinal passions; the rest the emotions which are called no-kashaya.
  • 191:1 My translation follows the interpretation of the commentators. The original runs thus: Kappam na ikkhigga sahayalikkhu pakkhanutavena tavappabhavam. The meaning they have made out is very unsatisfactory. There is a remarkable various reading in MS. C not noticed by the scholiasts: sahayalakkhim = svabhavalakshmim. If this was the original reading, the meaning of the line, in which however I must leave the word kappam untranslated, would come to this: a monk who regrets having taken the vows should not desire personal power as the reward for his penance. Kalpa, according to the commentators, is one who is able to perform his religious duties; a kalpa is contrasted with a sishya, novice.
  • 191:2 Samkalpavikalpanasu upasthitasya.

33 - the nature of karman

I shall now in due order explain the eight kinds of Karman, bound by which the soul turns round and round in the Circle of Births.

The eight kinds of Karman are briefly the following:

1. Gnanavaraniya (which acts as an obstruction to right knowledge);

2. Darsanavaraniya (which acts as an obstruction to right faith);

3. Vedaniya (which leads to experiencing pain or pleasure);

4. Mohaniya (which leads to delusion);

5. Ayuhkarman (which determines the length of life);

6. Naman (which determines the name or individuality of the embodied soul);

7. Gotra (which determines his Gotra);

8. Antaraya (which prevents one's entrance on the path that leads to eternal bliss [1]). (2, 3)

1. Obstruction of knowledge is fivefold (viz. obstruction to): a. Sruta, knowledge derived from the sacred books; b. Abhinibodhika, perception; c. Avadhignana, supernatural knowledge; d. Manahparyaya, knowledge of the thoughts of other people; e. Kevala, the highest, unlimited knowledge.

2. The nine kinds of obstruction to right faith are: 1. sleep; 2. activity; 3. very deep sleep; 4. a high degree of activity [2]; 5. a state of deep-rooted greed; 6-9 refer to faith in the objects of the first three and the last kinds of knowledge. (5, 6)

3. Vedaniya is twofold, pleasure and pain; there are many subdivisions of pleasure and so there are of pain also.

4. Mohaniya is twofold as referring to faith and to conduct; the first is threefold, the second twofold.

The three kinds of Mohaniya referring to faith are: 1. right faith; 2. wrong faith; 3. faith partly right and partly wrong.

The two kinds of Mohaniya referring to conduct are: 1. what is experienced in the form of the four cardinal passions; 2. what is experienced in the form of feelings different from them.

The first kind of this Karman is sixteenfold, the second sevenfold or ninefold [1].

5. Ayushka is fourfold as referring to 1. denizens of hell; 2. brute creation; 3. men; 4. gods.

6. Naman is twofold, good and bad; there are many subdivisions of the good variety, and so there are of the bad one also [2].

7. Gotra is twofold, high and low; the first is eightfold, and so is the second also.

8. Antaraya is fivefold as preventing: 1. gifts; 2. profit; 3. momentary enjoyment; 4. continuous enjoyment [3]; and 5. power.

Thus the division of Karman and the subdivisions have been told.

Now hear their number of atoms [4], place, time, and development.

The number of atoms of every Karman is infinite; it is (infinitely) greater than (the number) of fettered [1] souls, but less than that of the perfected ones.

The Karman in the six directions of space [2] binds all souls, and it binds the whole soul in all its parts in every possible way.

The longest duration (of Karman) is thirty Krores of Krores of Sagaropamas [3], and the shortest a part of a muhurta.

This holds good with both Avaraniyas, with Vedaniya and Antaraya.

The longest duration of Mohaniya is seventy Krores of Krores of Sagaropamas, and the shortest a part of a muhurta.

The longest duration of Ayushka is thirty-three Krores of Krores of Sagaropamas, and the shortest a part of a muhurta.

The longest duration of Naman and Gotra is twenty Krores of Krores of Sagaropamas, and the shortest eight muhurtas.

The number of perfected souls is infinite, and that of the subdivisions of Karman [1] is also (infinite); the number of atoms in all these (subdivisions) exceeds (the number) of all souls.

Therefore a wise man should know the different subdivisions of these Karmans, and should exert himself to prevent and to destroy them.

Thus I say.


  • 193:1 Compare Bhandarkar, Report, p. 93, note *.
  • 193:2 Nos. 1-4 are nidra, prakala, nidranidra, prakalaprakala; I render the etymological meaning of these words. According to the Dipika, however, they have a different meaning: nidra means the state of agreeable waking; prakala, the slumber of a standing or sitting person; nidranidra, deep sleep; prakalaprakala, sleep of a person in motion. Nos. 6 and 7 are here called kakkhu and akakkhu, instead of abhinibodhika and sruta.
  • 194:1 The divisions of the second Karman are the feelings or emotions enumerated in the 102nd verse of the last lecture, from disgust onward. There are seven of them, if desire for women, men, or both, is reckoned as one item, but nine, if it is reckoned as three. The sixteen divisions of the Karman produced by the cardinal passions are arrived at by subdividing each of the four passions with reference to 1. anantanubandha; 2. pratyakhyana; 3. apratyakhyana; 4. samgvalana.
  • 194:2 In the Dipika 103 subdivisions are enumerated; they correspond to our genera.
  • 194:3 3. Bhoga, 4. upabhoga; bhoga is enjoyment of flowers, food ; upabhoga, that of one's house, wife The Karman in question brings about an obstruction to the enjoyment, though all other circumstances be favourable.
  • 194:4 The Karman is considered to consist, like other substances, of atoms, here called pradesa point. The word I have translated [p. 195] number of atoms is paesaggam = pradesagram, which is rendered paramanuparimana.
  • 195:1 Ganthiyasatta = granthigasattva.
  • 195:2 The six directions of space are the four cardinal points, zenith and nadir. The commentators quote scripture that ekendriyas, or beings with one organ of sense, are bound by Karman in three and more directions. The true meaning of this statement is beyond my grasp.–The Dipika explains how Karman acts on the soul. The soul absorbs all material particles of a suitable nature (especially the karmapudgalas) with which it comes into contact, i.e. all that are in the same space with the soul, and assimilates them in the form of gnanavaraniya, just as fire consumes everything within its reach, but nothing beyond it.
  • 195:3 I.e. 3,000,000,000,000,000 Sagaropamas.
  • 196:1 Anubhaga, explained karmarasavisesha.

34 - on lesya

I shall deliver in due order the Lecture on Lesya; hear the nature of the six Lesyas (produced by) Karman.

Hear 1. the names, 2. colours, 3. tastes, 4. smells, 5. touches, 6. degrees, 7. character, 8. variety, 9. duration, 10. result, and 11. life of the Lesyas.

1. They are named in the following order: black, blue, grey, red, yellow, and white.

2. The black Lesya has the colour of a rain-cloud, a buffalo's horn, (the fruit of) Rishtaka [1], or the eye of the wagtail.

The blue Lesya has the colour of the blue Asoka [2], the tail of the Kasha [3], or of lapis lazuli.

The grey Lesya has the colour of the flower of Atasi [4], the feathers of the Kokila, or the collar of pigeons.

The red Lesya has the colour of vermilion, the rising sun, or the bill of a parrot.

The yellow Lesya has the colour of orpiment, turmeric, or the flowers of Sana [5] and Asana [6].

The white Lesya has the colour of a conch-shell, the anka-stone [7], Kunda-flowers [8], flowing milk, silver, or a necklace of pearls.

3. The taste of the black Lesya is infinitely more bitter than that of Tumbaka [9], (the fruit of the) Nimb-tree [10], or of Rohini.

The taste of the blue Lesya is infinitely more pungent than Trikatuka [1] and Hastipippali.

The taste of grey Lesya is infinitely sourer than that of unripe Mango and Kapittha [2].

The taste of red Lesya is infinitely more pleasant than that of ripe Mango and Kapittha.

The taste of yellow Lesya is infinitely better than that of excellent wine and various liquors, honey and Maireyaka [3].

The taste of white Lesya is infinitely better than that of dates, grapes, milk, candied and pounded sugar.

The smell of the bad Lesyas (viz. the three first) is infinitely worse than that of the corpse of a cow, dog, or snake.

The smell of the three good Lesyas is infinitely more pleasant than that of fragrant flowers and of perfumes when they are pounded.

5. The touch of the bad Lesyas is infinitely worse than that of a saw, the tongue of a cow, or leaf of the Teak tree.

The touch of the three good Lesyas is infinitely more pleasant than that of cotton, butter, or Sirisha-flowers [4].

6. The degrees [5] of the Lesyas are three, or nine, or twenty-seven, or eighty-one, or two hundred and forty-three.

7. A man who acts on the impulse of the five Asravas [1], does not possess the three Guptis, has not ceased to injure the six (kinds of living beings), commits cruel acts, is wicked and violent, is afraid of no consequences [2], is mischievous and does not subdue his senses–a man of such habits develops the black Lesya. (21, 22)

A man of the following qualities: envy, anger, want of self-control, ignorance, deceit, want of modesty, greed, hatred, wickedness, carelessness, love of enjoyment; a man who pursues pleasures and does not abstain from sinful undertakings, who is wicked and violent–a man of such habits develops the blue Lesya. (23, 24)

A man who is dishonest in words and acts, who is base, not upright, a dissembler and deceiver [3], a heretic, a vile man, a talker of hurtful and sinful things, a thief, and full of jealousy–a man of such habits develops the grey Lesya. (25, 26)

A man who is humble, steadfast, free from deceit and inquisitiveness, well disciplined, restrained, attentive to his study and duties [4], who loves the Law and keeps it, who is afraid of forbidden things and strives after the highest good–a man of such habits develops the red Lesya. (27, 28)

A man who has but little anger, pride, deceit, and greed, whose mind is at ease, who controls himself, who is attentive to his study and duties, who speaks but little, is calm, and subdues his senses–a man of such habits develops the yellow Lesya. (29, 30)

A man who abstains from constant thinking about his misery and about sinful deeds, but engages in meditation on the Law and truth only [1], whose mind is at ease, who controls himself, who practises the Samitis and Guptis, whether he be still subject to passion or free from passion, is calm, and subdues his senses–a man of such habits develops the white Lesya. (31, 32)

8. There are as many varieties [2] of Lesyas as there are Samayas [3] in the innumerable Avasarpinis and Utsarpinis, and as there are countless worlds.

9. Half a muhurta is the shortest, and thirty-three Sagaropamas plus one muhurta is the longest duration of the black Lesya.

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and ten Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya is the longest duration of the blue Lesya.

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and three Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya is the longest duration of the grey Lesya.

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and two Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya is the longest duration of the red Lesya.

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and ten Sagaropamas plus one muhurta is the longest duration of the yellow Lesya.

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and thirty-three Sagaropamas plus one muhurta is the longest duration of the white Lesya.

I have described above the duration of the Lesyas generally; I shall now detail their duration in the four walks of mundane existence [1].

The shortest duration of the grey Lesya (of a denizen of hell) is ten thousand years, the longest three Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and part of an Asamkhyeya.

The shortest duration of the blue Lesya (of a denizen of hell) is three Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya, the longest ten Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya.

The shortest duration of the black Lesya (of a denizen of hell) is ten Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya, the longest thirty-three Sagaropamas.

I have described the duration of the Lesyas of denizens of hell; I shall now describe that of animals, men, and gods.

The duration of any of the Lesyas except the best (viz. white one) is less than a muhurta for (the lowest organisms), animals, and men [2].

Half a muhurta is the shortest duration of the white Lesya (of animals and men), and the longest a Krore of former years [3] less nine years.

I have described the duration of the Lesyas of animals and men, I shall now describe that of the gods.

The shortest duration of the black Lesya is ten thousand years, the longest a Palyopama and (a part of) an Asamkhyeya.

The shortest duration of the blue Lesya is equal to the longest of the black one plus one Samaya; the longest is one Palyopama plus a (greater part of) an Asamkhyeya.

The shortest duration of the grey Lesya is equal to the longest of the blue one plus one Samaya; the longest is one Palyopama plus (a still greater part of) an Asamkhyeya.

I shall now describe the red Lesya as it is with gods, Bhavanapatis, Vyantaras, Gyotishkas, and Vaimanikas.

The shortest duration of the red Lesya is one Palyopama, the longest two Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya [1].

The shortest duration of the red Lesya is ten thousand years, the longest two Sagaropamas plus one Palyopama and a part of an Asamkhyeya.

The longest duration of the red Lesya plus one Samaya is equal to the shortest of the yellow Lesya; its longest, however, is ten muhurtas longer.

The longest duration of the yellow Lesya plus one Samaya is equal to the shortest of the white Lesya; the longest, however, is thirty-three muhurtas longer.

10. The black, blue, and grey Lesyas are the lowest Lesyas; through them the soul is brought into miserable courses of life.

The red, yellow, and white Lesyas are the good Lesyas; through them the soul is brought into happy courses of life.

11. In the first moment of these Lesyas when they are joined (with the soul), the latter is not born into a new existence [1].

In the last moment of all these Lesyas when they are joined (with the soul), the latter is not born into a new existence.

While the last muhurta is running and a part of it is still to come, the souls with their Lesyas developed, go to a new birth.

A wise man should, therefore, know the nature of these Lesyas; he should avoid the bad ones and obtain the good ones.

Thus I say.


  • 196:2 The lesyas (adhyavasaya viseshah) are different conditions produced in the soul by the influence of different Karman; they are therefore not dependent on the nature of the soul, but on the Karman which accompanies the soul, and are, as it were, the reflection of the Karman on the soul, as stated in the following verse from the Avakuri: krishnadidravyasakivyat parinamo ya atmanah | spatikasyeva tatrayam lesyasabdah pravartate || The alteration produced on the soul, just as on a crystal by the presence of black things, is denoted by the word lesya.' The Lesya, or, according to the above explanation, what produces Lesya, is a subtile substance accompanying the soul; to it are attributed the qualities described in this lecture.–The word lesa is derived from klesa; this etymology appears rather fanciful, but I think it may be right. For the Lesyas seem to be the Klesas, which affect the soul, conceived as a kind of substance. The Sanskrit term Lesya is of course a hybrid word. It must, however, be stated that lesa occurs also in the meaning 'colour,' e.g. Sutrakrit. I, 6, 13, and that the Prakrit of klesa is kilesa.
  • 197:1 Sapindus Detergens.
  • 197:2 It is not the common Asoka, Jonesia Asoka, which has red flowers.
  • 197:3 Corarias Indica, blue jay; according to some, a kingfisher.
  • 197:4 Linum Usitatissimum, whose flowers are blue.–The word for grey is kau = kapota; in the comm., however, it is described as kimkit krishna, kimkil lohita, which would be rather brown. But the description given in our verse leaves no doubt that grey colour is intended.
  • 197:5 Crotolaria Juncea.
  • 197:6 Terminalia Tomentosa.
  • 197:7 Anka, manivisesha.
  • 197:8 Jasminum Multiflorum.
  • 197:9 The gourd Lagenaria Vulgaris.
  • 197:10 Azadirachta Indica.
  • 198:1 The aggregate of three spices, black and long pepper and dry ginger.
  • 198:2 Feronia Elephantum.
  • 198:3 A kind of intoxicating drink, extracted from the blossoms of Lythrum Fructicosum, with sugar
  • 198:4 Acacia Sirisa.
  • 198:5 The Lesyas may possess their qualities in a low, middle, or high degree; each of these degrees is again threefold, viz. low, middle, and high. In this way the subdivision is carried on up to 243.
  • 199:1 I.e. commits the five great sins.–The following verses give the character–lakshana–of the Lesyas.
  • 199:2 This is, according to the comm., the meaning of the word niddhamdhasaparinamo.
  • 199:3 Paliunkaga-uvahiya = pratikunkaka-upadhika.
  • 199:4 Yogavan upadhanavan.
  • 200:1 Literally: who avoids the arta and raudra dhyanas, and practises the dharma and sukla dhyanas. These terms cannot be adequately translated; the reader may therefore be referred for details to Bhandarkar's Report, p. 110 ff.
  • 200:2 Thanaim sthanani.
  • 200:3 Samaya is the smallest division of time = instant, moment.
  • 201:1 Viz. as denizens of hell, brutes, men, and gods. Only the three first Lesyas lead to being born in hell.
  • 201:2 The consequence of this statement appears to be that at the expiration of the Lesya a new one is produced. The commentators, however, are not explicit on this head.
  • 201:3 About the former years, see above, <page 16>, note .
  • 202:1 This verse seems to lay down the duration of the Lesya in the case of common gods, while the next one applies to Bhavanapatis
  • 203:1 The question treated rather darkly in the next three verses is, according to the comm., the following:–Every individual dies in the same Lesya in which he is born. When his Lesya ends with his life, then the soul must get a new Lesya. Our verses state at which time the new Lesya comes into existence or is joined with the soul.

35 - the houseless monk

Learn from me, with attentive minds, the road shown by the wise ones [2], which leads a monk who follows it, to the end of all misery.

Giving up the life in a house, and taking Pravragya, a sage should know and renounce those attachments which take hold of men.

A restrained monk should abstain from killing, lying, stealing, carnal intercourse, from desire, love, and greed.

Even in his thoughts a monk should not long for a pleasant painted house filled with the fragrance of garlands and frankincense, secured by doors, and decorated with a white ceiling-cloth [1].

For in such a dwelling a monk will find it difficult to prevent his senses from increased desire and passion.

He should be content to live on a burial-place, in a deserted house, below a tree, in solitude, or in a place which had been prepared for the sake of somebody else [2].

A well-controlled monk should live in a pure place, which is not too much crowded, and where no women live.

He should not build a house, nor cause others to erect one; for many living beings both movable and immovable, both subtile and gross, are seen to be killed when a house is being built; therefore a monk should abstain from building a house. (8, 9)

The same holds good with the cooking of food and drink, or with one's causing them to be cooked. Out of compassion for living beings one should not cook nor cause another to cook.

Beings which live in water, corn, or in earth and wood, are destroyed in food and drink; therefore a monk should cause nobody to cook.

There is nothing so dangerous as fire, for it spreads in all directions and is able to destroy many beings; one should therefore not light a fire.

Even in his thoughts a monk should not long for gold and silver; indifferent alike to dirt and gold he abstains from buying and selling.

If he buys, he becomes a buyer; if he sells, he becomes a merchant; a monk is not to engage in buying and selling.

A monk who is to live on alms, should beg and not buy; buying and selling is a great sin; but to live on alms is benefitting.

He should collect his alms in small parts according to the Sutras and so as to avoid faults; a monk should contentedly go on his begging-tour, whether he get alms or not.

A great sage should not eat for the sake of the pleasant taste (of the food) but for the sustenance of life, being not dainty nor eager for good fare, restraining his tongue, and being without cupidity.

Even in his thoughts he should not desire to be presented with flowers, to be offered a seat, to be eloquently greeted, or to be offered presents, or to get a magnificent welcome and treatment.

He should meditate on true things only [1], committing no sins and having no property; he should walk about careless of his body till his end arrives. 09)

Rejecting food when the time of his death arrives, and leaving the human body, he becomes his own master [1], and is liberated from misery.

Without property, without egoism, free from passions and the Asravas, he obtains absolute knowledge, and reaches eternal beatitude.

Thus I say.


  • 203:2 Buddhehi.
  • 204:1 Ullova = ulloka.
  • 204:2 Parakada = parakrita, explained parair atmartham krita.
  • 205:1 Sukla dhyana, see note , <page 200>.
  • 206:1 By the destruction of the viryantaraya.

36 - on living beings and things without life

Now learn from me with attentive minds the division of Living Beings and Things without life [3], which a monk must know who is to exert himself in self-control.

The Living Beings and the Things without life make up this world (Loka); but the space where only Things without life are found is called the Non-world (Aloka).

The Living Beings and the Things without life will be described with reference to 1. substance, 2. place, 3. time, and 4. development.

A. Things without life.

Things without life are 1. possessing form, 2. formless; the formless things are of ten kinds, those possessing form are of four kinds.

The ten kinds of formless things: 1. Dharma, 2. its divisions, 3. its indivisible parts; 4. Adharma, 5. its divisions, 6. its indivisible parts; 7. space,

Dharma and Adharma are co-extensive with the World (Loka); space fills the World and the Non-world (Aloka); time exists in what is called the place of time [2].

Dharma, Adharma, and Space are ever without beginning and end.

And time also, if regarded as a continuous flow [3], is called so (i.e. without beginning and end); but with regard to an individual thing it has a beginning and an end.

The four kinds of things possessing form are 1. compound things, 2. their divisions, 3. their indivisible parts, and 4. atoms [4].

Compound things and atoms occur as individual things and apart (or different from others) [5], in the whole world and in parts of the world; this is their distribution with regard to place.

Subtile things occur all over the world, gross things only in a part of it.

I shall now give their fourfold division with regard to time.

With regard to the continuous flow (or development of a thing) it is without beginning and without end; but with regard to its existence (as an individual thing) it has both a beginning and an end [1].

The longest duration of Things without life possessing form is an immeasurable [2] period; the shortest one Samaya.

The longest interruption [3] in the existence of Things without life possessing form is an endless time; the shortest one Samaya.

Their development is fivefold: with regard to 1. colour, 2. smell, 3. taste, 4. touch, and 5. figure.

Those which develop with regard to colour are of five kinds: 1. black, 2. blue, 3. red, 4. yellow, 5. white.

Those which develop with regard to smell are of two kinds: 1. sweet-smelling substances, and 2. of bad smell.

Those which develop with regard to taste are of five kinds: 1. bitter, 2. pungent, 3. astringent, 4. sour, and 5. sweet.

Those which develop with regard to touch are of eight kinds: 1. hard, 2. soft, 3. heavy, 4. light, 5. cold, 6. hot, 7. smooth, and 8. rough.

In this way the substances have been declared, which develop with regard to touch. (20, 21)

Those which develop with regard to figure are of five kinds: 1. globular, 2. circular, 3. triangular, 4. square, and 5. long.

Things of black colour are subdivided with regard to smell, taste, touch, and figure.

The same subdivision holds good with blue, red, yellow, and white things. (24-27 [1])

Things of sweet smell are subdivided with regard to colour, taste, touch, and figure; things of bad smell are similarly subdivided. (28, 29)

Things of bitter taste are subdivided with regard to colour, smell, touch, and figure.

The same subdivision holds good with pungent, astringent, sour, and sweet things. (31-34)

Things of hard touch are subdivided with regard to colour, smell, taste, and figure.

The same subdivision holds good with soft, heavy, light, cold, hot, smooth, and rough things. (36-42)

Things of globular figure are subdivided with regard to colour, smell, taste, and touch.

The same subdivision holds good with circular, triangular, square, and long things. (44-47)

Thus the division of Things without life has briefly been told.

B. Living Beings.

I shall now, in due order, deliver the division of living beings.

Living beings are of two kinds: 1. those still belonging to the Samsara, and 2. the perfected souls (siddhas). The latter are of many kinds; hear me explain them.

The perfected souls are those of women, men, hermaphrodites, of orthodox, heterodox, and householders.

Perfection is reached by people of the greatest, smallest, and middle size [1], on high places, underground, on the surface of the earth, in the ocean, and in water (of rivers ).

Ten hermaphrodites reach, at the same time, perfection, twenty women, one hundred and eight men; four householders, ten heterodox, and one hundred and eight orthodox monks. (52, 53)

Two individuals of the greatest size reach perfection (simultaneously), four of the smallest size, and one hundred and eight of the middle size.

Four individuals reach perfection (simultaneously) on high places, two in the ocean, three in water, twenty underground, and one hundred and eight on the surface of the earth.

From where are the perfected souls debarred? Where do the perfected souls reside? Where do they leave their bodies, and where do they go, on reaching perfection?

Perfected souls are debarred from the non-world (Aloka); they reside on the top of the world; they leave their bodies here (below), and go there, on reaching perfection.

Twelve Yoganas above the (Vimana) Sarvartha is the place called Ishatpragbhara [1], which has the form of an umbrella; (there the perfected souls go).

It is forty-five hundred thousand Yoganas long, and as many broad, and it is somewhat more than three times as many in circumference.

Its thickness is eight Yoganas, it is greatest in the middle, and decreases [2] toward the margin, till it is thinner than the wing of a fly.

This place, by nature pure, consisting of white gold, resembles in form an open umbrella, as has been said by the best of Ginas.

(Above it) is a pure blessed place (called Sita), which is white like a conch-shell, the anka-stone [3], and Kunda-flowers; a Yogana thence is the end of the world.

The perfected souls penetrate the sixth part [4] of the uppermost Krosa of the (above-mentioned) Yogana.

There at the top of the world reside the blessed perfected souls, rid of all transmigration, and arrived at the excellent state of perfection.

The dimension of a perfected soul is two-thirds of the height which the individual had in his last existence.

The perfected souls, considered singly, (as individuals) have a beginning but no end; considered collectively [1] (as a class) they have neither a beginning nor an end.

They have no (visible) form, they consist of Life throughout, they are developed into knowledge and, faith, and they possess paramount happiness which admits of no comparison.

They all dwell in one part of the world, and have developed into knowledge and faith, they have crossed the boundary of the Samsara, and reached the excellent state of perfection.

Living beings which still belong to the Samsara, are of two kinds: a. movable, and b. immovable ones: the immovable ones are of three kinds: a. Earth Lives, b. Water Lives, and g. plants; these are the three kinds of immovable living beings; now learn from me their subdivision. a. The Earth Lives are of two kinds: subtile and gross; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped.

The gross and fully developed are of two kinds: viz. smooth or rough. The smooth ones are of seven kinds:

Black, blue, red, yellow, white, pale dust, and clay.

The rough ones are of thirty-six kinds:

Earth, gravel, sand, stones, rocks, rock-salt [2], iron, copper, tin, lead, silver, gold, and diamond;

Orpiment, vermilion, realgar, Sasaka [3], antimony, coral, Abhrapatala, Abhravaluka; these are varieties of gross (Earth-) bodies and kinds of precious stones.

Hyacinth, natron, Anka, crystal, Lohitaksha, emerald, Masaragalla, Bhugamokaka, and sapphire;

Kandana, red chalk, Hamsagarbha, Pulaka [1], and sulphur; Kandraprabha, lapis lazuli, Galakanta, and Suryakanta [2].

These thirty-six kinds of 'rough earth' have been enumerated. The 'subtile earth' is but of one kind, as there is no variety.

The subtile species is distributed all over the world, but the gross one (is found) in a part of the world only.

I shall now give their fourfold division with regard to time.

With regard to the continuous flow (or development of an earth-body) it is without a beginning and end; but with regard to its existence in its present form it has both a beginning and end.

Twenty-two thousand years is the longest duration of the Earth Lives; its shortest is less than a muhurta.

The longest duration of the body of Earth Lives, if they do not leave that (kind of) body [3], is an immeasurable time; the shortest is less than one muhurta.

The longest interval between an Earth Life's leaving its body (till its return to it), is an endless time; the shortest less than one Muhurta.

Their varieties, caused by (difference of) colour, smell, taste, touch, figure, and place, are (counted) by thousands. b. The Water Lives are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped.

The gross and fully developed ones are of five kinds: pure water, dew, exudations, fog, and ice.

The 'subtile water' is of one kind, as there is no variety. The subtile species is distributed all over the world, but the gross one (is found) in a part of the world only.

With regard to the continuous flow (as in verse 80).

Seven thousand years is the longest duration of the life of Water Lives (as in verse 81). (All that has been said of Earth Lives in verses 82-84 is verbally repeated here of 'Water Lives.') (88-92) g. Plants are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped.

The gross and fully developed plants are of two kinds: either many have one body in common, or each has its own body.

Those who severally have their own body are of many kinds: trees, shrubby plants [1], shrubs [2], big plants [3], creeping plants [4], grass [5];

Palms [6], plants of knotty stems or stalks [7], mushrooms [8], water-plants, annual plants [9], and herbs [10]. These are called plants possessing severally their own body.

Those plants of which many have one body in common are of many kinds [11]: Aluya [12], Mulaya [13], ginger;

Harili, Sirili, Sassirili, Gavai, Keyakandali [14], onion, garlic, plantain-tree, Kuduvvaya [15];

Lohinihuya, Thihuya, Tuhaga, Kanha [1], Vaggakanda [2], Suranaya [3];

Assakanni [4], Sihakanni, Musundhi, turmeric, and many others besides.

The subtile plants are of one kind, as there is no variety. Subtile plants are distributed all over the world, gross plants (are found) in a . part of the world only.

With regard to the continuous flow (as in verse 80).

Ten thousand years is the longest duration of the life of plants (All as in verses 81-84. Substitute plants, which are here called vanaspati and panaka, for Earth-bodies.) (103-106)

Thus the three kinds of immovable living beings have briefly been told. I shall now explain in due order the three kinds of movable living beings. b. The movable beings are a. the Fire Lives, a. the Wind Lives, and g. those with an organic body; these are the three kinds of movable beings. Learn from me their subdivision. a. The Fire Lives are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped.

The gross and fully developed ones are of many kinds: coal, burning chaff, fire, and flame of fire;

Meteors, and lightning, and many other kinds besides.

The subtile Fire Lives are but of one kind, as there is no variety.

The subtile species b. The Wind Lives are of two kinds (as in verse 109).

The gross and fully developed ones are of five kinds: squalls [1], whirlwinds [2], thick winds [3], high winds, low winds;

And the Samvartaka [4] wind ; thus they are of many kinds [5].

The subtile Wind Lives are but of one kind, as there is no variety.

The subtile species (as above 79-84. Substitute Wind Lives for Earth Lives. In verse 123, corresponding to 114, read: 'the longest duration of the life of Wind Lives is three thousand years;' the rest as above). (121-126) g. Movable beings with organic bodies (i.e. animals) are of four kinds: i. those possessing two organs of sense, ii. those with three organs, iii. those with four organs, iv. those with five organs. i. Beings with two organs of sense are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones. Both are either fully developed or undeveloped. Learn from me their subdivision [1].

Worms, Somangala, Alasa [2], Maivahaya [3], Vasimuha [4], shells, conches, Sankhanaga [5]; (i 29)

Palloya, Anullaya, cowries, leeches, Galaga, and Kandana [6].

These and others are the many kinds of beings with two organs of sense. All of them live in a part of the world only, they do not live everywhere.

With regard to the continuous flow (as in verse 80).

The duration of the life of beings with two organs of sense is twelve years at the utmost; the shortest is less than a muhurta.

The longest duration of the body of beings with two organs of sense is a Samkhyeya (or measurable time) if they do not leave that (kind of) body; the shortest is less than one muhurta.

135, 136 = 83, 84. Substitute 'beings with two organs of sense' for Earth Lives. ii. Beings with three organs of sense are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones. Both are either fully developed or undeveloped. Learn from me their subdivision.

Kunthu [1], ants, bugs, Ukkala, white ants, Tanahara, Katthahara, Maluga [2], Pattaharaga;

Duga shining like lead, which originate in the kernel of the cotton-seed, Sadavari, centipedes, Indagaiya;

Cochineal Thus they are of many kinds. All of them live in a part of the world only, they do not live everywhere.

141-145 = 132-136. (Substitute 'beings with three organs of sense.' The longest duration, is forty-nine days, verse 142 = 133.) iii. Beings with four organs of sense are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones. Both are either developed or undeveloped. Learn from me their subdivision.

Andhiya, Pottiya, flies, mosquitoes, bees, moths, Dhinkana and Kankana;

Kukkuda [1], Singiridi, Nandavatta [2], scorpions, Dola, crickets, Virali, Akkhivehaya;

Akkhila, Sahaya Akkhirodaya, Vikitta, Vikittapattaya [3], Uhilmgaliya, Galakari, Niya, and Tantavagaiya.

These and others are the beings with four organs of sense. All of them (the rest as in verses 131-136. Substitute 'beings with four organs of sense.' The longest duration, is six months, verse 152 = 133). (150-155) iv. Beings with five organs of sense are of four kinds: denizens of hell, animals [4], men, and gods. . a. Denizens of hell are of seven kinds according to the seven hells; they are called Ratnabha, Sarkarabha, Valukabha;

Pankabha, Dhumabha, Tama, and Tamatama. Thus the seven kinds of denizens of hell have been enumerated.

All the (denizens of hell) live in a part of the world only; they do not live everywhere (as in verses 79 and 80). (159, 160)

In the first hell the longest duration of their life is one Sagaropama; the shortest is ten thousand years.

In the second hell the longest duration of their life is three Sagaropamas; the shortest is one Sagaropama [1].

In the third hell the longest duration of their life is seven Sagaropamas; the shortest is three Sagaropamas.

In the fourth hell the longest duration of their life is ten Sagaropamas; the shortest is seven Sagaropamas.

In the fifth hell the longest duration of their life is seventeen Sagaropamas; the shortest is ten Sagaropamas.

In the sixth hell the longest duration of their life is twenty-two Sagaropamas; the shortest is seventeen Sagaropamas.

In the seventh hell the longest duration of their life is thirty-three Sagaropamas; the shortest is twenty-two Sagaropamas.

The length of the life of denizens of hell is also that of their continuance in the same kind of body, with regard both to the longest and shortest duration of it.

Verses 169, 170 = 83, 84. (Substitute, denizens of hell.) b. The animals which possess five organs of sense are of two kinds, those which originate by generatio aequivoca [1], and those which are born from the womb.

Either of them are again of three kinds: 1. aquatic, 2. terrestrial, and 3. aerial animals. Learn from me their subdivision.

1. Fishes, tortoises, crocodiles, Makaras, and Gangetic porpoises are the five kinds of aquatic animals.

174, 175 = 159, 160.

The longest duration of the life of aquatic animals is one Krore of former years [2]; the shortest is less than one muhurta.

The longest duration of the aquatic animals' continuance in the (same kind of body) is from two to nine [3] Krores of former years.

178 = 83.

2. Quadrupeds and reptiles are the two kinds of terrestrial animals. The quadrupeds are of four kinds; listen to my description of them:

Solidungular animals, as horses ;

Biungular animals, as cows ;

Multiungular animals, as elephants ;

Animals having toes with nails, as lions

The reptiles are of two kinds: 1. those which walk on their arms, as lizards, and 2. those which move on their breast, as snakes Both are again of many kinds.

182, 183 = 159, 160.

The longest duration of the life of terrestrial animals is three Palyopamas; the shortest is less than one muhurta.

The longest duration of the terrestrial animals' continuance in the (same kind of) body is three Palyopamas plus from two to nine Krores of former years; the shortest is less than one muhurta.

186 = 83.

3. Winged animals are of four kinds: those with membranous wings [1], those with feathered wings, those with wings in the shape of a box [2], and those (which sit on) outspread wings [3].

188, 189 = 159, 160.

The longest duration of the life of aerial animals is an Asamkhyeya-part of a Palyopama [4]; the shortest is less than one muhurta.

The longest duration (of the aerial animals' continuance in the same kind of body) is an Asamkhyeya-part of a Palyopama plus from two to nine Krores of former years; the shortest is less than one muhurta.

192, 193 = 159, 160. c. Men are of two kinds; listen to my description of them: men originating by generatio aequivoca [5], and men born from the womb.

Those who are born from the womb are of three kinds: those living in the Karmabhumi [1], those living in the Akarmabhumi, and those living on the minor continents [2].

They have, in the same order, fifteen [3], thirty [4], and twenty-eight subdivisions. These are the numbers handed down.

Men originating by generatio aequivoca are of as many kinds. They all live but in a part of the world.

Verses 198-202 = 183-186. (Substitute, 'men' for 'terrestrial animals.') d. Gods are of four kinds; listen to my description of them: 1. Bhaumeyikas; 2. Vyantaras; 3. Gyotishkas; 4. Vaimanikas.

There are ten kinds of Bhavanavasins ( = Bhaumeyikas), eight of those who live in woods ( = Vyantaras), five of Gyotishkas, and two of Vaimanikas.

1. The Bhavanavasins are: the Asura-, Naga-, Suvarna-, Vidyut-, Agni-, Dvipa-, Udadhi-, Vata-, and Ghanika-(Kumaras [5]). (2

2. The eight kinds of Vyantaras are: Pisakas,

3. The moons, the suns, the Nakshatras, the planets, and the hosts of stars are the fivefold dwellings of the Gyotishkas.

4. The Vaimanika gods are of two kinds: a'. those who are born in the heavenly Kalpas, and b'. those who are born in the regions above them [1]. a'. The former are of twelve kinds: those who live in (the following Kalpas, after which they are named): Saudharma, Isana, Sanatkumara, Mahendra, Brahmaloka, and Lantaka;

Mahasukla, Sahasrara, Anata, Pranata [2], Arana, and Akyuta. These are the gods who are born in Kalpas. b'. The gods who are born in the regions above the Kalpas are of two kinds: a'. the Graiveyakas [3], and b'. the Anuttaras [4]. The Graiveyakas are of nine kinds. a'. The lowest of the lowest, the middle of the lowest, the highest of the lowest, the lowest of the middle;

The middle of the middle, the highest of the middle, the lowest of the highest, the middle of the highest;

The highest of the highest. These are the Graiveyaka gods. b'. The Vigayas, the Vaigayantas, the Gayantas, the Aparagitas

And the Sarvarthasiddhas: these are the five kinds of Anuttara gods.

These and others besides are the many kinds of Vaimanika gods. (215-217 = 159-160)

The longest duration of the life of the Bhaumeyika gods is somewhat more than a Sagaropama, the smallest ten thousand years.

The longest duration of the life of the Vyantaras is one Palyopama, the shortest is ten thousand years.

The longest duration of the life of the Gyotishkas is one Palyopama plus one hundred thousand years, the shortest is the eighth part of a Palyopama.

The longest duration of life in the Saudharmakalpa is two Sagaropamas, the shortest is one Palyopama.

(In the same way (a) the longest, and (b) the shortest duration of life in the remaining Kalpas and heavenly regions is given in the original. I give in the sequel the substance only of each verse.)

In Isana Kalpa (a) is somewhat more than a Sagaropama, (b) somewhat more than a Palyopama.

In Sanatkumara Kalpa (a) is seven, (b) two Sagaropamas.

In Mahendra Kalpa (a) is somewhat more than seven Sagaropamas, (b) somewhat more than two.

In Brahmaloka Kalpa (a) is ten Sagaropamas, (b) seven.

In Lantaka Kalpa (a) is fourteen Sagaropamas, (b) ten.

In Mahasukla Kalpa(a) is seventeen Sagaropamas, (b) fourteen [1].

In Sahasrara Kalpa (a) is eighteen Sagaropamas, (b) seventeen.

In Anata Kalpa (a) is nineteen Sagaropamas, (b) eighteen.

In Pranata Kalpa (a) is twenty Sagaropamas, (b) nineteen.

In Arana Kalpa (a) is twenty-one Sagaropamas, (b) twenty.

In Akyuta Kalpa (a) is twenty-two Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-one.

In the first (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty-three Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-two.

In the second (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty-four Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-three.

In the third (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty-five Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-four.

In the fourth (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty-six Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-five.

In the fifth (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty-seven Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-six.

In the sixth (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty-eight Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-seven.

In the seventh (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty-nine Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-eight.

In the eighth (Graiveyika region) (a) is thirty Sagaropamas, (b) twenty-nine.

In the ninth (Graiveyika region) (a) is thirty-one Sagaropamas, (b) thirty.

In the four heavens (of the Anuttara gods), beginning with Vigaya [1], (a) is thirty-three Sagaropamas, (b) thirty-one.

In the great Vimana Sarvartha(siddha) there is no difference between the longest and shortest duration of life, but it is always thirty-three Sagaropamas.

The longest and shortest duration of the gods' (continuance in the same kind of) body is equal to that which has been given for their life. (244, 245 [2], 246 = 159, 160)

We have described the Living Beings, the worldly and the perfected ones, and we have described the Lifeless Things, those possessing form and those without form.

Having thus learned (the nature of) living beings and lifeless things which is in accordance with the principles of reasoning [3], and believing in it, a sage should delight in self-control.

After having lived as a Sramana many years, a sage should mortify himself [4] by the following religious exercises.

The longest duration of the mortification is twelve years; the middle, one year; and the shortest, six months.

In the first four years he should abstain from dressed food [1], in the second four years he should keep various fasts.

During two years he should eat Akamla [2] at the end of every second fast; in the following half year he should keep not too long fasts.

In the second half of the year he should keep long fasts. During the whole year he should eat but small portions of Akamla [2].

During the (last) year a sage should make the ends of two consecutive fasts meet [3], and should break his fast after half a month or a whole month, (till he dies).

The following (Bhavanas), Kandarpa-, Abhiyogika-, Kilvisha-, Moha-, and Asuratva-(Bhavanas [4]), will lead to evil ways (i.e. bad births); they are obnoxious at the time of death.

Those souls who cherish heretical opinions, commit sins, and kill living beings, will not reach Bodhi at the time of death.

Those souls who cherish orthodox opinions, do not commit sins, and are enveloped in white Lesya, will reach Bodhi at the time of death.

Those souls who cherish heretical opinions, commit sins, and are enveloped in black Lesya, will not reach Bodhi at the time of death.

Those who love the creed of the Ginas and piously practise it, will be pure and free from the soil (of passions), and will (in due time) get out of the Circle of Births.

The miserable men who do not know the creed of the Ginas, will many times commit unholy suicide and die against their will.

Those who are well versed in the sacred lore and possess much knowledge, who awaken piety (in others) and appreciate their good qualities, are for this very reason worthy to hear the doctrine of salvation [1].

He who by ribaldry and buffoonery, by his comical habits and appearance, by jests and words amuses other people, realises the Kandarpa-Bhavana.

Those who practise spells and besmear their body with ashes for the sake of pleasure, amusement, or power, realise the Abhiyogika-Bhavana [2].

The deceitful man who reviles the sacred lore, the Kevalins, the teacher of the Law, the Satigha, and the monks, realises the Kilvishika-Bhavana.

He who is continuously angry, and who puts his faith in prognostics, realises the Asuratva-Bhavana.

Those who use weapons, eat poison, throw themselves into fire or water, and use things not prescribed by the rules of good conduct, are liable to be born and to die again and again. (Such persons realise the Moha-Bhavana.)

The enlightened and liberated Gnatri(putra) has thus delivered Thirty-six Lectures of the Uttaradhyayana [1], which the pious [2] approve of.


  • 206:2 It will perhaps not be amiss to give a systematic list of the subjects treated in this lecture. The numbers refer to the verses.

A. Things without life, 3-48.

   Without form, 5-9.
   With form, 10-48.

B. Living Beings, 48-246.

   Perfected souls, 50-68.
   Mundane Beings, 69-246.
     a. Immovable Beings, 71-106.
        a. Earth Lives, 71-84.
        b. Water Lives, 85-92.
        g. Plants, 93-106.
     b. Movable Beings, 108-246.
        a. Fire Lives, 109-117.
        b. Wind Lives, 118-126.
        g. Beings with an organic body, 127-246. [p. 207]
           i. With two organs of sense, 128-136.
           ii. With three organs of sense, 137-145.
           iii. With four organs of sense, 146-155.
           iv. With five organs of sense, 156-246.
              a. Denizens of hell, 157-170.
              b. Animals (vertebratae), 171-193.
                 1. Aquatic, 171-178.
                 2. Terrestrial, 179-186.
                 3. Aerial, 187-193.
              c. Men, 194-202.
              d. Gods, 203-246.
                 1. Bhavanavasin, 205, 218.
                 2. Vyantara, 206, 219.
                 3. Gyotishka, 207, 220.
                 4. Vaimanika, 208, 221-246.
                    a'. Living in Kalpas, 209, 210, 221-232.
                    b'. Living above the Kalpas, 255.
                       a'. Graiveyakas, 212, 213, 233-241.
                       b'. Anuttaras, 214-217, 242, 243.

Appendix, 247-267.

  • 206:3 Giva and agiva. The former is defined in the Dipika as upayogavan in accordance with our text, XXVIII, 10; the latter is also called pudgala.
  • 208:1 It is here called addha-samaya, which may be translated real-time. It has no divisions or parts as the other things, because of time only the present moment is existent. And a moment cannot be divided.
  • 208:2 Time is only present in the two and a half continents inhabited by men, and the oceans belonging to them; beyond this sphere there is no time or, as the Dipika correctly remarks, no divisions of time.
  • 208:3 Samtatim pappa = samtatim prapya.
  • 208:4 According to the Dipika, we should have but two divisions, viz.: 1. compound things (skandha, aggregates of atoms), and 2. not aggregated atoms; for Nos. 2 and 3 of our text are but subdivisions of No. 1.
  • 208:5 Egattena puhuttena = katvena prithaktvena.
  • 209:1 The meaning of this verse is that a thing, as far as its material cause is concerned, has always existed, and will ever exist under one form or other, but that the individual thing in its present form has but a limited existence.
  • 209:2 Asamkhakalam. See above, <page 42>, note .
  • 209:3 Antaram; the interval between the thing being removed from its proper scene and reaching it again (Avakuri and Dipika).
  • 210:1 Each verse has the same form as 23, only that another colour is substituted for black. In the same way the subdivisions of smells, are given. I give the first verse of each class and abbreviate the rest.
  • 211:1 The greatest size (ogahana) of men is 500 dhanus, or 2,000 cubits, the smallest one cubit.
  • 212:1 Similar details are given in the Aupapatika Sutra (ed. Leumann, section 163 f.).
  • 212:2 According to the commentator, who quotes scripture, it decreases an angula every Yogana.
  • 212:3 Compare XXXIV, 9 and note. The commentators here treat anka as a separate substance without offering any explanation. The Dipika writes sita instead of sita.
  • 212:4 Or 333 1/3 dhanus.
  • 213:1 The words translated, 'considered singly' and 'considered collectively,' are egattena and puhuttena = ekatvena and prithaktvena. Their usual meaning has been given in verse 11.
  • 213:2 Lavanase?
  • 213:3 Not in our dictionaries; the commentators only say that it is a kind of mineral, dhatuvisesha. I give the Sanskrit names of [p. 214] the stones, which cannot be identified with certainty, or are not contained in the index of R. Garbe's work on the Indian minerals, Leipzig, 1882.
  • 214:1 A medicinal earth, commonly called Kankushtha.
  • 214:2 The enumeration contains thirty-nine, instead of thirty-six items, as stated in verses 73 and 76.
  • 214:3 The meaning seems to be that souls of earth-bodies live in [p. 215] earth-bodies, the time stated in verse 82, while the length of each separate existence is determined in verse 81.
  • 216:1 Gukkha; it is explained to denote such plants from the single root or bulb of which come forth many stalks, e.g. Vrintaka, Solanum Melongena.
  • 216:2 Gulma, similar to the preceding class, but bringing forth twigs or stems, instead of stalks, e.g. Navamalika, Jasminum Sambac, Kanavira
  • 216:3 Lata, as Lotus, Pandanus
  • 216:4 Valli, as gourds, Piper Betel
  • 216:5 Trina, grass. But of the two examples given in the commentary, gunguka is not in our dictionaries, and Arguna denotes usually a tree, Terminalia Arjuna.
  • 216:6 Valaya; so called from their foliation.
  • 216:7 Parvaga, as sugar-cane.
  • 216:8 Kuhana, plants which cause the earth to burst, as sarpakkhatra, mushroom (toad-stool).
  • 216:9 Oshadhi, such plants as die after having brought forth seed, as rice
  • 216:10 Haritakaya, as tanduleya
  • 216:11 The plants in the following list are, according to the commentary, mostly bulbs, 'well known in the countries where they grow.' Many of them are not in our dictionaries. I give the Prakrit form of their names, and note the Sanskrit equivalent when it can be identified.
  • 216:12 Aluka, Amorphophallus Campanulatus.
  • 216:13 Mulaka, radish.
  • 216:14 A various reading has for the last two words (which might be differently divided), a paikkeikandali. The Kandali, the plantain-tree, occurs in the next line again.
  • 216:15 A various reading is Kudambaya.
  • 217:1 Krishnakanda, Nymphaea Rubra.
  • 217:2 Vagrakanda of the Sanskrit Koshas.
  • 217:3 Surana, Arum Campanulatum.
  • 217:4 Asvakarna. Asvakarna is a tree, Vatika Robusta.
  • 218:1 Utkalika, intermittent winds.
  • 218:2 Mandalika = vatoli.
  • 218:3 According to the comm. these winds blow on the oceans which are situated below the Ratnaprabha-hell, or which support the heavenly Vimanas, and have the density of snow. Perhaps the notion is similar to that of the Hindu astronomers, who fancied that the heavenly bodies were set in motion by cords of wind called pravaha. See Surya Siddhanta II, 3.
  • 218:4 This seems to be the hurricane which causes the periodical destruction of the world. But Devendra says: Samvartaka is a wind which carries grass, from the outside into a particular place.'
  • 218:5 Though in the preceding verse it was said that there are five kinds of wind, six are enumerated, and more are implied by the '
  • 219:1 As many of these lower animals are not known to us, I give the Prakrit names of those which I cannot identify. Devendra says: 'Some of them are well known, the remaining ones are to be explained according to tradition.' The explanation of this passage in the Avakuri is fuller.
  • 219:2 A small poisonous animal. Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. According to the Givavikara Vritti V, 16, they are earth-snakes (bhunaga), which originate in the rainy season when the sun is in Aslesha, i.e. about the beginning of July.
  • 219:3 Matrivahaka. According to the description of the Avakuri, the larvae of Phryganeae seem intended. According to the Givavikara Vritti, they are called kudeli in Guzerati.
  • 219:4 Vasimukha, explained: Whose mouth is like a chisel or adze. There are many insects, e.g. the Curculionidae, which suit this description.
  • 219:5 Sankhanaka, very small, conch-like animals.'
  • 219:6 Kandana = Akavriksha (?). According to the Givavikara Vritti V, 16, they are animals living in water and on land, and are called Aksha in the vernacular (samayabhasha).
  • 220:1 Kunthu or animalcules are also called Anuddhari, see concerning them, Kalpa Sutra, Rules for Yatis, section 44, part i, p. 304.–I give in the text the Prakrit form of the words I cannot identify.
  • 220:2 Maluka is the name of a plant, Ocimum Sanctum. It must, of course, here denote some animal.–The Givavikara enumerates many other animals, lice, bugs, different kinds of larvae living in dung, corn –The trinahara, kashthahara, and patrahara seem to denote different kinds of ants.
  • 221:1 Kukkuta is given in the dictionaries as the name of a small lizard.
  • 221:2 Nandyavarta occurs elsewhere as the name of a particular fish, and of a shell. It can be neither of these in our passage, as both animals belong to other classes than the Katurindriyas.
  • 221:3 Etymologically: with many-coloured wings. Probably butterflies are intended.
  • 221:4 Tirikkha = tiryak. Apparently only the higher animals are intended by this term, the lower animals, from the insects downwards, being enumerated in the preceding classes of beings.
  • 222:1 It will be seen that the longest duration of life in each hell is always equal to the shortest in the preceding one.
  • 223:1 Sammurkhima. They grow by assimilating the materials in their surrounding. According to a second explanation, their internal organ does not fully develop.
  • 223:2 See page <page 16>, note .
  • 223:3 This is, according to the Avakuri, the meaning of puhuttam prithaktvam.
  • 224:1 E.g. the karmakatakas or bats.
  • 224:2 Samudga. These interesting birds are said to live outside the Manushottara, or world inhabited by men.
  • 224:3 The comm. do not tell us what kind of birds is intended.
  • 224:4 The comm. do not explain this expression; the meaning, therefore, is doubtful. I give a literal translation of it in this and the next. verse.
  • 224:5 See page <page 223>, note [1], on verse 171.
  • 225:1 Concerning Karmabhumi, see part i, p.195, note 1. The Avakuri places the Akarmabhumi first, but the next verse proves that it originally stood in the second place.
  • 225:2 These are seven groups of islands situated off the eastern and western ends of the Himalaya, which are inhabited by fabulous races.
  • 225:3 According to the Avakuri, there are five kinds in Bharata, five in Airavata, and five in Videha.
  • 225:4 Viz. five in each of the six Akarmabhumis: Haimavata, Harivarsha, Hairanyavata, Devakuru, and Uttarakuru.
  • 225:5 According to the commentaries the word kumara is to be supplied after each of the ten names.
  • 226:1 They are termed Kalpopaga and Kalpatita.
  • 226:2 I am not sure that these are the correct Sanskrit forms of the two last Kalpas; the original has Anaya and Panaya.
  • 226:3 I.e. those who live on the neck (griva), i.e. on the upper part of the universe.
  • 226:4 I.e. those above whom there dwell no other gods.
  • 228:1 From this verse to verse 241 the length of life increases by one Sagaropama in each following class of gods.
  • 229:1 Viz. Vigaya, Vaigayanta, Gayanta, and Aparagita.
  • 229:2 Two MSS. (A and D) insert after verses 245 the following two verses: The longest interval between a Graiveyika's leaving his rank in Anata, and being again born to it, is an endless time, the shortest is from two to nine years. In the case of Anuttara gods the longest interval is a Sagaropama plus one Samkhyeya, the shortest is from two to nine years.
  • 229:3 Naya.
  • 229:4 The last self-mortification, samlekhana, which is to end with death, is intended here. Some details about it will be found in part i, p. 74 ff.
  • 230:1 Vigai-nigguhana. The meaning is that at the end of his fasts a monk should eat akamla, nirvikritika In the Avakuri a verse from the Nisithakurni is quoted, which gives the same rule for the second four years.
  • 230:2 Ayama = akamla. Is this the same thing as the ayamaga = akamaka mentioned XV, 13? See above, <page 72>, note .
  • 230:3 Kodisahiyam ayamam = kotisahitam akamlam. The commentators give two explanations of this phrase: Having fasted one day, one should take akamla on the next day; one should on the second day continue to abstain from akamla.
  • 230:4 The definition of these technical terms is given below, verses 262 ff.
  • 231:1 Alokana = sramanaphalam. The Avakuri renders the last phrase: 'They are able to bring about the salvation of others.' The original, however, has soum, to hear.'
  • 231:2 The Abhiyogidevas are genii who serve the gods. This Bhavana leads to being born as an Abhiyogideva; the next two Bhavanas, as a Kilvishadeva and an Asura.
  • 232:1 Uttaragghae in the original. The commentators give uttara here the meaning pradhana, 'best, prominent.' The same explanation is given by the scholiast on the Nandi (Weber, Sacred Literature of the Jains, p.124). Perhaps the name refers to the tradition that Mahavira recited at the time of his death the thirty-six aputtha-vagaranaim, which are identified by one commentator of the Kalpa Sutra (Lives of the Ginas, section 147) with the Uttaradhyayana; for uttara also means 'last.'
  • 232:2 Bhavasiddhiya = bhavasiddhika, explained by bhavya.

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