jaina sutrakritanga sutra
The Sutrakritanga Sutra
Principle author: Mahavira
Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi
1 - the doctrine
One should know what causes the bondage of Soul, and knowing (it) one should remove  it.
(Gambusvamin asked Sudharman):
What causes the bondage (of Soul) according to Mahavira? and what must one know in order to remove it?
He who owns even a small property in living or lifeless things , or consents to others holding it, will not be delivered from misery.
If a man kills living beings, or causes other men to kill them, or consents to their killing them, his iniquity will go on increasing.
A sinner who makes the interests of his kinsmen  and companions his own, will suffer much; for the number of those whose interest he takes to heart constantly increases.
All this, his wealth and his nearest relations, cannot protect him (from future misery); knowing (this) and (the value of) life, he will get rid of Karman.
Some men , Sramanas and Brahmanas, who ignore and deny these true words , adhere (to their own tenets), and are given to pleasures.
Some  profess (the exclusive belief in) the five gross elements: earth, water, fire, wind, and air.
'These five gross elements (are the original causes of things), from them arises another (thing, viz. atman) ; for on the dissolution of the (five elements) living beings cease to exist.
'And as the Earth, though it is but one pile, presents many forms, so the intelligent (principle, viz. the atman) appears under various forms as the universe .'
Thus say some fools. (But how can they explain on their theory that) the man engaging in undertakings, who has committed a sin, will himself suffer severe pain. ?
'Everybody, fool or sage, has an individual soul. These souls exist (as long as the body), but after death they are no more; there are no souls which are born again.
'There is neither virtue nor vice, there is no world beyond; on the dissolution of the body the individual ceases to be.'
'When a man acts or causes another to act, it is not his soul (atman) which acts or causes to act .' Thus they (viz. the adherents of the Sankhya philosophy) boldly proclaim.
How can those who hold such opinions explain (the variety of existence in) the world? They go from darkness to utter darkness, being fools and engaged in works.
Some  say that there are five elements and that the soul is a sixth (substance), but they contend that the soul and the world (i.e. the five elements) are eternal.
'These (six substances) do not perish neither (without nor with a cause); the non-existent does not come into existence, but all things are eternal by their very nature .'
Some fools  say that there are five skandhas of momentary existence. They do not admit that (the soul) is different from, nor identical  with (the elements), that it is produced from a cause (i.e. the elements), nor that it is without a cause (i.e. that it is eternal).
The Ganayas  say that there are four elements: earth, water, fire, and wind, which combined form the body (or soul?).
(All these heretics say): 'Those who dwell in houses, in woods, or on hills, will be delivered from all misery if they adopt our creed.'
But they do not cross the Flood of Life, who, ignoring the true relation of things, and not versed in the true Law, hold the above heretical opinions.
They do not reach the end of the Samsara, who, ignoring
They do not reach the end of transmigration, who
They do not put an end to birth, who
They do not put an end to misery, who
They do not put an end to death, who
They will again and again experience manifold pains in this ring  of the earth, which is full of death, disease, and old age.
The highest Gina, Mahavira the Gnatriputra, has said that they will undergo births without number, being placed in all sorts of existences.
Thus I say.
- 235:1 Srutaskandha. Its Sanskrit title mentioned by Silanka is Gathashodasaka, i.e. the book whose Sixteenth Lecture is called Gatha. It is mentioned in the Uttaradhyayana XXXI, 13 by the name of the sixteen Gathas; see above, p, 182.
- 235:2 Samaya. This title is not found in MSS. at the end of the lecture, but it is given by the author of the Niryukti (verse 29). The subject of this lecture is more fully treated in section section 15-33 of the First Lecture of the Second Book.
- 235:3 Tiuttigga. The commentators translate this word trotayet, but the true Sanskrit original is ativarteta, as is evident from the form atiuttanti in I, 2, 22.
- 235:4 Living and lifeless things as we understand these words, not [p. 236] as the Gainas do. The original has: kittamantam akittam va, beings possessed of intellect, and things without intellect. The latter are, according to Gaina notions, living beings giva as well as inanimate matter.
- 236:1 Literally, those in whose family he is born. Silanka, the author of the oldest Tika on the Sutrakritanga, names the Rashtrakutas or Rathors in order to illustrate what is meant by family.'
- 236:2 According to Silanka the Bauddhas, Barhaspatyas, and others are intended.
- 236:3 Grantha, passage in a book. The verses 2-5 are intended.
- 236:4 They are the Nastikas or Karvakas.
- 236:5 In other words: the Atman is produced by the elements. But there is, it would seem, but one Atman, for in verses 11, 12, we have another heretical philosophy which acknowledged a plurality of transient atmans.
- 237:1 This is the doctrine of the Vedantins.
- 237:2 If there were but one atman common to all men, the fruit of works done by one man might accrue to another. For the atman is the substratum of merit and demerit.
- 237:3 Though there is no doubt about the meaning of this passage, still the construction is so elliptic that I may have failed to understand the connection of the parts of the sentence.
- 237:4 This is the opinion expressed by Karaka and in the early law-books, see Professor Jolly's paper in the Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists, vol. i, p. 456. Silanka ascribes it to the Sankhyas and Saivadhikarins.
- 238:1 Niyatibhavam agaya. Niyati is explained by nityabhava.
- 238:2 Viz. the Bauddhas. The five skandhas are explained in the commentary as follows: 1. rupaskandha, or substances and their qualities; 2. vedanaskandha, feelings, as pleasure and pain; 3. vignanaskandha, perceptions of the qualities of things; 4. samgnaskandha, perception and knowledge of things; 5. samskaraskandha, merit and demerit.
- 238:3 Identical, i.e. a product of the elements as the Karvakas maintain.
- 238:4 Ganaya, which is explained in the Dipika by gnanaka = panditammanya, denotes the Bauddhas. I think that the word may be derived from yana 'vehicle,' which the Buddhist used to designate the two sections of the church, viz. the Hinayana and Mahayana schools. The commentator quotes a various reading: avare for ganaya, and explains it as referring to another sect of Bauddhas than those spoken of in the preceding verse. Silanka comments on the reading avvare first, and then on ganaya.
- 239:1 Kakravala.
Again some  say: 'It is proved that there are individual souls; they experience pleasure and pain; and (on dying) they lose their state of life.
'But misery (and pleasure) is not caused by (the souls) themselves; how could it be caused by other (agents, as time, )? Pleasure and misery, final beatitude  and temporal (pleasure and pain) are not caused by (the souls) themselves, nor by others; but the individual souls experience them; it is the lot assigned them by destiny.' This is what they (i.e. the fatalists) say. (2, 3)
Those who proclaim these opinions, are fools who fancy themselves learned; they have no knowledge, and do not understand that things depend partly on fate, and partly on human exertion .
Thus (say) some heretics ; they are very bold men; if they act up to their principles, they will never be delivered from misery.
As the swift deer who are destitute of protection, are frightened where there is no danger, and not frightened where there is danger;
(As) they dread safe places, but do not dread traps; they are bewildered by ignorance and fear, and run hither and thither;
If they did jump over the noose or pass under it, they would escape from the snare; but the stupid animal does not notice  it;
The unhappy animal, being of a weak intellect, runs into the dangerous (place), is caught in the snare, and is killed there;
So some unworthy Sramanas who hold wrong doctrines are afraid of what is free from danger, and are not afraid of real dangers. (to)
The fools dread the preaching of the Law, but they do not dread works, being without discernment and knowledge.
Shaking off greed , pride , deceit , and wrath , one becomes free from Karman. This is a subject (which an ignorant man, like) a brute animal, does not attend to.
The unworthy heretics who do not acknowledge this, will incur death an endless number of times, like deer caught in a snare.
All Brahmanas and Sramanas contend that they possess the knowledge (of the truth), but the creatures in the whole world do not know anything.
As a Mlekkha  repeats what an Arya has said, but does not understand the meaning, merely repeating his words, so the ignorant, though pretending to possess knowledge, do not know the truth, just as an uninstructed Mlekkha. (15, 16)
The speculations of the Agnostics cannot lead to knowledge; they cannot reach the truth by themselves, still less teach it to other men.
As when a man in a wood who does not know it, follows a guide who also does not know it, both being unacquainted (with the place), come to great trouble;
As when one blind man is the guide of another, the man walks a great distance, loses his way, or follows a wrong way;
Thus some who search after salvation and pretend to practise the (true) Law, follow the false Law and do not arrive at the thoroughly right (thing, viz. self-control).
Thus some (wrong philosophers) do not apply to others for arguments, but they continue to err because they believe their own arguments to be right .
Thus arguing according to their light, and ignorant about what is right and wrong, they do not get out of misery as birds do not get out of their cage.
They praise their own creed and blame that of their opponents, but those who act in this respect the part of philosophers, will be kept confined in the Circle of Births .
There is the doctrine of the Kriyavadins , which has been previously explained; it augments the misery of worldly existence of those who do not well consider the nature of acts.
'He who intends (to kill) a living being but does not do it by (an act of) his body, and he who unknowingly kills one, both are affected by that act through a slight contact (with it) only, but the demerit (in their case) is not fully developed .'
'There are three ways of committing sins: by one's own activity, by commission, by approval (of the deed).
'These are the three ways of committing sins. Thus by purity of the heart one reaches Nirvana.
'A layman may kill his son (during a famine) and eat him; a wise (monk) who partakes of the meat, will not be defiled by the sin .'
The mind of those who sin in thoughts is not pure; they are wrong, they do not conduct themselves carefully .
Men attached to pleasure, who think that the above-mentioned doctrines will save them, commit sins.
As a blind-born man getting into a leaky boat, wants to reach the shore, but is drowned during the passage , so some unworthy, heretical Sramanas wish to get beyond the Circle of Births, but they are whirled round in it. (31, 32)
Thus I say.
- 239:2 They are the fatalists whose peculiar opinions are stated in verses 2 and 3.
- 239:3 Sehiyam = saiddhikam, i.e. mokshe bhavam sukham. Another explanation of the commentator makes saiddhika those pleasures which depend on external causes, as wreaths, sandal, and asaiddhika the pleasures of the mind.
- 240:1 To render niyataniyatam.
- 240:2 Pasattha, usually translated parsvastha 'outsider,' those who do not acknowledge true arguments; another rendering is pasastha 'held in bondage.'
- 240:3 Dehati = pasyati. The form dekkhati occurs in the Prakrit of plays.
- 241:1 Savvappaga = sarvatmaka, lobha.
- 241:2 Viukkassa = vyutkarsha, mana.
- 241:3 Numa = maya.
- 241:4 Appattiya = krodha.
- 241:5 It is worthy of note that the Mlekkhas here are represented as not understanding the language of the Aryas.
- 242:1 The last part of the verse might also be translated: 'because these fools believe the subject to be cleared up (mangu) by their own arguments.'
- 242:2 There is a play on the words viussanti and viussiya, in the last line of this verse viussanti is a denominative verb from viusa = vidvan, and is translated vidvan iva karati. Viussiya = vi + ut + srita.
- 242:3 See above, <page 83>. Silanka defines the Kriyavadins here as men who contend that the principal means of reaching Moksha is kaityakarma, the construction of sanctuaries.
- 242:4 An intentional killing of a living being must actually take place in order to induce the Karman on the soul. If one of the essential conditions which constitute the guilt of slaughter (himsa), [p. 243] is wanting the Karman is still produced; however, it does not take a firm hold of the soul, but merely 'touches' it. This is of course the opinion of the Kriyavadins.
- 243:1 According to Silanka the father too would not be guilty; but this interpretation is against good sense and grammar.
- 243:2 This is the answer of the Siddhantin to the foregoing propositions.
- 243:3 The same verse recurs below, I, 11, 30.
If a monk should eat forbidden food which a pious (layman) has prepared for some guest, and which food has been mixed up with even thousand (times more pure food) , he would be neither monk nor layman.
Sramanas who do not comprehend this and do not know what is dangerous, who care for the pleasures of the moment only, will suffer death an endless number of times, like big  fishes who when the water rises are by the water (deposited) on dry land and are killed (there), poor things, by hungry dhankas and herons. (2-4)
We hear also of another error of some (philosophers): some say that the world has been created (or is governed)  by the gods, others, by Brahman. Some  say that it has been created by the Isvara, others that it was produced from chaos, this world with living beings and lifeless things, with its variety of pleasure and pain.
The great Rishi  said, that the world has been created by Svayambhu; Mara originated Maya, therefore the world (appears to be) uneternal.
Some Brahmanas and Sramanas say that the universe was produced from the (primeval) egg, and He (Brahman) created the things. These ignorant men speak untruth.
Those who on arguments of their own maintain that the world has been created, do not know the truth. Nor will (the world) ever perish.
Know that misery arises from wicked deeds . How can those who do not know the origin (of misery) know its prevention?
Some say that the soul (of him who is) pure will become free from bad Karman (on reaching beatitude), but that in that state it will again become defiled through pleasant excitement or hate.
(According to them ) he who has lived on earth as a restrained monk, will afterwards become free from Karman. As clear water which was free from defilement becomes again defiled, so (will be the soul).
A wise man should consider that these (heretics) do not lead a life of chastity, and that all these disputants proclaim their own creed in opposition (to the others).
(Others  maintain that) perfection can only be reached by their method of religious life, not otherwise; and that even before (that time) they have their senses under control and possess everything to be wished for .
Some say that they will be perfected and sound.
On the head of Perfection some men are infatuated with their own doctrines.
But these uncontrolled (men) will whirl round in the beginningless (Circle of Births); after a Kalpa they will rise from their sphere to become the lowest of Asuras .
Thus I say.
- 244:1 This might also be translated: 'though the food passes through the hands of a thousand men before he accepts it.'
- 244:2 Vesaliya = vaisalika. The commentators offer three explanations of this word, marine, visalah samudras tatrabhavah; belonging to the genus called visala; big, visala.
- 244:3 Devautte. This is either devair uptah, sown, i.e. produced by the gods, or devair guptah, governed by the gods.
- 244:4 The adherents of the Yoga and Sankhya philosophy, or the theistical and atheistical followers of the latter, are apparently meant by 'some' and 'others.'
- 244:5 The commentators unfortunately have not preserved the name of the great Rishi; they identify Svayambhu with Vishnu 'or some one else.' This Svayambhu, afraid that the earth should become overcrowded, called to help Yama, alias Mara, who with the help of Maya makes the creatures appear to die.
- 245:1 It is not given us by any of the above-mentioned agents whom the opponents believe to have created the world.
- 245:2 According to Silanka the followers of Gosala and the Trairasikas are meant. The latter are the Gaina followers of the Vaiseshika philosophy. The Trairasika Sakha was founded by Khaluka Rohagupta, see part i, p. 290. The name Trairasika is said to have been given to these philosophers because they admit a third state besides those of the bound and of the liberated.
- 245:3 According to Silanka the Saivas and Ekadandins are meant.
- 246:1 They acquire the eight siddhis or magical powers.
- 246:2 I translate the words thana asurakivvisiya according to the explanation of the commentary. But they may also mean: from the sphere of Asuras and sinners.
These (philosophers) who are vanquished (by their passions) cannot help you in cases where a sinner perishes ; though having given up their former occupations they will give advice in worldly matters.
A wise monk who fully appreciates this, should not mix with those (heretics); without conceit and not attached to them a sage should lead a life equally removed (from love and hate).
Some say that those who own possessions and engage in undertakings (may reach perfection); but a monk should take his refuge to those who neither own possessions nor engage in undertakings.
A wise man should beg food which has been prepared (for somebody else), and he should accept what is freely given him, without greed and passions; he should abstain from overbearing behaviour .
He should know the talk of people: some say things which are the outcome of a wrong understanding and are but opinions of others repeated.
'The world is boundless and eternal, it exists from eternity and does not perish ; (another) bold philosopher  says that the world is limited, but eternal.
'Some say that the knowledge (of the highest authority) is unlimited; but the same bold philosopher says that it is limited in every way .'
Some beings have motion, others not; it depends on certain conditions whether they are in the one state or in the other.
(E. g. big creatures) have one form of bodily existence and then another . But all are subject to pain; hence they should not be killed.
This is the quintessence of wisdom: not to kill anything. Know this to be the legitimate conclusion from the principle of the reciprocity with regard to non-killing .
Living (according to the rules of conduct), and without greed, one should take care of the highest good .
In walking, in sitting and lying down, and in food and drink: with regard to these three points a monk should always control himself.
And he should leave off pride , wrath , deceit , and greed . (11, 12)
Possessing the Samitis and being protected by the five Samvaras, a pious monk should live, till he reaches perfection, as a man free from fetters among those bound in fetters (viz. the householders).
Thus I say.
- 246:3 A various reading first commented upon by Silanka is: bala panditamanino, being ignorant men who fancy themselves learned.
- 247:1 Omana = apamana.
- 247:2 According to Silanka the eternity of things means, with these philosophers, that one thing always retains the same genus or gati, e.g. that he who was a man in this life will again be a man in the next.
- 247:3 According to the commentators Vyasa is intended. The doctrine referred to in the text is that of the Puranas.
- 247:4 The commentators interpret this verse as if not two philosophical opinions but only one was spoken of. Unlimited knowledge is according to them different from omniscience; in the second part of the sentence 'limited' refers to the sleep of Brahman during which he is unconscious.
- 247:5 Men are some time embryos, then young men, then old men.
- 248:1 Ahimsasamayam = ahimsasamatam, viz. as you do not wish to be killed, so others do not wish to be killed. The last part of the sentence might also be translated: know this to be the real meaning of the Law (samaya) of ahimsa. The same verse recurs I, 11, 10.
- 248:2 Adana, right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct.
- 248:3 Ukkasa = utkarsha, mana.
- 248:4 Galana = gvalana, krodha.
- 248:5 Numa = maya.
- 248:6 Magghattha = madhyastha, lobha. Compare the similar expressions in I, 1, 2, 12, above, <page 241>, notes 1-4, and I, 2, 2, 29, below, <page 257>.
2 - the destruction of karman
(Rishabha said to his sons):
Acquire perfect knowledge of the Law! why do you not study it? It is difficult to obtain instruction in it after this life. The days (that are gone by) will never return, nor is it easy a second time to obtain human birth.
See, young and old men, even children in the mother's womb die. As a hawk catches a quail, so (life) will end when its time is spent .
(A man) may suffer for the sake of his parents; he will not easily obtain happiness after this life. A pious man should consider these causes of danger and cease to act.
For in this world living beings suffer individually for their deeds; for the deed they have done themselves, they obtain (punishment), and will not get over it before they have felt it.
Even gods, Gandharvas, Rakshasas, and Asuras; animals who live on earth, and snakes; kings, common people, merchants, and Brahmanas: they all must leave their rank and suffer.
Notwithstanding their pleasures and relations, all men must suffer in due time the fruit of their works; as a cocoa-nut detaching itself from its stalk (falls down), so (life) will end when its time is spent.
Even a very learned or virtuous man, or a Brahmana or an ascetic, will be severely punished for his deed when he is given to actions of deceit .
See, those (heretics) who search for the knowledge of truth, but who do not cross the Samsara, talk only about the highest good (without reaching it).
How will you understand what is near you and what is beyond ? In the meanwhile you suffer for your deeds.
He who walks about naked and lean, he who eats only once after a month, if he is filled with deceit, will be born an endless number of times.
Man, cease from sins! For the life of men will come to an end . Men who are drowned (in lust, as it were), and addicted to pleasure will, for want of control, be deluded .
Exert and control yourself! For it is not easy to walk on ways where there are minutely small animals. Follow the commandments which the Arhats have well proclaimed .
Heroes (of faith) who desist (from sins) and exert themselves aright, who subdue wrath, fear, will never kill living beings; they desist from sins and are entirely happy.
It is not myself alone who suffers, all creatures in the world suffer; this a wise man  should consider, and he should patiently bear (such calamities) as befall him, without giving way to his passions.
As a wall covered with a plastering (of dried cowdung)  is by a shock made thin, so (a monk) should make his body lean by fasting He should abstain from slaughter of living beings. This is the Law proclaimed by the Sage.
As a bird covered with dust removes the grey powder by shaking itself, so a worthy and austere Brahmana , who does penance, annihilates his Karman.
Young and old people claim a houseless Sramana as their own, though he begs according to the Law, observes the rules of conduct, and performs austerities. People will even cry themselves hoarse, but they will not captivate him.
Whatever they will do to move his pity, however they will cry about their son, they will not captivate a worthy and virtuous monk or make him return to domestic life.
Though they tempt him with pleasures, and though they should bind him and carry him home, if he does not care for a (worldly) life, they will not captivate him or make him return to domestic life.
His father and mother, his children and wife who claim him, will admonish him: 'See, you are our supporter; care not for the next world in order to support us.'
Some people are (foolishly) attached to others, and are thereby deluded; the unrighteous make them adopt unrighteousness, and they exult in their wickedness.
Therefore a worthy and wise man should be careful, ceasing from sin and being entirely happy. The virtuous heroes of faith (have chosen) the great road, the right and certain path to perfection.
He who has entered the road leading to the destruction (of Karman) , who controls his mind, speech, and body, who has given up his possessions and relations and all undertakings, should walk about subduing his senses.
- 249:1 The name of this lecture, which occurs in its last line, is veyaliya, because, as the author of the Niryukti remarks, it treats on vidarika, destruction (of Karman), and because it is composed in the Vaitaliya metre. For either word, vaidarika (or rather vaidalika, cf. karmavidalana) and vaitaliya may, in Gaina Prakrit, become veyaliya or vetaliya. A play of words was apparently intended; it would have been impossible, if both words had not become identical in sound. We may, therefore, conclude that the language of the author obeyed the same phonetic laws as the Gaina Prakrit exhibited in our MSS., or in other words, that the text has been written down in about the same language in which it was originally composed. The name of the Fifteenth Lecture leads to the same inference; for it is called gamaiya (yamakiya) because each of its verses contains the verbal ornament called yamaka, and because it opens with the words gam aiyam (yad atitam).
- 249:2 One MS. here inserts givana giviyam, the life of living beings.
- 250:1 Abhinuma.
- 250:2 According to Silanka, this world and the next, or domestic life and monachism, or the Samsara and Moksha are meant by the expression 'what is near you and what is beyond.'
- 251:1 Paliyantam. Another explanation of this word, preferred by the commentators, is palyopamasya antar: within, i.e. something shorter than a Palyopama.
- 251:2 Or, acquire Karman which is to result in delusion.
- 251:3 According to the commentators: practise (control) according to the sasana (i.e. sutras); this has been well declared by the Arhats.
- 251:4 Sahie. This word is explained sometimes by svahita, intent on his spiritual welfare, sometimes by hitena gnanadina sahitah, possessed of knowledge I translate it 'wise,' and derive the word from Sanskrit sahridaya, the correct Prakrit for which would be sahiyae.
- 251:5 Cow-dung is stuck, in the form of flat round cakes, against a wall to dry there. When the cakes are dried a little shake is sufficient to make them come down, whereby the wall will be restored to its original shape and dimensions.
- 252:1 Mahana = brahmana. The commentator derives the word from ma and root han! The word is a synonym of muni, with which it frequently occurs in the same verse and has then been left out in the translation.
- 253:1 Veyaliya-maggam.
A sage thinks that he should leave off sins just as (a snake) leaves its slough; and he is not proud of his Gotra and other advantages; or is there any use in blaming others?
A man who insults another will long whirl in the Circle of Births; to blame others is not good. Considering this a sage is not conceited.
He who is independent, and he who is the servant of a servant, if they but observe the Vow of Silence , they have no reason to be ashamed; (therefore a monk) should behave equally towards all.
Indifferent and pure with regard to every kind of control, a Sramana should walk about; he who entertains pure thoughts during his whole life, dies as a worthy and wise man.
The sage who sees the far-off (goal, viz. liberation), past and future things, will practise indifference, though he suffer corporal punishment and be beaten.
Possessing perfect wisdom, a sage always vanquishes (his passions); he correctly expounds the
A man who controls himself according to (the Law), which is praised by many people, and is not bound by any worldly ties, who is always pure like a lake, proclaims the Law of Kasyapa.
Seeing that numerous living beings lead an individual life, and that every one feels (pleasure and pain) just as the others, a wise man who observes the Vow of Silence, leaves off (injuring them).
A sage has completely mastered the Law, and has ceased to do actions; but the selfish grieve, they will not (thereby) recover their (lost) property .
Know that it (viz. property) entails pains in this world, and very great pains  in the next. Who will lead a domestic life when he knows that everything must perish? (to)
One should know (and renounce) the great attachment (to the world), and respect and honours on earth; (for conceit) is a very thin thorn difficult to pull out. A wise man, therefore, should abandon worldliness .
A monk should perform postures (as Kayotsarga, ) alone on his seat, and alone on his couch he should meditate; excelling in the performance of austerities, guarded in words, and restrained in thoughts.
An ascetic does not shut the door of a deserted house (where he puts up), nor does he open it; when asked he returns no (rude) answer; he cuts no grass, nor does he strew it (on the ground for a couch).
Where (he is) at sunset, there he calmly (performs his duties); a sage bears pleasant and unpleasant things, be there insects, or wild beasts, or snakes.
He bears the three kinds of calamities arising from beasts, men, and gods. A great sage will not be seized with a shivering , when he stays in a deserted house.
He should not fear for his life, nor should he desire to be praised (for his courage). Fearful things will frighten the mind of a monk who stays in a deserted house.
They say that he who is very well disciplined, who protects others, who lives in a place removed from other people, who is not frightened by dangers, possesses right conduct
A monk who uses warm or hot water , who follows the Law, and loathes (wrong conduct), will by intercourse with bad kings become deficient in his devotion though he be ever so virtuous.
When a monk quarrels and uses very bad language, he will suffer great spiritual loss; therefore a wise man should not quarrel.
He who abstains from cold water , who plans (or undertakes) nothing, and has ceased from even the smallest actions, who does not eat food out of the dish of a householder, possesses right conduct
Though life cannot be prolonged, as the saying is , still foolish people sin recklessly; a foolish man is filled to the brim (as it were) with sins. Considering this a sage is not conceited.
By self-invented rites common people seek holiness , they are full of deceit and shrouded (as it were) in delusion. But a monk is holy  through his innocence, he allows no troubles  to influence his words, (thoughts, and acts).
As a clever gambler, playing at dice, is not vanquished, since he casts the Krita, but not Kali, nor Treta, nor Dvapara;
So adopt for your welfare the best and highest Law which has been proclaimed in this world by the Saviour, as the clever (gambler casts) the Krita, and avoids the other casts.
I have heard that sensual pleasures are said to have the strongest hold on men; but those who abstain from them follow the Law of Kasyapa.
Those who follow the Law that has been proclaimed by Gnatrika, the great seer , are virtuous and righteous; they confirm each other in the Law.
Take no heed of the seductive (pleasures), endeavour to shake off delusion. Those who are not subdued by the wicked (pleasures), know meditation to be their duty .
A monk should not tell stories, nor ask idle questions, nor gossip . But, knowing the highest Law, he should perform his religious duties, and regard nothing his own.
A monk should not indulge deceit , greed , pride , and wrath . Those are virtuous who have arrived at the right understanding of these passions, and who have well practised control .
(A monk) should be free from attachment, wise, controlling himself, seeking the Law, earnest in the performance of austerities, and subduing his senses. It is difficult to obtain the soul's benefit.
Right conduct, which has been taught by the Gnatrika, the sage who knew everything in the whole world, has either not been learned or not been truly practised (by creatures now in distress).
Many men who thought this Law to be the highest good and conducive to their spiritual welfare, obeyed their preceptors, ceased from works, and have crossed the great flood (of worldly existence).
Thus I say.
- 253:2 Maunapada.
- 254:1 Silanka quotes a verse which the Nagarguniyas insert here; compare part i, p. 32, note 2.
- 254:2 I take duhamduha for a kind of intensive form of duha.
- 254:3 This is a rather dark verse. Silanka, after explaining it, quotes the verse as it was read by the Nagarguniyas, which may be rendered thus: Respect and honours are a great obstacle, this he should know; be the thorn small (or) difficult to pull out, a wise man should remove it by the (means we are about to describe).
- 255:1 Literally, horripilation. By the ' ' the other outward signs of horror are indicated.
- 255:2 It should be kept in mind that Gaina monks are forbidden to use cold water, because it is considered to possess life.
- 256:1 Compare Uttaradhyayana IV, I, above p. 18. The same words recur below, I, 2, 3, 30, p. 259.
- 256:2 Paleti = praliyate.
- 256:3 Literally, cold and heat.
- 256:4 Mahavira.
- 256:5 Ahitam, literally, has been declared. The commentators explain the word as a-hitam, thoroughly good, or atmani vyavasthitam, placed in the soul.
- 257:1 Samprasaraka?
- 257:2 Khanna = maya.
- 257:3 Pasamsa = prasamsa, lobha.
- 257:4 Ukkasa = utkarsha, mana.
- 257:5 Pagasa = prakasa, krodha.
- 257:6 Dhuya = dhuta. The word preceding this is sugosiyam = gushtam, sevitam. A various reading is sughosiyam, which means 'who have well annihilated their Karman (dhuta).'
If a monk who abstains from actions, suffers pain (for acts done) through ignorance, that Karman will be annihilated through control. The wise reach (perfection) getting rid of death.
Those who resist the seductions  are placed on a line with those who have crossed the Samsara. Therefore look up (at beatitude as the end in view). Those (virtuous men) regard pleasures as equal to diseases.
Men of princely rank wear precious things imported by merchants; likened (to these precious things) are the excellent great vows together with (the prohibition of) eating at night.
Pleasure-seeking men who are greedy and are absorbed by amusements, are reckless and like the wretched; they do not know that meditation (has been enjoined as) a duty.
As a bullock which is hurt and urged on by the driver  becomes weak, and at last, when its strength is exhausted and it is unable to move, sinks down;
So he who knows the pursuit of pleasures, must sooner or later give up their enjoyment (lest they drag him down ). He who is still surrounded by pleasant things , should not love pleasures, whether he obtains them, or for some reason or other does not obtain them.
Lest the lot of the wicked should fall to you, escape (the influence of the senses), and discipline yourself! The wicked will much and strongly grieve, groan, and wail.
See, life in this world (is transient); though your life lasts a hundred years, you die as a short-lived man; mind that (your) years swiftly pass. Nevertheless greedy men are attached to pleasures.
Those who engage in undertakings, who work the perdition of their souls, and who kill (living beings), will go to the world of the wicked, to the abode of the Asuras for a long time (to dwell there).
Though life cannot be prolonged, as the saying is , still foolish people sin recklessly (thinking): 'We are only concerned with the present time; who has seen the next world and returned thence?'
Believe in the words of him who sees (everything), you who are blind, as it were, you whose sight is blinded, ah, whose sight is obstructed by your works which result in delusion!
The unhappy again and again suffer from delusion; therefore have done with praise and honours! A wise ascetic should consider that living beings are like himself (as regards love of life, aversion to pain, ).
The man also who still lives in the house, should, in accordance with his creed , be merciful to living beings; we are bidden to be fair and equal with all; (thereby even a householder) goes to the world of the gods.
Being instructed in the creed of the Lord, exert yourself in the truth (i.e. in control)! A monk who has thoroughly subdued his selfishness should collect pure alms.
Knowing the truth, one should live up to it, seeking the Law, earnest in the performance of austerities, possessing the Guptis, being accomplished, one should always exert oneself, intent on the soul's benefit, and desiring the highest good (viz. liberation).
The fool thinks that his wealth, cattle, and relations will save him; they him, or he them. But they are no help, no protection.
When calamity befalls him, or the end of his life draws near, he must go and come alone; the wise believe that there is nothing to protect him.
All living beings owe their present form of existence to their own Karman; timid, wicked, suffering latent misery, they err about (in the Circle of Births), subject to birth, old age, and death.
He should know that the present time is the best opportunity to mend, and that an awakening is difficult to obtain. A wise man should be aware of this . The (first) Gina  has said this, and so the remaining ones (will) say it.
O ye monks, the virtuous (Ginas) that have been and will be, the followers of the Law of Kasyapa , they all have commended these virtues.
Do not kill living beings in the threefold way , being intent on your spiritual welfare and abstaining from sins. In this way numberless men have reached perfection, and others, who live now, and who are to come, (will reach it).
Thus spoke the Arhat Gnatriputra, the reverend, famous native of Vaisali , who possessed the highest knowledge and the highest faith, who possessed (simultaneously) the highest knowledge and faith.
Thus I say.
- 258:1 Vinnavana = vignapana, explained striyah.
- 258:2 Instead of 'driver' and 'bullock' we might translate 'hunter' and 'deer.'
- 258:3 He should not be engrossed by them as the bullock sinks down beneath its burden.
- 258:4 To render kami.
- 259:1 Compare <page 256>, note .
- 259:2 Anupurvya.
- 260:1 A various reading mentioned in the commentary is ahiyasae, 'he should bear (all troubles).'
- 260:2 The whole lecture is put by the commentators in the mouth of Rishabha.
- 260:3 The first and last Tirthakaras belonged to the Kasyapa Gotra.
- 260:4 I.e. by your own acts, by order, and by assent; or by thoughts, words, and acts.
- 261:1 See my remarks in part i, Introduction, p. xi. This passage in prose appended to the metrical text seems to contradict the supposition of the commentators that the whole lecture was pronounced by Rishabha.
3 - the knowledge of troubles
A man believes himself a hero as long as he does not behold the foe, as did Sisupala (before he beheld) the valorously-fighting, great warrior .
They go forward to the head of the battle; but when the fight has begun the mother will not recognise her son, and he will be mangled by his foe.
So a novice, who as yet has not suffered pains and is not yet used to a mendicant's life, believes himself a hero till he practises austerities .
When during the winter they suffer from cold and draughts, the weak become disheartened like Kshattriyas who have lost their kingdom.
When they suffer from the heat of summer, sad and thirsty, the weak become disheartened like fish in shallow water.
It is painful never to take anything but what is freely given, and begging is a liard task. Common people say that (men become monks) because they will not work and are wretched.
Weak men who are unable (to bear) these insults in villages or towns, become disheartened like cowards in the battle.
Perchance a snarling dog will bite a hungry monk; in that case the weak will become disheartened like animals burnt by fire.
Some who hate (the monks), revile them: 'Those who lead such a (miserable) life (as monks do), atone but (for their sins in a former life).'
Some call them names, as 'naked, lowest of beggars, baldhead, scabby, filthy, nasty.'
Those who behave in this way and do not know better, go from darkness to utter darkness, being fools and shrouded in delusion .
When bitten by flies and gnats, and unable (to bear) the pricking of grass, (they will begin to doubt), 'I have not seen the next world, all may end with death !'
Some weak men who suffer from the plucking out of the hair, and who are unable to preserve their chastity, will become disheartened like fish transfixed by a spear .
Some low people who lead a life of iniquity, and entertain heretical opinions, being subject to love and hatred, injure a monk.
Some fools in outlying countries take a pious monk for a spy or a thief, bind him, and insult him with angry words.
A weak monk being hurt with a stick or a fist or a fruit, remembers his (kind) relations, just as a woman who in a passion has left (her husband and house).
All these hardships are difficult to bear; the weak return to their house (when they cannot bear them), like elephants covered with arrows (break down).
Thus I say.
- 261:2 Compare Uttaradhyayana II, above, p. 9 ff.
- 261:3 Viz. Krishna. Krishna's victory over Sisupala is told in the Mahabharata, Sabhaparvan, Sisupalavadha (eighth parvan). It forms the subject of Magha's famous poem Sisupalavadha.
- 261:4 Luham = ruksham, i.e. samyamam, control.
- 262:1 Compare I, 1, 1, 14.
- 262:2 Compare I, 3, 3, 6.
- 262:3 Ketana, perhaps 'caught with the hook.'
There are some tender affections which monks cannot easily overcome. On their account some become disheartened, and are unable to practise control.
His relations on seeing him will surround him and cry: 'Child, we have brought you up, (now) support us! O dear! why will you leave us?
'Child, your father is an old man; your sister is still very young; (and here), O dear, are your own brothers from the same mother; why will you leave us?
'Support your mother and father, thus you will win this world; it is a duty in this world to protect one's mother.
'The old people are kind-spoken; your sons, child, are very young; you have married your wife; (take care) that she will not go to another man.
'Come, child, let us go home; we can do all the work, you need not (do it); the next time we shall take care (that you will not be overburdened with work); child, let us meanwhile go to our house.
'Afterwards you may go again; by this (visit of yours) you will not cease to be a Sramana; who will hinder you to practise control when you have done with worldly desires ?
'All your outstanding debts we have divided between us, and we shall give you the money (required for) business.'
In this way (his relations) come to him, lamenting, and try to persuade him. Held fast by his attachment for his relations, he quickly returns to his house.
As a creeper encircles a tree growing in the forest, so his relations press him hard that he should leave off control.
He is held fast by his attachment for his relations. So the keepers always follow a newly-caught elephant, and a cow which has just calved never goes far (from the calf).
Men do not (easily) get over this attachment, as (they do not get over) the ocean . For its sake the weak suffer pains, being engrossed by their attachment for their relations.
But a monk should renounce it; for every attachment is but a cause of sin. He should not desire life, having been instructed in the best Law.
There are these whirlpools which have been pointed out by Kasyapa: the wise keep clear of them, but the ignorant go down in them.
Kings and ministers of kings, Brahmanas and Kshattriyas try with pleasant things to seduce a monk who leads a holy life.
(They try to seduce him) with elephants, horses, chariots, and cars, with pleasure-trips (saying to him): 'Enjoy these excellent pleasures, great sage, we worship you!
'Clothes, perfumes, ornaments, women, and beds: enjoy these pleasures, friend, we worship you!
'All the vows which you, holy man, have kept while a monk, are compatible with your living in a house.
'It will be no sin, for you have wandered about long (enough).' In this way they try to tempt him, as men decoy a pig with wild rice.
Weak men who are exhorted to live as monks, but who are unable to practise control, break down like weak (bullocks carrying a heavy burden) uphill.
Unable to practise the rough (i.e. control), and harassed by the austerities, weak men break down, like old oxen in going uphill.
When men who are greedy, attached to women, and who love pleasures, are tempted in the way described above, they return to their houses.
Thus I say.
- 264:1 Akamagam. Another explanation is, if you are not willing (to do domestic work).
- 264:2 Patala, explained by samudra.
As at the time of the battle the coward looks behind him for a ditch, thicket, or other hiding-place , (thinking that) nobody knows who will win;
'A moment's moment will bring the decision ; when we lose, we shall fly.' Thus thinks the coward.
So some Sramanas, knowing themselves to be weak, have recourse to worldly sciences  when they see that they will suffer want.
(They say): 'Who knows what will cause my loss of sanctity, women or water? When we are questioned, we shall speak out (i.e. show our knowledge). We have no (other) resource (in case of need)!'
They are cautious, like those who look out for a ditch Those who doubt (their ability for control) are like men ignorant of the way.
But famous warriors, leaders of heroes at the time of the battle, do not look behind them; (they think) what if all end with death?
A monk who exerts himself in a similar way, should slip off the ties that bind him to his house. Putting aside all undertakings, he should wander about for the welfare of his soul.
Some revile a monk who leads a holy life. But these revilers are far off from perfection .
(The revilers say), 'You live just as the laymen do, being attached to one another, for (e.g.) you beg alms for a sick man and give it him.
'Therefore you still have an attachment, being obedient to the will of one another; you have not the purity produced by the right path, and have not got beyond the Circle of Births.'
Now a monk who knows (the truth about) Moksha should answer them : 'You speak thus, wavering between two ways of life (viz, that of householders and monks).
'You eat out of the vessels  (of householders, and make them) bring food for a sick brother; you eat seeds and drink cold water , and what has been especially prepared (for you when sick).
'You are infected by great faults, you are void of discrimination, and your resolutions are bad. It is not good to scratch a wound too much, for it will grow worse .'
They should be instructed in the truth by one who knows it and is free from passions : 'Yours is not the right way, you speak and act without consideration.
'This your talk is weak, like the top of a bamboo, (when you say: a sick brother) may eat the food brought by a householder, but not that brought by a monk!
'(And when you say that) our religious precepts are wholesome only for householders (not for monks, we reply that our prophet had) no such (inconsistent) ideas when he taught (his Law).'
When (these heretics) cannot prove (their assertion) by any arguments they give up the discussion, and fall back on their bold (assertion).
Overcome by their passions and infected by untruth, (these men) have recourse to bad language, as the (savage) Tankana  (when beaten) have recourse to their hills.
The argumentation of a monk whose mind is at rest  should possess many good qualities. He should proceed in such a way as not to exasperate his opponent.
Following this Law which has been proclaimed by the Kasyapa, a sound monk should carefully attend a sick brother.
Knowing the beautiful Law, a wise and thoroughly restrained monk should bear all hardships and wander about till he reaches final liberation.
Thus I say.
- 265:1 Numa = prakkhannam, giriguhadikam.
- 266:1 Literally, a moment of a moment of moments will be such.
- 266:2 As grammar, astrology, medicine,
- 266:3 Samahi, explained moksha, compare first note in the Tenth Lecture.
- 267:1 According to Silanka the Agivikas or the Digambaras are intended.
- 267:2 For these heretics carry the principle of absolute poverty so far as to reject even the use of almsbowls.
- 267:3 Bigodaka.
- 267:4 The meaning is that the overdoing of the principle of poverty is just as harmful as the scratching of a wound.
- 267:5 Apadinna = apratigna, explained by ragadvesharahita.
- 268:1 This hill tribe lived somewhere in the north-east of Madhyadesa, see Petersburg Dictionary, sv.
- 268:2 Attasamahie = atmasamadhika.
Some say that in old times great men, rich in religious penance, have reached perfection though they drank (cold) water (and ate fruits and roots). Ignorant men (who hear such assertions) are led astray (by them).
'Nami, the king of Videha, ate nothing, Ramagupta did eat, Bahuka drank (cold) water, and so did Taragana , the seer.
Asila, Devala, the great sage Dvipayana, and
'I have heard that in old times these renowned and well-known great men ate seeds and drank water, and have reached perfection.'
When weak (monks hear such assertions) they become disheartened, as donkeys break down under their burden; in case of danger they retreat (and perish) like men who walk on crutches .
Some  say: Pleasant things are produced from pleasant things . (They are those who disdain) the noble path and the renowned highest good.
Do not, by disdaining it, lose much for the sake of little. If you do not give up this (wrong law), you will repent of it as the man did who carried iron (a long way) believing it to be silver.
(And so will) those who kill living beings, who do not abstain from untrue speech, who take what is not freely given them, who enjoy sexual pleasures, and who own property.
Some unworthy heretics , slaves of women, ignorant men who are averse to the Law of the Ginas, speak thus:
'As the squeezing of a blister or boil (causes relief) for some time, (and has no dangerous consequences), so it is with (the enjoyment of) charming women. How could there be any sin in it?
'As a ram drinks the quiet water , so (the rest as in verse 10).
'As the bird Pinga  drinks the quiet water (flying) (the rest as in verse 10).'
So say some unworthy heretics who entertain false doctrines, and who long for pleasures, as the ewe  for her kid.
Those who do not think of the future, but only enjoy the present, will repent of it afterwards when their life or their youth is gone.
But those who exert themselves at the proper time, feel no remorse afterwards; these heroes who have got rid of their fetters, do not long for life.
As Vaitarani, the river (of hell), is difficult to pass, so in this world women are to the unwise (a temptation) difficult to overcome.
Those who have given up intercourse with women and have left off adorning themselves, are well established in control, because they have renounced everything.
As merchants go over the sea, so they will cross the flood (of Samsara), where living beings despond and suffer pains because of their own deeds.
A monk who knows this, will live as a virtuous man guarded by the Samitis; he will abstain from untrue speech, and not take what is not freely given him.
He should cease to injure living beings whether they move or not, on high, below, and on earth. For this has been called the Nirvana, which consists in peace .
21, 22 = I, 3, 3, 20 and 21.
Thus I say.
- 268:3 Concerning Nami, see above, <page 35>, note . Ramagupta may be another name of Rama. Instead of Taragana Silanka writes Narayana.
- 269:1 Asila is not known from other sources; perhaps Asita is meant, and Asila Davila stands for Asita Devala. Concerning Dvipayana, the Parasara, compare Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. 42, p. 495. But in the Aupapatika Sutra (ed. Leumann, section 76) Parasara and Dvipayana are two distinct persons.
- 269:2 Pidhasappi = pithasarpin. Silanka comments on the reading pitthasappi, i.e. prishtasarpin; but he makes out no good meaning.
- 269:3 According to the commentators the Buddhists are intended. They quote some verses in illustration of the pushtimarga of the Buddhists, one of which is not yet known I believe. It runs thus: manunnam bhoyanam bhukka manunnam sayanasanam | manunnamsi agaramsi manunnam ghayae muni || 'Having enjoyed a pleasant dinner, and a pleasant seat and bed, a muni in a pleasant house meditates on pleasant things.'
- 269:4 Viz. Moksha, a pleasant thing, is arrived at through a comfortable life, another pleasant thing.
- 270:1 Pasattha = parsvastha.
- 270:2 The meaning seems to be that by the ram's drinking the water is not disturbed.
- 270:3 Explained by kapingala, the francoline partridge.
- 270:4 Puyana (putana, who is ever desirous of young), explained either by sakini hog' or gaddarika 'ewe.' The commentators relate the following anecdote. In order to find out which animal loved its young ones best, their young ones were placed at the bottom of a well. Their mothers assembled round the brink and howled, but the ewe threw herself recklessly into the well. Therefore the ewe excels the other animals in maternal love.
- 271:1 See below, I, 11, 11.
4 - knowledge of women
A monk who has left his mother and father and all worldly ties, (determines) to walk about alone and wise, to abstain from sexual pleasures, and to ask for a secluded place (where to lodge).
With clever pretences women make up to him, however foolish they be; they know how to contrive that some monks will become intimate with them.
They will often sit down at his side; they always put on fine clothes; they will show him the lower part of their body, and the armpit, when lifting up their arms, so that he will follow them about.
And occasionally a woman  will tempt him to a comfortable couch or bed. But he should know these things to be as many traps under various disguises.
He should not look at them, nor should he consent to anything inconsiderate, nor walk together with them; thus he will well guard himself.
Inviting a monk and winning his confidence, they offer themselves to him. But he should know, and fly from these temptations  in their various forms.
Meekly and politely they approach him with their manifold arts to win his heart; and talking sweetly in confidential conversation they make him do (what they like).
As (men by baiting) with a piece of flesh a fearless single lion get him into a trap, so women may capture an ascetic though he be careful.
And then they make him do what they like, even as a wheelwright gradually turns the felly of a wheel.
As an antelope caught in a snare, so he does not get a out of it, however he struggles.
Afterwards he will feel remorse like one who has drunk milk mixed with poison; considering the consequences, a worthy monk should have no intercourse with women.
Therefore he should avoid women, knowing them to be like a poisoned thorn. He is no Nirgrantha who without companion (goes into) houses, being a slave (to passion) and preaches (his religion).
Those who are attached to this sinful (intercourse) must be reckoned among the wicked. Even a monk who practises severe austerities should avoid the company of women.
A monk should have no intercourse with his daughters and daughters-in-law, with nurses or female slaves, or with grown-up girls.
When the relations and friends see (the intimacy of a monk with a girl), they become angry (saying): 'All creatures love pleasures; you are a man, protect and support her.'
But some become angry even when they see an innocent Sramana, and suspect the fidelity of their wives because of the dishes they serve up .
Those who have intercourse with (women) have already ceased to practise meditation; Sramanas, therefore, for the benefit of their souls, do not go to the apartments (of women).
Though many leave the house, some (of them) arrive but at a middling position (between householder and monk); they merely talk of the path to perfection. The force of sinners is talking.
In the assembly he pronounces holy (words), yet secretly he commits sins; but the wise know him to be a deceiver and great rogue.
The sinner does not confess his wrong, but rather boasts of it when reprimanded. Though he is admonished not to act as most men do, he becomes weak again and again.
Some men of great intelligence who perform their duties as supporters of women, get into their power, though they be well acquainted with the Striveda .
(The adulterers') hands and feet are cut off, their skin and flesh are torn off, they are roasted alive, and acid is poured into their wounds.
Their ears and nose are cut off, and their throats cut; (all this) they will suffer, but though suffering here for their sins they will not promise not to do  the same again.
All this some have learned, and it has been well demonstrated in the Striveda. Though (people) know it, they do wrong (impelled) by Karman.
One man (women) have in their heart, another in their words, and another still in their actions. Therefore a monk should not trust women, knowing that they are full of deceit.
A young woman, putting on fine ornaments and clothes, will say to a Sramana: 'I shall give up (my former way of life) and practise the rough (viz. control). Reverend sir, teach me the Law!'
Or by professing herself a lay-disciple and co-religionist of the Sramanas, (she will try to make a friend of him). As a pot filled with lac (will melt) near the fire, so even a wise (monk) will fall through intercourse with women.
A pot filled with lac thrown into the fire melts quickly and is destroyed; so monks are lost through intercourse with women.
Some commit sins (with a girl), but when questioned about it, they say: 'I have done no sin; she only slept in my lap (like my daughter).'
This is a second folly of the sinner that he obstinately denies what he has done. He commits a twofold sin, since, for the sake of his reputation, he falls again .
(Some women) will say, by way of invitation, to a good-looking, self-knowing monk: 'Holy man, accept a robe, an almsbowl, food or drink (at our house)!'
He should regard their words like wild rice , and should not desire to call at (their) house; for a fool who is bound in the fetters of sensuality will be subject to delusion again and again.
Thus I say.
- 271:2 This whole adhyayana is composed in the archaic form of Arya, of which I have treated at length in the thirty-eighth volume of the Journal of the German Oriental Society, p. 594. The same metre occurs also in the Suttanipata of the Buddhists (ed. Fausboll, 26 f., 170 ff.), a fact which I was not aware of when I wrote the paper just referred to.
- 272:1 The original has the plural itthio, but the metre requires itthi in the singular.
- 272:2 Literally 'sounds,' which stands for objects of the senses in general.
- 273:1 There is a saying in German: Eine verliebte Kochin versalzt den Brei, 'a cook in love spoils the soup.' The commentators put different constructions on the last part of the sentence.
- 274:1 I.e. Kamasastra, or rather the part of it treating on courtezans, Vaisika, that had been composed by Dattaka. He is mentioned by the commentators in an anecdote they relate ad v. 24.
- 274:2 The original has kahinti they will do;' it must be kaham ti 'I shall do.'
- 275:1 Visannesi. Vishanna is explained asamyama.
- 275:2 Wherewith pigs are decoyed, see above, p. 265, verse 19.
A monk, living single , should not fall in love; if he loves pleasures, he should again become indifferent. Now hear the pleasures of Sramanas, which some monks enjoy.
When a monk breaks the law, dotes (on a woman), and is absorbed by that passion, she afterwards scolds him , lifts her foot, and tramples on his head.
'O monk, if you will not live with me as a woman who has still her hair, I shall tear it out; but do not live separated from me.'
But when they have captured him, they send him on all sorts of errands : 'Look (for the bodkin to) carve the bottle-gourd , fetch some nice fruit.
'(Bring) wood to cook the vegetables, or that we may light a fire at night; paint my feet , come and meanwhile rub my back!
'Look after my clothes, bring food and drink, get me some perfume, a broom, a barber  (to shave my head)!
'Give me the collyrium-box, my ornaments, the lute, Lodhra-powder , a Lodhra-flower, the Venupalasika-lute , a pill!
'A Utpalakushta , Tagara -powder, and aloe pounded together with Usira , oil for anointing the face, baskets of bamboo wickerwork to put my things in!
'Reach me the lip-salve, fetch the umbrella and slippers, the knife to cut the string, have my robe dyed bluish!
'Give me the pot to cook the vegetables in, Myrobalans , the jar to fetch water in, the stick to paint the mark upon the forehead, the pin to apply collyrium (to the eyelids), or the fan when it is hot! (to)
'Fetch me the pincers , the comb, the ribbon to bind up the hair, reach me the looking-glass, put the tooth-brush near me!
'Fetch me areca-nut and betel, needle and thread, the chamber-pot, the winnowing basket, the mortar, the pot for liquefying natron !
'Give me the vessel (used in worshipping the gods ), the water-pot. Friend, dig a privy. Fetch the bow for our son, the bullock for the Sramanera!
'The small pot, the drum, and the ball of cloth for the boy (to play with). Sramana, the rainy season is at hand, look after the house and the stores!
'(Fetch) the chair with woven twine seat , the wooden shoes  to walk on!' Pregnant women order their husbands about like slaves to fulfil their craving.
When a son, the reward (of their wedded life), is born, (the mother bids the father) to hold the baby, or to give it her. Thus some supporters of their sons have to carry burdens like camels.
Getting up in the night they lull the baby asleep  like nurses; and though they are ashamed of themselves, they wash the clothes like washermen .
This has been done by many men who for the sake of pleasures have stooped so low; they become the equals of slaves, animals, servants, beasts of burden–mere nobodies.
One should not mind the entreaties of women, but abstain from their friendship and company. These pleasures which are derived therefrom are called causes of blamable actions.
Restraining himself by the thought that these dangerous (pleasures) will not be to his benefit, a monk should abstain from women, and commit no unnatural crime .
A wise and learned monk whose soul is in a pure condition (Lesya), will abstain from doing work for others; in thoughts, words, and actions he will bear all troubles.
The hero (of faith) who has vanquished sin and delusion, has said all this. A monk, therefore, whose soul is pure (and free from sins) should wander about till he reaches final liberation.
Thus I say.
- 275:3 Oe = ekah, explained: free from love and hate.
- 276:1 Paribhindiyana = paribhidya.
- 276:2 The following verses are interesting as they afford us a glimpse of a Hindu household some 2,000 years ago. We find here a curious list of domestic furniture and other things of common use.
- 276:3 Alabukkhegga = alabukkhedam pippalakadi sastram.
- 276:4 Or, scour my pots.
- 276:5 Kasavaga = kasyapa, explained napita. The word is probably derived from the root kash 'to scrape.' According to Silanka verses 5-6 refer to things used by monks and nuns.
- 276:6 Symplocos Racemosa, the bark of which is used in dyeing.
- 276:7 This is a thin piece of bamboo or bark held between the teeth and with the left hand, and played by the right hand just like a Vina. (Silanka.)
- 276:8 Probably Costus Speciosus.
- 276:9 Tabernaemontana Coronaria.
- 276:10 Andropogon Muricatus.
- 277:1 They are used in bathing.
- 277:2 To tear out the hair growing in the nose.
- 277:3 Used in India instead of soap for cleaning linen.
- 277:4 Kandalaka, a copper vessel used in worship. The name was current in Mathura at the time when Silanka wrote or the author from whose work he copied this remark.
- 277:5 See Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life, section 632.
- 277:6 Paulla; either the wooden sandals or slippers made of Munga grass.
- 278:1 Silanka gives a specimen of a lullaby without meaning and metre.
- 278:2 Hamsa, explained ragaka.
- 278:3 No itthim no pasum bhikkhu no sayapanina niligge.gga.
5 - description of the hells
I once asked the Kevalin, the great sage : What is the punishment in the hells? Knowing it, O sage, tell it me who do not know it! How do sinners go to hell?
When I thus questioned the illustrious Kasyapa, the omniscient one  spoke as follows: I shall describe the truly insupportable pains where there is distress and (the punishment of) evil deeds.
Those cruel sinners who, from a desire of (worldly) life, commit bad deeds, will sink into the dreadful hell which is full of dense darkness and great suffering.
He who always kills movable and immovable beings for the sake of his own comfort, who injures them, who takes what is not freely given, who does not learn what is to be practised (viz. control);
The impudent sinner, who injures many beings without relenting , will go to hell; at the end of his life the will sink to the (place of) darkness; head downwards he comes to the place of torture.
They hear the cries of the punishers: Beat, cut, split, burn him! The prisoners in hell lose their senses from fright, and do not know in what direction to run.
Going to a place like a burning heap of coals on fire, and being burnt they cry horribly; they remain there long, shrieking aloud.
Have you heard of the horrible (river) Vaitarani, whose cutting waves are like sharp razors ? They cross the horrible Vaitarani, being urged on by arrows, and wounded with spears.
The punishers pierce them with darts; they go in the boat, losing their memory; others pierce them with long pikes and tridents, and throw them on the ground.
Some, round whose neck big stones are tied, are drowned in deep water. Others again roll about in the Kadambavaluka (river)  or in burning chaff, and are roasted in it.
And they come to the great impassable hell, full of agony, called Asurya (i.e. where the sun does not shine), where there is great darkness, where fires, placed above, below, and all around, are blazing.
There, as in a cave, being roasted on the fire, he is burned, having lost the reminiscence (of his sins) and consciousness of everything else; always suffering (he comes) to that miserable hot place that is ever ready (for the punishment of evildoers) .
There the cruel punishers have lighted four fires, and roast the sinners; they are roasted there like fishes put on the fire alive.
The prisoners in hell come to the dreadful place called Santakshana  (i.e. cutting), where the cruel punishers tie their hands and feet, and with axes in their hands cut them like wooden planks.
And they turn the writhing victims round, and stew them, like living fishes, in an iron caldron filled with their own blood, their limbs covered with ordure, their heads smashed.
They are not reduced to ashes there, and they do not die of their enormous pains; undergoing this punishment , the miserable men suffer for their misdeeds.
And there in the place, where there is constant shivering, they resort to a large burning fire; but they find no relief in that place of torture; the tormentors torture them still .
There is heard everywhere the noise of painfully uttered cries even as in the street of a town. Those whose bad Karman takes effect (viz. the punishers), violently torment again and again those whose bad Karman takes effect also (viz. the punished).
They deprive the sinner of his life; I shall truly tell you how this is done. The wicked (punishers) remind by (similar) punishment (their victims) of all sins they had committed in a former life .
Being killed they are thrown into a hell which is full of boiling filth. There they stay eating filth, and they are eaten by vermin.
And there is an always crowded, hot place, which men deserve for their great sins, and which is full of misery . (The punishers) put them in shackles, beat their bodies, and torment them (by perforating) their skulls with drills.
They cut off the sinner's nose with a razor, they cut off both his ears and lips; they pull out his tongue a span's length and torment (him by piercing it) with sharp pikes.
There the sinners dripping (with blood) whine day and night even as the dry leaves of a palm-tree (agitated by the wind). Their blood, matter, and flesh are dropping off while they are roasted, their bodies being besmeared with natron.
Have you heard of the large, erected caldron of more than man's size, full of blood and matter, which is extremely heated by a fresh fire, in which blood and matter are boiling?
The sinners are thrown into it and boiled there, while they utter horrid cries of 'Agony; they are made to drink molten lead and copper when they are thirsty, and they shriek still more horribly.
Those evildoers who have here forfeited their souls' (happiness) for the sake of small (pleasures), and have been born in the lowest births during hundred thousands of 'former years,' will stay in this (hell). Their punishment will be adequate to their deeds.
The wicked who have committed crimes will atone for them, deprived of all pleasant and lovely objects, by dwelling in the stinking crowded hell, a scene of pain, which is full of flesh ( ).
Thus I say.
- 279:1 I.e. Mahavira. Sudharman speaks to Gambusvamin.
- 279:2 Asupanna–asupragna 'quickly comprehending.' I usually render this word 'intelligent,' when it is used of common monks.
- 279:3 Anivvue = anirvritah.
- 280:1 Silanka says that the water of this river is alkali and hot blood; compare Uttaradhyayana XIX, 59, above p. 95.
- 280:2 See the note on Uttaradhyayana XIX, 50, above p. 94, note I.
- 280:3 The last two lines recur in verse 21 with the only difference that there kasinam stands for kalunam in this place; yet the commentators offer a different explanation in the second place. In my translation I follow their interpretation both times.
- 281:1 Here and in similar places the commentators do not take the word as a proper name, but as an epithet.
- 281:2 Anubhaga.
- 281:3 Or, with burning fire they roast them.
- 281:4 See Uttaradhyayana XIX, 69 ff., above <page 96>.
- 282:1 Compare note on verse 12. The same lines recur in the next chapter, verse 13. The commentator gives the same explanation there as here.
I shall now truly tell you another kind of perpetual suffering, how the sinners who have committed crimes suffer for the deeds they have done in their former lives.
Tying their hands and feet the (punishers) cut open their belly with razors and knives; taking hold of the mangled body of the sinner, they forcibly tear the skin off his back.
They cut off his arms at the armpits; they force his mouth wide open and scald it; they yoke the sinner to a car and drive him, and growing angry  they pierce his back with a goad.
The (sinners) walk over ground burning and glowing like red-hot iron; scorched they shriek horribly, being urged on with arrows  and put to a red-hot yoke.
The sinners are driven over slippery ground which is like a road of red-hot iron; in this dreadful place (the ministers of hell) make them go forward like slaves (beating them) with sticks.
Proceeding in this intolerable (hell) they are crushed by rocks tumbling down. There is the
They throw the sinners into caldrons and boil them; scalded they rise thence again; devilish crows  feed on them and (so do) other beasts having claws devour them.
There is a place of smokeless fire in the form of a pile  where (the sinners) greatly distressed shriek horribly; head downwards they are lacerated and cut into pieces with iron knives.
Tied up and skinned they are devoured by steel-nebbed birds; it is the hell called Samgivani, where life is long, and where men of an evil mind are tortured.
The (punishers) pierce them with sharp pikes as people do with a captured pig. Transfixed by a pike the (sinners) shriek horribly; suffering both (bodily and mentally) they feel nothing but pains.
There is a great place always on fire, where fires burn without fuel; there for a long time stay the evildoers shrieking aloud.
Setting on fire large piles, they thrust into them (a sinner) who will cry horribly; as butter thrown in the fire melts, so does the evildoer there.
And there is an always crowded, hot place which one deserves for one's great sins, and which is full of misery. There (the punishers) tie (the sinner's) hands and feet, and belabour him with sticks like an enemy.
They break the sinner's back with a weapon, and smash his skull with iron clubs; their bodies are split and sawn like a plank; and tortured with red-hot awls (the sinners) are subjected (to cruelties).
Cruel evildoers , urged on with arrows, and put to work (by the punishers), carry burdens in the way of elephants; two or three (punishers) get on one (victim) and growing angry  hurt his vital parts.
The sinners are driven over the large, slippery, and thorny ground; tightly bound with straps  they lose their senses; the revenging (punishers) cut them into pieces , and throw them about like a bali-sacrifice.
There is a dreadful mountain towering high up in the air, called Vaitalika , where the evildoers are tortured for more than a thousand hours.
Tortured, the sinners shriek, suffering day and night; in this horrid, great hell, which is full of implements of torture, they are put to a cruel death.
Full of wrath, like their enemies in a former life,
There are the ever hungry , savage, always wrathful, great jackals by whom the evildoers bound with shackles are devoured.
There is the dreadful, slimy river, which is always flowing and full of molten iron; in this very dreadful river (the sinners) must descend one by one .
These pains are suffered without interruption by the sinner who stays there for a long time. There is no escape from the torture; he must, himself and alone, suffer the pains.
Whatever cruelty he has done in a former birth, the same will be inflicted on him in the Circle of Births. Having been born in an extremely miserable state of life, the sufferer experiences infinite pain.
A wise man hearing of these hells should not kill any living being in the whole world; believing in true doctrines and renouncing all property he should know the world, but not become a slave to it.
Knowing the endless Circle of Births  with regard to animals, men, and gods, and the reward they will get; knowing all this, (a wise man) should wait for his decease, practising meanwhile self-control.
Thus I say.
- 283:1 Arussa = arushya, here and in a similar passage (verse 15) the commentators explain it, 'making him angry, exasperating him.' They have misunderstood rahamsi in the second line, rendering it rahasi; it is of course = rathe.
- 283:2 Usu = ishu, explained by aravisesha a kind of awl.'
- 284:1 Or, it is (the hell) called Santapani. My translation in the text agrees with Silanka's interpretation.
- 284:2 Compare Uttaradhyayana XIX, 58, p. 95.
- 284:3 Samusiyam nama. This might also be rendered, 'called Samukkhrita.' But the commentators do not take samusiya for a proper name.
- 285:1 Ruddaasahukammi = raudra-asadhu-karmanah. Silanka thinks that the ministers of hell are meant; but then the verse will not construe.
- 285:2 See note on verse 3.
- 285:3 Vivaddhatappehim, in a marginal gloss, explained: baddhva karmabandhanaih. But it might also be vivriddhatapaih under increased tortures.'
- 285:4 Kotta = kutayitva.
- 285:5 Vetaliya. The commentators render it vaikriya 'produced by magic,' and moreover explain the word as an epithet, not as a proper name.
- 286:1 Anasiya, anasitah. This might also be taken as the name of the jackals.
- 286:2 Egayata, explained ekakinah.
- 286:3 Kauranta.
6 - praise of mahavira
Sramanas and Brahmanas, householders and heretics, have asked (me): Who is he that proclaimed this unrivalled truly wholesome Law, which was (put forward) with true knowledge ?
What was the knowledge, what the faith, and what the conduct of the Gnatriputra? If you know it truly, O monk, tell us as you have heard it, as it was told you!
This wise and clever great sage possessed infinite knowledge and infinite faith. Learn and think about the Law and the piety of the glorious man who lived before our eyes !
This wise man had explored all beings, whether they move or not, on high, below, and on earth, as well as the eternal and transient things. Like a lamp he put the Law in a true light.
He sees everything; his knowledge has got beyond (the four lower stages) ; he has no impurity; he is virtuous, of a fixed mind, the highest, the wisest in the whole world; he has broken from all ties; he is above danger and the necessity to continue life .
Omniscient, wandering about without a home, crossing the flood (of the Samsara), wise, and of an unlimited perception, without an equal, he shines forth (or he does penance) like the sun, and he illumines the darkness like a brilliant fire,
The omniscient  sage, Kasyapa, has proclaimed this highest Law of the Ginas; he, the illustrious one, is prominent (among men) like the thousand-eyed Indra among the gods of heaven.
His knowledge is inexhaustible like the (water of the) sea; he has no limits and is pure like the great ocean; he is free from passion, unfettered, and brilliant like Sakra, the lord of the gods.
By his vigour he is the most vigorous; as Sudarsana (Meru), the best of all mountains, or as heaven, a very mine of delight, he shines forth endowed with many virtues.
(Meru) a hundred thousand yoganas high, with three tiers , with the Pandaga (-wood) as its flag, rising ninety-nine thousand yoganas above the ground, and reaching one thousand below it; (lo)
It touches the sky and is immersed in the earth; round it revolve the suns ; it has the colour of gold, and contains many Nandana (parks) ; on it the Mahendras enjoy themselves.
This mountain is distinguished by (many) names; it has the colour of burnished gold; it is the greatest of all mountains, difficult to ascend on account of its rocks; this excellent mountain is like a part of the earth on fire.
The king of mountains, standing in the centre of the earth, is seen in a pure light  like that of the sun. With such beauty shines forth this many-coloured, lovely (mountain), which is crowned with radiance.
Thus is described the glory of mount Sudarsana, the great mountain; similar to it is the Sramana Gnatriputra, who is noble, glorious, full of faith, knowledge, and virtue.
As Nishadha  is the best of long-stretched mountains, and Rukaka of circular ones, so is he (Mahavira) among sages the wisest in the world, according to the declaration of the wise ones.
After having taught the highest Law he practised the highest contemplation , which is the purest of pure, pure without a flaw, thoroughly white (as it were) like mother-of-pearl and the moon.
Having annihilated all his Karman, the great sage by his knowledge, virtue, and faith reached the insurpassable, highest perfection, a state which has a beginning but no end.
As the Salmali, in which the Suparna  gods take their delight, is most famous among trees, as Nandana is among parks, so is the Omniscient most famous through his knowledge and virtue.
As thunder is the loudest of sounds, as the moon is the most glorious of heavenly bodies, as sandal is the best of perfumes, so of monks is he who had renounced all wishes or plans.
As (the ocean on which sleeps) Svayambhu is the best of seas, as Dharanendra is the best of Nagas, as the juice of sugarcane is, as it were, the flag of juices, so is he (Mahavira) the flag of monks by his austerities.
As Airavana is the best of elephants, the lion of beasts, Ganga of rivers, as Garuda, Venudeva , is the best of birds, so is Gnatriputra the best of those who have taught the Nirvana.
As Vishvaksena  is the most famous of warriors, as the lotus is the best of flowers, as Dantavakra is the best of Kshattriyas, so Vardhamana is the best of sages.
As giving safety is the best of gifts, as the best of true speeches is that which causes no distress, as chastity is the highest of austerities, so is the Sramana Gnatriputra the highest of men.
As the Lavasaptamas  are the highest of those gods who live very long, as the palace Saudharman is the best of heavenly abodes, as Nirvana is the chief object of the Law, so there is no wiser man than Gnatriputra.
He (bears everything) like the earth; he annihilates (his Karman); he is free from greed; he, the Omniscient, does not keep store (of anything); he has crossed the ocean of life like the sea: he, the Hero, who grants protection to all, and whose perception is infinite.
Having conquered the passions which defile the soul: wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, the Arhat, the great sage, does not commit any wrong, nor does he cause it to be committed.
He understood the doctrines of the Kriyavadins, of the Akriyavadins, of the Vainayikas, and of the Agnanavadins ; he had mastered all philosophical systems, and he practised control as long as he lived.
He abstained  from women, and from eating at night, he practised austerities for the removal of pain, he knew this world and that beyond; the lord renounced  everything at every time.
Having heard and believing in the Law, which has been proclaimed and taught by the Arhat, and has been demonstrated with arguments, people will either make an end of their mundane existence, or they will become like Indra, the king of gods.
Thus I say.
- 287:1 The question is supposed to be addressed by Gambusvamin to Sudharman.
- 287:2 Kakkhupahe thiyassa = kakshuhpathe sthitasya, literally, 'who stood (or stands) in the path of the eyes.' We are scarcely entitled to infer from this phrase that the author had actually seen Mahavira as tradition would make us believe.
- 287:3 Abhibhuya-nani. Concerning the five stages or kinds of knowledge, see above, <page 352>. The Kevala knowledge is intended.
- 288:1 To render anayuh.
- 288:2 Asupanna = asupragna, literally, 'quickly witted;' the word is usually explained by kevalin.
- 288:3 Kandaka, one of stone, one of gold, and one of turquoise.
- 288:4 As is well known the Gainas assume a plurality of suns.
- 288:5 The names of these four parks are, according to the commentary, [p. 289] Salavana, Nandanavana, Saumanasavana, and Pandaka (or Panduka) vana. The first is at the foot of Meru, the second 500 yoganas above it, the third 62,000 above the second, and the fourth 36,000 above the last, i.e. at the very top.
- 289:1 Suddha-lesse = suddhalesya. Here lesya is equal to tegas.
- 289:2 Nishadha and Rukaka are two fabulous chains of mountains situated beyond Gambudvipa.
- 289:3 This is the sukla dhyana. As sukla, which I translate 'pure,' originally means white,' the comparison with the moon is natural in the original.
- 290:1 They belong to the Bhavanapatis, see above, <page 225>.
- 290:2 The commentator says that Venudeva is another name of Garuda. Venu stands perhaps for venhu = vishnu; but I do not know that Garuda ever was directly identified with Vishnu.
- 290:3 Visasena. Vishvaksena is a name of Krishna. The commentators make Visvasena of Visasena, and seem to take it as a synonym of kakravartin or universal monarch. Dantavakra is mentioned in my 'Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen,' p. 35, line 36.
- 291:1 The commentator identifies them with the fifth class of Anuttara gods , and explains the name by saying if they lived seven lavas longer, they would reach perfection.'
- 291:2 Concerning these four principal heresies see note on Uttaradhyayana XVIII, 23, above p. 83.
- 291:3 Variya, literally 'forbade.'
7 - description of the wicked
Earth, water, fire, wind; grass, trees, and corn; and the movable beings, (viz.) the oviparous, viviparous, those generated from dirt, and those generated in fluids ;
These classes (of living beings) have been declared (by the Ginas); know and understand that they (all desire) happiness; by (hurting) these beings (men) do harm to their own souls, and will again and again be born as one of them.
Every being born high or low in the scale of the living creation, among movable and immovable beings, will meet with its death. Whatever sins the evildoer commits in every birth, for them he must die .
In this world or in the next (the sinners suffer themselves what they have inflicted on other beings), a hundred times, or (suffer) other punishment. Living in the Samsara they ever acquire new Karman, and suffer for their misdeeds.
Some leave their mother and father to live as Sramanas, but they use fire; (the prophet) says: 'People are wicked who kill beings for the sake of their own pleasure.'
He who lights a fire, kills living beings; he who extinguishes it, kills the fire. Therefore a wise man who well considers the Law, should light no fire.
Earth contains life, and water contains life; jumping (or flying) insects fall in (the fire); dirt-born vermin  (and beings) living in wood: all these beings are burned by lighting a fire.
Sprouts are beings possessed of natural development , their bodies (require) nourishment, and all have their individual life. Reckless men who cut them down out of regard for their own pleasure, destroy many living beings.
By destroying seeds, when young or grown up, a careless man does harm to his own soul. (The prophet) says: 'People are wicked who destroy seeds for the sake of their own pleasure.'
Men die as embryos, or as babies who do not yet talk, or who do so already; other men, as boys wearing five tufts of hair , or as youths, or in middle age: at the expiration of their life all leave the body and die. (to)
Wake up, men! If we look at the dangers (to which he is exposed) a fool has not much chance to obtain human birth; always suffering like men in fever, people will go to utter misery.
Some say that perfection is reached by abstaining from the seasoner of food (viz. salt) , others by the use of cold water (i.e. by ablutions) , others again by (tending) a fire .
Perfection is not reached by bathing in the morning, nor by abstention from acids and salt; but by drinking liquor or eating meat or garlic men obtain another state of existence (than perfection).
Those who, touching water in the morning and evening, contend that perfection is obtained through water (are easily refuted). For if perfection could be obtained by contact with water, many beings living in water must have reached perfection:
Fishes, tortoises, aquatic snakes, cormorants, otters , and demons living in water. The clever ones declare those to be wrong who maintain that perfection may be obtained through water.
If water did wash off the impure Karman, it must take off merit too. But this (assertion of the heretics) has no foundation but their wish. As a blind man follows a guide (and misses his goal), so a fool (who makes ablutions as a means of reaching Moksha) kills living beings.
If water did wash off the sins of him who committed them, some would have obtained perfection who killed water-beings. Therefore he is wrong who maintains the attainment of perfection through water.
Those who, lighting fire in the morning and evening, contend that perfection is obtained through fire (are easily refuted). For if thereby perfection could be obtained, mechanics also, who use fire, would be liberated.
Perfection cannot be established by such gratuitous assertions; those who have not learned the truth will come to harm. A wise man, who knows the truth, should know and understand that all beings desire happiness.
All creatures who have committed sins wail, suffer, and tremble. Considering this a wise monk who has ceased to sin, and guards his own self, should abstain from violence with regard to movable and (immovable) beings.
He who keeps a store of rightly-obtained food and eats it; he who makes ablutions with pure water, contracting his limbs; he who washes and adorns his clothes, is far from being a naked monk.
A wise man, seeing that it is sinful (to use) water, should live of pure water, till he is liberated from the Samsara ; not eating seeds and bulbs, he abstains from bathing, and from women.
He who, after having left father, mother, house, sons, cattle, and wealth, visits houses where he gets nice food, is far from being a Sramana.
He who visits houses where he gets nice food, who professes the Law, desirous only of filling his belly, and brags (of himself) for the sake of food, is not equal to the hundredth part of an Arya.
A miserable man, who becomes a monk in order to get food from others, and a flatterer by the desire of filling his belly, will, in no remote future, come to harm, even as a boar greedy of wild rice .
The servile man says pleasing things for the sake of food, drink, and other things: but wrong belief and bad conduct are worthless like chaff.
He should beg where he is unknown, and maintain himself by it; he should not seek fame and respect by his austerities; he should not desire (pleasant) sounds and colours, but conquer his longing for all kinds of pleasures.
A monk should avoid every attachment and bear every pain, be full (of wisdom), not greedy, wander about homeless, give assurance of safety (to all beings), and be free from passions.
(In order to be able) to practise control  a monk should eat; he should desire to get rid of sin; if he suffers pain, he should have recourse to control, and subdue the foe at the head of the battle, as it were.
Though beaten he should be like a plank ; he should wait for the advent of death; having annihilated his Karman he should not again mix with the world, but be rather like a car whose axle is broken.
Thus I say.
- 292:1 The last two classes are, according to the commentators, lice, bugs, ; beings like cotton threads in thick milk, sour barley gruel Apparently vibrios are meant.
- 292:2 Miggati = miyate. Another rendering offered by Silanka is 'he will be filled (by Karman).'
- 293:1 Viz. insects originated in dung used as fuel.
- 293:2 Vilambaga; the commentators in explanation of this word say that plants, like men, go through all states of development, youth, ripe age, old age I think vilambaga is derived from vidambaka, they imitate (the development of animals). For if I understand Silanka aright, a plant contains a great many bhutas or beings, each localised in a certain part of the plant, as roots This is, according to him, the meaning of pudhosiyani, rendered in the text 'have their individual life.'
- 294:1 Pankasikha. It usually denotes certain ascetics: but Silanka here renders it kumara 'boy.'
- 294:2 Silanka notices two different readings: aharasappankagavagganenam, by abstaining from food seasoned with one of the five kinds of salt (viz. saindhava, sauvarkala, vida, rauma, samudra); aharao pankaga degrees, by abstaining from five kinds of food: garlic, onion, young camels' milk, beef, liquor.
- 294:3 Silanka mentions the Varibhadrakas, a subdivision of the Bhagavatas, as belonging to this category. He states elsewhere that they eat saivala (Vallisneria Octandra) and frequently bathe, wash themselves, and drink water.
- 294:4 Viz. Tapasas and Brahmanas.
- 295:1 Utta or uttha, explained as 'a kind of aquatic animal;' the Sanskrit prototype is apparently udra, but the commentators render it ushtra!
- 296:1 Ai = adi.
- 296:2 Cf. <page 265>, verse 16.
- 296:3 Bharassa gaya = bharasya ( = samyamasya) yatra.
- 297:1 Phalagavatatthi = phalagavad avatashtah. Silanka gives the following explanation: As a plank planed on both sides becomes thin, so a sadhu, by reducing his body by exterior and interior tapas, grows thin, of weak body.
8 - on exertion
It is said that two definitions of exertion are given; but in what does the exertion of the virtuous consist, and how is it defined?
Some say that it consists in works, and the pious (say that it consists) in abstention from works. Men appear divided into two classes from this point of view.
Carelessness is called (the cause of) Karman, carefulness that of the contrary (viz. absence of Karman); when the one or the other is predicated (of a man, he is called) either a fool or a wise man.
Some learn sciences  which teach the destruction of living beings, others study spells for killing all sorts of creatures.
Deceivers practise deceit in order to procure themselves pleasures and amusement; they kill, cut, and dismember (beings) for the sake of their own comfort.
The careless (commit sins) by thoughts, words, and acts, with regard to this and the next world, both (by doing the act themselves and by making others do it).
A cruel  man does cruel acts and is thereby involved in other cruelties; but sinful undertakings will in the end bring about misery.
Sinners, subject to love and hate and doing wrong, acquire Karman arising from passions  and commit many sins.
Thus the 'exertion leading to works' of the sinners has been described; now learn from me the wise men's 'exertion not leading to works.'
A pious monk, who is free from bonds and has severed all fetters, annihilates his bad Karman, and removes definitely the thorn (of sin). (to)
Following the right doctrine he exerts himself; as one becomes more and more the receptacle of misery, so his bad thoughts (or sinfulness) increase.
Those who have good places (in heaven, ) must surely leave them (some time). We live together with relations and friends but a limited time.
Considering this, a wise man should conquer his greed, and enter upon the noble (path), which contains all virtues and is not blamed .
Whether he know the pith of the Law by intuition or through instruction, a houseless (monk) should exert himself and abstain from sins.
When a wise man, in whatever way, comes to know that the apportioned space of his life draws towards its end, he should in the meantime quickly learn the method (of dying a religious death) .
As a tortoise draws its limbs into its own body, so a wise man should cover, as it were, his sins with his own meditation.
He should draw in, as it were, his hands and feet, his mind and five organs of sense, the effect of his bad Karman, and every bad use of language.
The virtuous exert themselves with regard to the distant end (viz. Liberation ). One should live indifferent to one's own happiness, calm, and without any attachment.
Do not kill living beings, do not take what is not freely given, do not talk false, treacherous speech! This is the Law of him who is rich in control.
Do not desire by words or thoughts what is a transgression (of the Law); guarding yourself in all ways, and subduing (the senses), practise control.
A man who guards his self and subdues his senses, abhors all sins, past, present, and future ones.
Benighted men of wrong faith, (though) they be renowned as heroes, exert themselves in a bad way, which will have, in all respects, evil consequences for them.
Wise men of right faith, who are renowned heroes, exert themselves in a good way which will have no (evil) consequences whatever for them.
Penance is of no good if performed by noble men who have turned monks (for the sake of fame); but that penance of which nobody else knows anything (is meritorious). Do not spread your own fame !
A pious man should eat little, drink little, talk little; he should always exert himself, being calm, indifferent, a subduer (of his senses), and free from greed.
Meditating and performing religious practices, abandoning his body, regarding forbearance as the paramount duty, a monk should wander about till he obtains liberation.
Thus I say.
- 297:2 Virya; it is the power or virtue of a thing.
- 298:1 Sattha = sastra or sastra. On the latter alternative we must translate '(practice of) arms.'
- 298:2 Veri = vairin, givopamardakarin.
- 298:3 Karma is of two kinds, airyapathika, arising from 'walking,' i.e. from those actions which are indispensable to a virtuous life or the conduct of monks, and samparayika, arising from the passions.
- 299:1 Savvadhammamagoviyam. According to the commentator the meaning of this phrase is: which is not blamed or shown to be wrong by all (heretical) Laws.
- 299:2 See Uttaradhyayana, Fifth Lecture.
- 299:3 Silanka quotes and comments upon four different readings of the first line of this verse, the last of which is rendered above as it is the textus receptus of the Dipika. Abstaining from even small pride and from deceit, one 'Great' for 'even small.' I have heard from some men: This is the valour of the virtuous man, that After this verse Silanka quotes another which, he says, is not found in MSS. of the text, but [p. 300] is found in the Tika. It is, however, the identical verse I, 3, 4, 20, see above, <page 271>, which occurs again I, 11, 11.
- 300:1 Compare Matthew vi. i-6.
9 - the law
What is the Law that has been preached by the wise Brahmana  (i.e. Mahavira)? Learn from me the noble Law of the Ginas as it is.
Brahmanas, Kshattriyas, Vaisyas, Kandalas, Vukkasas, hunters , merchants , Sudras, and others who are accustomed to do acts;
The iniquity  of all these men who cling to property goes on increasing; for those who procure themselves pleasures by sinful acts will not get rid of misery.
After a man has done acts which cause the death of living beings, his pleasure-seeking relations take possession of his wealth, whilst the doer of the acts must suffer for them.
'Mother, father, daughter-in-law, brother, wife, and sons will not be able to help me, when I suffer for my own deeds .'
Taking to heart this truth from which flow the most important truths, a monk, without property and without egoism, should follow the teaching of the Ginas.
Leaving his wealth, sons, relations, and property, leaving sorrow that never ceases, (a monk) should wander about without any worldly interests.
Earth, water, fire, and wind; grass, trees, and corn; oviparous animals, the two kinds of viviparous  animals; beings engendered in fluids and in dirt, and plants;
These six classes of living beings a wise man should know and treat tenderly, in thoughts, words, and acts; he should neither do actions nor desire property whereby he might do them any harm.
Untrue speech, sexual intercourse, personal property, taking things that are not freely given: all these causes of injury to living beings a wise man should abstain from.
Deceit , greed , anger , and pride : combat these causes of sin; a wise man should abstain from them.
Washing, dyeing, making urine, evacuation of the bowels, vomiting, anointing of the eyes, and whatever is contrary to the rules of conduct : from all this a wise man should abstain.
Perfumes, wreaths, bathing, cleansing of the teeth, property, actions referring to women: from all this a wise man should abstain.
Alms that have been prepared, or bought, or stolen, or brought for the sake of a monk, or alms that contain particles of the above mentioned, or such alms as are unacceptable (for one cause or other), from all these a wise man should abstain.
Invigorating food, anointing of the eyes, greed, damaging others, washing (one's limbs), (rubbing them with) Lodhra-powder, : from all this a wise man should abstain.
Deliberating with laymen, praising their work, answering their questions, eating the householder's meals: from all this a wise man should abstain.
He should not learn to play chess , he should not speak anything forbidden by the Law; a wise man should abstain from fights and quarrels.
Shoes, an umbrella, dice, chowries, working for another, helping each other: from all this a wise man should abstain.
A monk should not void his excrements or urine among plants; he should never rinse his mouth (even) with distilled water after having removed (everything endowed with life).
He should never eat or drink out of a householder's vessel; nor wear his clothes, especially if he is a naked monk: from all this a wise man should abstain.
A stool or bed or a seat in a house, asking of news and recollection (of past sports): from all this a wise man should abstain.
Fame, glory, and renown; honours and respectful treatment; all pleasures in the whole world: from all this a wise man should abstain.
A monk (should be content) with such food and drink as will sustain his life; he should give a portion of it to others: [from all this a wise man should abstain .]
Thus spoke the Nirgrantha, the great sage Mahavira; he who possesses infinite knowledge and faith has taught the Law and the sacred texts .
In speaking (a monk) should use as few words as possible; he should not delight in another's foibles; he should avoid deceiving speech , and should answer after ripe reflection.
One will repent of having used the third kind of speech ; a secret should not be made known. This is the Nirgrantha's commandment.
(A monk) should not call one names , nor 'friend,' nor by his Gotra; 'thou, thou' is vulgar; never address one by 'thou!'
A virtuous monk should never keep company (with the wicked); for thereby he incurs dangers (for his conduct) disguised as pleasures. A wise man should be aware of them.
(A monk) should not stay in the house of a householder except by constraint; nor should he amuse himself too long (by looking) at the sports of the children of the village .
Not desirous of fine things, he should wander about, exerting himself; not careless in his conduct, he should bear whatever pains he has to suffer.
If beaten, he should not be angry; if abused, he should not fly into a passion; with a placid mind he should bear everything and not make a great noise.
He should not enjoy pleasures though they offer themselves; for thus he is said (to reach) discernment. He should always practise what is right to do in the presence of the enlightened ones.
He should obey and serve a wise and pious teacher, (such teachers) as are heroes (of faith), who search for the benefit of their souls, are firm in control, and subdue their senses.
These men, who do not see the light (as it were) in domestic life, are the beloved of the people; these heroes, free from bondage, do not desire life.
They do not long for sensual pleasures, they do not engage in works. All that (the heretics) always talk about, is opposed to the right faith.
Excessive pride and deceit, all worldly vanities: all this a wise man knows and renounces, and thus brings about his final Liberation.
Thus I say.
- 301:1 The word brahmana (mahana) is here, as in many other passages, a mere honorific title which could be rendered by 'ascetic.'
- 301:2 Esiya.
- 301:3 Vesiya.
- 301:4 Vera = vaira.
- 301:5 This verse recurs in Uttaradhyayana VI, 3; above, <page 25>.
- 302:1 Poyagarau = potagarayu, i.e. born alive (as elephants, ) and born together with the chorion (as cows, )
- 302:2 Paliunkana = parikunkana, i.e. maya.
- 302:3 Bhayana = bhagana, i.e. lobha.
- 302:4 Thandilla, i.e. krodha.
- 302:5 Ussayana = ukkhraya, i.e. mana. These four passions are named here from the way in which they are supposed to act upon the soul. Similar names occurred above, <page 248>, notes -.
- 302:6 Palimantha.
- 303:1 Ashtapada. This does not necessarily, in this place, mean chess-board, but any game played on a similar chequered board may be intended. The earliest unmistakable mention of chess, that I have met with, occurs in Ratnakara's Haravigaya XII, 9, a mahakavya written in the first half of the ninth century A. D. in Kashmir.–Another explanation of atthavayam is arthapadam = arthasastram 'means of acquiring property.'
- 304:1 The last part of this verse is here repeated from the preceding ones; but it is quite out of place here.
- 304:2 Here apparently ended the original treatise; the following verses are not directly connected with it.
- 304:3 Maitthanam, always rendered matristhanam. I think it is a regular corruption for mayasthanam. The second syllable of the word becomes short before two consonants, and then the ya was changed into i with which it is almost interchangeable.
- 304:4 The four kinds of speech are true speech, untrue speech, speech partly true and partly untrue, speech which is neither true nor untrue, see part i, p. 150.–Inaccurate statements are intended here.
- 305:1 Hola, which is said to be a Desi word of abuse. The same word occurs also in the Akaranga Sutra, see part i, p. 151, where I translated it by 'loon.'
- 305:2 According to Silanka: (he should not join) the sports of the children of a village, nor amuse himself too long.
10 - carefulness
The wise (Arhat) having pondered on the Law proclaimed it; learn from me correctly what is carefulness. A monk who forms no resolutions and is possessed of carefulness, should wander about, giving no offence to any creature;
To no living beings, whether they move or not, whether above or below or on earth, by putting a strain upon them by his hands or feet . Nor should he take from householders anything that is not freely given.
Having mastered the Law and got rid of carelessness, he should live on allowed food , and treat all beings as he himself would be treated; he should not expose himself to guilt by his desire for life; a monk who performs austerities should not keep any store.
Restraining his senses from women, a sage should wander about free from all worldly ties. See, every creature and every being suffers pain and is afflicted.
Doing harm to these beings, an ignorant man becomes involved in sins. Sin is committed by injuring (beings), and one sins also by employing others (in such acts).
He too who leads a miserable life, commits sin. Therefore (the Ginas) have enjoined thorough carefulness. One should know the truth, delight in control and sound judgment, cease from injuring beings, and be of a settled mind.
Looking at all people with an impartial mind, one should not do anything to please or to harm them. After a virtuous beginning some become miserable and lose heart, (since) they desire honour and fame.
Desiring unallowed  food and accepting such, the sinner, careless in his conduct, is attached to women, and tries to acquire property.
Given to violent deeds he accumulates (Karman); on his decease he (meets with) really distressing misery. Therefore a wise man considers well the Law; a sage wanders about free from all worldly ties.
He should not expose himself to guilt by his desire for life, but he should wander about without any attachment. Speaking after due consideration, and combating his worldly desires, he should say nothing that involves slaughter of living beings.
He should not desire unallowed food, and he should not mix with people who desire such; he should mortify his flesh, thinking (of his duty), and giving up his sorrows without regard (to worldly interests).
Try to realise that you are single and alone; thereby you will obtain Liberation; mind, this is no false assertion! This Liberation is not anything unreal, but the best thing. An ascetic is free from anger, and delights in the truth.
Abstain from sexual intercourse with women, do not acquire property; a man possessed of carefulness will, beyond doubt, be a saviour (to others) in all circumstances.
A monk having conquered aversion to control and delight in sensual objects , should bear all troubles caused by (pricking) grass, cold, heat, and insects; he should endure pleasant and unpleasant smells.
Guarding his speech and possessed of carefulness, acquiring (pure) Lesya , he should wander about; he should not thatch a house for himself or for others, nor behave towards other people like a householder.
Questioned by somebody who maintains the unchangeable character of the soul , he should expound the true (doctrine); those who engage in works and are held in worldly bondage, do not know the Law which leads to Liberation.
Men here have various opinions; (they adhere) to the doctrine of the Kriyavadins and Akriyavadins. The iniquity of an unrestrained sinner, who after having been born injures the body (of beings to procure his own happiness), goes on increasing.
Forgetting that his life will have an end, a rash and foolish man is full of selfishness; he toils day and night, greedy of wealth, as if he never should grow old or die.
Leave wealth and cattle, all relations and dear friends! (A man) always talks (about these things), and he is infatuated with them; but other people will take away his wealth.
As smaller beasts keep at a distance from a lion, being afraid of him, so a wise man keeps aloof from sin, well considering the Law.
A wise man who has become awakened should turn away from sin, when he considers the evils arising from slaughter and the great dangers entailed by his cruel disposition.
A sage setting out for the real good  (viz. Liberation), should not speak untruth; this (rule, they say,) comprises Nirvana and the whole of carefulness. He should not do works, nor cause others to do them, nor assent to others doing them.
When he gets pure (food), he should not be affected (by love or hate), and he should not be too fond (of such food) nor long for it. A pious monk, free from bonds, should wander about desiring neither honours nor fame.
A monk who has left the house and is free from desires should abandon his body, annihilating his sins; he should not desire life nor death, and walk about, having got beyond the Circle (of Births) .
Thus I say.
- 306:1 Samahi = samadhi. This word has not only the meaning 'meditation,' but also a much wider one. Here it is explained as 'the means of obtaining Moksha.' I have chosen 'carefulness,' because it is less technical than 'control,' which I have used in other places.
- 306:2 The first part of verse 2 to be construed with the last part of the preceding verse.
- 306:3 Ladhe.
- 307:1 Ahagada = yathakrita; cf. <page 131>, note , 1.
- 308:1 This is, according to Silanka, the meaning of the words araim raim va, see, however, above, <page 111>, note .
- 308:2 See Uttaradhyayana, Lecture XXXIV.
- 308:3 Akiriyaaya = akriyatman.
- 309:1 Attagami = aptagamin. Apta is either Moksha as assumed in my translation, or it denotes the 'highest authority;' in the latter case we can translate: who proceeds on the right path.
- 310:1 Or, the fetter of sin.
11 - the path
What is the Path that has been preached by the wise Brahmana  (i.e. Mahavira), having correctly entered upon which path a man crosses the flood (of Samsara) which is difficult to pass?
O monk and great sage, tell us this best path which leads to liberation from all misery, as you know it!
Tell us how we should describe that path, if somebody, a god or a man, should ask us about it!
If somebody, a god or a man, ask you about it, tell them the truth about the path. Listen to me!
The very difficult (path) explained by the Kasyapa, following which some men from this earth have formerly passed over. (the Samsara) like traders over the ocean , pass over it (even now), and will pass over it in future; (this path which) I have learned, I shall explain in due order; men, listen to me! (5, 6)
Earth-lives are individual beings, so are water-lives, fire-lives, and wind-lives; grass, trees, corn;
And the remaining, (viz.) the movable beings; thus are enumerated the six classes of living beings; these are all the living beings, there are no more besides.
A wise man should study them with all means of philosophical research. All beings hate pains; therefore one should not kill them.
This is the quintessence of wisdom: not to kill anything. Know this to be the legitimate conclusion from the principle of the reciprocity with regard to non-killing .
He should cease to injure living beings whether they move or not, on high, below, and on earth. For this has been called the Nirvana, which consists in peace .
Master (of his senses) and avoiding wrong, he should do no harm to anybody, neither by thoughts, nor words, nor acts.
A wise man who restrains his senses and possesses great knowledge, should accept such things as are freely given him, being always circumspect with regard to the accepting of alms, and abstaining from what he is forbidden to accept.
A true monk should not accept such food and drink as has been especially prepared for him along with slaughter of living beings.
He should not partake of a meal which contains but a particle of forbidden food : this is the Law of him who is rich in control. Whatever (food a monk) suspects (to be impure), he may not eat.
A man who guards his soul and subdues his senses, should never assent to anybody killing beings.–In towns and villages cases (will occur, which place) the faithful (in a dilemma) .
Hearing the talk of people, one should not say, 'this is a good action,' nor 'this is a bad action.' For there is an objection (to either answer).
He should not say that it is meritorious, because he ought to save those beings, whether they move or not, which are killed there for the sake of making a gift.
Nor should he say that it is not meritorious, because he would then prevent those for whose sake the food and drink in question is prepared, to get their due.
Those who praise the gift, are accessory  to the killing of beings; those who forbid it, deprive (others) of the means of subsistence.
Those, however, who give neither answer, viz. that it is meritorious, or is not so, do not expose themselves to guilt, and will reach Beatitude .
Knowing that Beatitude is the best thing as the moon is among the stars, a sage always restrained and subduing his senses brings about Beatitude.
A pious man  shows an island to the beings which are carried away (by the flood of the Samsara) and suffer for their deeds. This place of safety has been proclaimed (by the Tirthakaras).
He who guards his soul, subdues his senses, puts a stop to the current (of the Samsara), and is free from Asravas , is (entitled to) expound the pure, complete, unparalleled Law.
Those who do not know this (Law), are not awakened, though they fancy themselves awakened; believing themselves awakened, they are beyond the boundary of right faith .
Eating seeds and drinking cold water  and what has been especially prepared for them, they enter upon meditation , but are ignorant of the truth, and do not possess carefulness.
As dhankas, herons, ospreys, cormorants, and pheasants meditate upon capturing fish, (which is) a sinful and very low meditation, so some heretical, unworthy Sramanas contemplate the pursuit of pleasures; (they are) sinful and very low like herons. (27, 28)
Here some weak-minded persons, abusing the pure path, enter upon a wrong path. They thereby will go to misery and destruction.
As a blind-born man getting into a leaky boat wants to reach the shore, but is drowned during the passage ; so some unworthy, heretical Sramanas, having got into the full current (of the Samsara), will incur great danger. (30, 31)
But knowing this Law which has been proclaimed by the Kasyapa, (a monk) crosses the dreadful current (of the Samsara), and wanders about intent on the benefit of his soul.
Indifferent to worldly objects, a man should wander about treating all creatures in the world so as he himself would be treated.
A wise man knowing (and renouncing) excessive pride and deceit, (in short) giving up all (causes of worldly existence), brings about his Liberation .
He acquires good qualities, and leaves off bad qualities; a monk, who vigorously practises austerities, avoids anger and pride.
The Buddhas  that were, and the Buddhas that will be, they (as it were) have Peace as their foundation, even as all things have the earth for their foundation.
And if any accidents whatever befall him who has gained that (foundation), he will not be overpowered by them as a mountain by the storm .
A restrained, very learned, and wise (monk) should accept such alms as are freely given him, being free from passions and waiting for his end. This is the doctrine of the Kevalin.
Thus I say.
- 310:2 See note on IX, 1.
- 311:1 The same simile occurs also in I, 3, 4, 18, above <page 271>.
- 311:2 The same verse occurred above, I, 1, 4, 10, <page 247>.
- 311:3 We have had the same verse above, I, 3, 4, 20, <page 271>.
- 312:1 This is the meaning of the phrase putikarma na seveta.
- 312:2 When well-meaning people sink a well, offer a sacrifice, or feed persons,
- 312:3 Literally, wish.
- 313:1 Silanka quotes the following Sanskrit verse to show the application of the maxim to the digging of a well: satyam vapreshu sitam sasikaradhavalam vari pitva prakamam vyukkhinnaseshatrishnah pramuditamanasah pranisartha bhavanti | sosham nite galaughe dinakarakiranair yanty ananta vinasam teno'dasinabhavam vragati muniganah kupavapradikarve || 'Forsooth, when living beings drink to their hearts' content the cool water of ditches, which is white like the moon, their thirst is completely allayed and their heart is gladdened; but when all the water is dried up by the rays of the sun, numberless creatures must die; therefore the sages decline every interest in the construction of wells and ditches.'
- 313:2 The commentators connect sahu as adjective with divam, and supply Tirthakara as subject.
- 313:3 See above, <page 55>, note .
- 313:4 Samadhi.
- 313:5 Viodaga = bigodaka.
- 314:1 Comp. I, 3, 3, 12.
- 314:2 Verses 30, 31 a = I, 1, 2, 31, 32 a.
- 314:3 The first line of this verse occurred in I, 9, 36.
- 314:4 Here Buddha is a synonym for Tirthakara.
- 315:1 Silanka says that by exercise the power of resistance will be increased, and in confirmation of this he relates the well-known story of the herdsman who daily carried a calf from its birth till it was two years old.
12 - the creed
There are four (heretical) creeds  which the disputants severally uphold: 1. the Kriyavada, 2. the Akriyavada, 3. the Vinayavada, and 4. the Agnanavada.
The agnostics , though they (pretend to) be clever, reason incoherently, and do not get beyond the confusion of their ideas. Ignorant (teachers) speak to ignorant (pupils), and without reflection they speak untruth.
Believing truth to be untruth, and calling a bad man good, the various upholders of Vinaya, asked about it, explain their tenet .
Without perceiving the truth they speak thus: this object (viz. Moksha) is realised by us thus (viz. by Vinaya). The Akriyavadins who deny Karman , do not admit that the action (of the soul is transmitted to) the future moments .
They become involved in contradiction in their own assertions; they falter in their speech and are unable to repeat what is said to them . This (their opinion) has a valiant counter-opinion, this (our opinion) has no valiant counter-opinion; and Karman has six sources .
The Akriyavadins who do not understand the truth, bring forward various opinions; many men believing in them will whirl round in the endless Circle of Births.
'There rises no sun, nor does it set; there waxes no moon, nor does it wane; there are no rivers running, nor any winds blowing; the whole world is ascertained to be unreal .'
As a blind man, though he have a light, does not see colours, because he is deprived of his eye(sight), so the Akriyavadin, having a perverted intellect, does not recognise the action (of the soul) though it does exist.
Many men in this world who have studied astrology, the art of interpreting dreams, divination from diagrams, augury, divination from bodily marks, and from portents, and the eight branches (of divination from omens), know the future .
(The opponents say that) some forecasts are true, and the prophecies of others prove wrong; therefore they do not study those sciences, but they profess to know the world, fools though they be .
The (Kriyavadins) Sramanas and Brahmanas understanding the world (according to their lights), speak thus: misery is produced by one's own works, not by those of somebody else (viz. fate, creator, ) . But right knowledge and conduct lead to liberation.
The (Tirthakaras), being (as it were) the eyes of the world and its leaders, teach the path which is salutary to men; they have declared that the world is eternal inasmuch as creatures are (for ever) living in it, O ye men!
The Rakshasas and the dwellers in Yama's world, the troops  of Asuras and Gandharvas, and the spirits that walk the air, and individual beings : they will all be born again and again.
(The Samsara) which is compared to the boundless flood of water, know it to be impassable and of very long duration on account of repeated births . Men therein, seduced by their senses and by women, are born again and again both (as movable and immovable beings).
The sinners cannot annihilate their works by new works; the pious annihilate their works by abstention from works; the wise and happy men who got rid of the effects of greed, do not commit sins.
They know the past, present, and future ways of the world; they are leaders of other men, but follow no leader; they are awakened, and put an end to mundane existence.
Averse to injury of living beings, they do not act, nor cause others to act. Always restraining themselves, those pious men practise control, and some become heroes through their knowledge. He regards small beings and large beings, the whole world as equal to himself; he comprehends the immense world, and being awakened he controls himself among the careless.
Those who have learned (the truth) by themselves or from others, are able (to save) themselves and others. One should always honour a man, who is like a light and makes manifest the Law after having well considered it.
He who knows himself and the world; who knows where (the creatures) go, and whence they will not return; who knows what is eternal, and what is transient; birth and death, and the future existences of men;
He who knows the tortures of beings below (i.e. in hell); who knows the influx of sin and its stoppage ; who knows misery and its annihilation,–he is entitled to expound the Kriyavada ,
Being not attached to sounds and colours, indifferent to tastes and smells, not desiring life nor death, guarded by control, and exempt from the Circle (of Births).
Thus I say.
- 315:2 Samosarana = samavasarana. This word and the verb samosarai are commonly used when Mahavira preaches to a meeting (melapaka) gathered round him.
- 315:3 Compare Uttaradhyayana XVIII, 23, above p. 83, note 2.
- 315:4 Annaniya = agnanikas, the followers of the fourth sect.
- 316:1 Viz. that Moksha is arrived at through Vinaya, discipline.
- 316:2 Lavavasanki. Lava is explained by karman, and avasanki by apasartum silam yesham te.
- 316:3 The meaning is that as everything has but a momentary existence, there is no connection between the thing as it is now, and as it will be in the next moment. This is a doctrine of the Bauddhas. But the Sankhyas are also reckoned among the Akriyavadins, because, according to them, the atman does not act.
- 316:4 Silanka in commenting upon this passage has to say a good deal about the Bauddhas. It is perhaps of interest that he mentions their 500 Gatakas, and not thirty-four which is the recognised number of Gatakas according to the Northern Buddhist. How Silanka came to a knowledge of the numbers of Gatakas accepted by the Southern Buddhists, I cannot tell.
- 316:5 Viz. the six Asravas.
- 317:1 This is the opinion of the Sunyavadins, who are considered to belong to the Akriyavadins, because they deny all actions, even such as are perceived by everybody (Silanka).
- 317:2 This would be impossible if the whole world was unreal.
- 317:3 A various reading, commented upon by the scholiasts, runs thus: ahamsu viggapalimokkham eva, they say 'that one must give up science.'
- 317:4 The Kriyavadins contend, according to Silanka, that works alone, by themselves, without knowledge, lead to Moksha.
- 318:1 Kaya. The commentators explain this word as denoting the earth-bodies, but from the context it will be seen that it refers to Asuras and Gandharvas, and must be translated by 'troops.'
- 318:2 Pudho siya = prithak sritah; according to Silanka, prithivyasritah. This expression is generally used to denote the lower order of beings.
- 318:3 To render bhavagahana.
- 319:1 Asrava and samvara.
- 319:2 It is evident that the Gainas considered themselves Kriyavadins. I had overlooked this passage when penning the note on <page 83>.
13 - the real truth
I shall now expound, in accordance with truth, the various qualities of men; I shall explain the virtue and peace of the good, the vices and the unrest of the wicked.
Having learned the Law from men who exert themselves day and night, from the Tathagatas , they neglect the conduct in which they had been instructed, and speak rudely to their teacher.
Those who explain the pure doctrine according to their individual opinion, falsify it in repeating (it after their teachers); those who speak untruth from pride of knowledge, are not capable of many virtues.
Those who on being questioned conceal the truth, defraud themselves of the real good. These bad men who believe themselves good and are full of deceit, will go to endless punishment.
He who is of a wrathful disposition and calls everything by its true name , who renews a composed quarrel, will, like a blind man groping his way with a stick, do harm to himself, being still subject to passion and possessing evil Karman.
He who is quarrelsome and talks improperly, is not impartial nor beyond the reach of deceit ; but he who executes the commands (of his teacher) and controls himself, sees nothing but the truth and is exempt from deceit.
He who conforms to admonitions however many he receives, is kindly spoken, subtile, manly, noble, and a well-doer; (such a man) is impartial and beyond the reach of deceit.
He who believes himself rich in control, or inconsiderately vaunts his knowledge, or fancies himself purified by austerities, will look upon other men as shadows.
He is always turned round by delusion, and has no place in the Gotra where the Vow of Silence is practised (viz. in the Gaina church), who not being awakened puts himself forward in order to gain honours through something different from control.
A Brahmana or Kshattriya by birth, a scion of the Ugra  race or a Likkhavi , who enters the order eating alms given him by others, is not stuck up on account of his renowned Gotra.
His pedigree on his mother's and on his father's side will be of no use to him, nothing will but right knowledge and conduct: when after becoming a monk he acts like a householder, he will not succeed in obtaining final Liberation.
If a poor monk subsisting on the meanest food is attached to vanities, desires fame, and not being awakened, (makes his monkhood) a means of subsistence, he will suffer again and again (in the Circle of Births).
A monk, who is eloquent, speaks very well, has bright ideas, is clever, possesses a fine intellect, and has purified his soul, may (perhaps) despise other men on account of his intellect.
Thus an intelligent monk who puts himself forward, has not yet realised carefulness; or rather he is a weak-minded man who elated by his success blames other men.
A monk should combat pride of genius, pride of sanctity, pride of birth, and (pride of good) living, which is enumerated as the fourth; such a man is wise and of the right stuff.
The wise leave off these kinds of pride, the pious do not cultivate them; the great sages are above all such things as Gotra ( ), and they ascend to the place where there is no Gotra at all (viz. to Moksha).
A monk who looks upon his body as on a corpse and fully understands the Law, will on entering a village or a town distinguish between what may be accepted and what may not, and will not be greedy of food or drink.
A monk having conquered aversion to control and delight in sensual objects, living in company with many brethren or leading a single life, should silently repeat to himself: 'A man must come and go (according to his Karman) alone' (i.e. without deriving any help from others).
Knowing it by intuition or having learned it from others, one should teach the Law which is a benefit to men; the pious are not given to blameable sinful practices.
If (a monk preaches the Law to some one) whose disposition he has not ascertained, that man, not believing (what he is taught), will become angry, and may wound him in a way that will shorten or end his life. When he knows their disposition, he (may teach) others the truth.
A wise man by suppressing his Karman and his will should renounce his interest in everything else. (For) through the objects of sight (i.e. senses) which are causes of danger, men come to harm. Knowing the truth with regard to movable and immovable beings (a monk should exert himself) .
Not desiring honour or fame, he should say nothing to anybody either to please or to irritate him. Avoiding all evils, a monk should without embarrassment and passion (preach the Law).
Well considering (his duties) in accordance with truth, abstaining from doing injury to living beings, not desiring life nor death, he should wander about released from the Circle (of Births).
Thus I say.
- 320:1 According to the commentators, Gaina teachers, inclusive of the schismatical ones, are intended. Tathagata is a synonym of Tirthakara and Buddha; but it is less frequently used by the Gainas than by the Bauddhas with whom it is of very common occurrence.
- 320:2 Gagatthabhasi = gagadarthabhashin. Silanka proposes also gayarthabhashin, who speaks dogmatically.
- 321:1 Aghanghapatta. Ghangha (tempest) = maya.
- 321:2 Concerning the Ugras, see above, <page 71>, note .
- 321:3 Lekkhai. According to the Gainas the Likkhavi and Mallakis were the chiefs of Kasi and Kosala. They seem to have succeeded the Aikshvakas, who ruled there in the times of the Ramayana. The Likkhavis became a powerful race, who held the supreme power in Eastern India during many centuries after the beginning of our era.
- 323:1 The commentators make out the following meaning: A wise (preacher) should ascertain (his hearers') occupations and inclinations, and then (try to) better their evil disposition. Through the objects of sight which are causes of danger, men are led astray. A wise man knowing (the disposition of his hearers should preach the Law which is wholesome) to all living beings whether they move or not.
14 - the nirgrantha
He who has given up all worldly ties and is instructed in our creed, should practise chastity, exerting himself; obeying the commands (of his teacher) he should make himself well acquainted with the conduct; a clever (monk) should avoid carelessness.
As (birds of prey), e.g. Dhankas, carry off a fluttering young bird whose wings are not yet grown, when it attempts to fly from the nest, but is not able to do so, because it is too young and its wings are not yet grown;
Just as they carry off a young bird whose wings are not yet grown, so many unprincipled men will seduce a novice who has not yet mastered the Law, thinking that they can get him in their power, when they have made him leave (the Gakkha) .
A good man should long to live with his teacher in order to perform his duties , knowing that he who does not live with his teacher will not put an end to his mundane existence. Making manifest the conduct of the virtuous, an intelligent (monk) should not leave the (company of his teacher).
(A monk) who complies with the rules for Yatis  as regards postures, lying down, sitting, and exertions, who is thoroughly acquainted with the Samitis and Guptis, should in teaching others explain each single (point of conduct).
Whether he hears (pleasant) sounds or dreadful ones, he should not allow himself to be influenced by them, and persevere in control; nor should a monk be sleepy or careless, but by every means he should get rid of doubts.
If admonished by a young or an old monk, by one above him or one of equal age, he should not retort against him , being perfectly free from passion; for one who is (as it were) carried away (by the stream of the Samsara), will not get to its opposite shore.
(He should not become angry) if (doing anything wrong) his own creed is quoted against him by a heretic, or if he is corrected by (somebody else) be he young or old, or by a female slave engaged in low work or carrying a jar, or by some householder.
He should not be angry with them nor do them any harm, nor say a single hard word to them, but he should promise not to commit the same sin again; for this is better than to do wrong.
As to one who has lost his way in the wood, others who have not, (show it, thus some) teach the path which is salutary to men. Therefore (he should think): this is for my good that those who know put me right.
Now he who has lost his way should treat with all honour him who has not. This simile has been explained by the Prophet. Having learned what is right one should practise it.
As a guide in a dark night does not find the way since he cannot see it, but recognises the way when it has become light by the rising of the sun;
So a novice who has not mastered the Law, does not know the Law, not being awakened; but afterwards he knows it well through the words of the Ginas, as with his eye (the wanderer sees the way) after sunrise.
Always restrained with regard to movable and immovable beings which are on high, below, and on earth, (a monk) should wander about entertaining no hostile thoughts (towards them) and being steadfast (in control).
At the right time he may put a question about living beings to a well-conducted (monk), who will explain the conduct of the virtuous; and what he hears he should follow and treasure up in his heart, thinking that it is the doctrine of the Kevalins.
Living in this (company of the teacher) and protecting (himself or other beings) in the three ways (viz. in thoughts, words, and acts), he (gets) peace and the annihilation (of sins) as they say. Thus speak those who know the three worlds, and they do not again commit faults!
A monk by hearing the desired Truth gets bright ideas and becomes a clever (teacher); desiring the highest good and practising austerities and silence, he will obtain final Liberation (living on) pure (food).
Those who having investigated the Law expound it, are awakened and put an end to mundane existence; able to liberate both (themselves and others), they answer the well-deliberated questions.
He does not conceal (the truth) nor falsify it; he should not indulge his pride and (desire for) fame; being wise he should not joke, nor pronounce benedictions.
Averse to injury of living beings, he does not disgrace his calling  by the use of spells; a good man does not desire anything from other people, and he does not give utterance to heretical doctrines.
A monk living single should not ridicule heretical doctrines, and should avoid hard words though they be true; he should not be vain, nor brag, but he should without embarrassment and passion (preach the Law).
A monk should be modest  though he be of a fearless mind; he should expound the Syadvada ; he should use the two (permitted) kinds of speech , living among virtuous men, impartial and wise.
He who follows (the instruction) may believe something untrue; (one should) kindly (tell him) 'It is thus or thus.' One should never hurt him by outrageous language, nor give long-winded explanations of difficult passages.
(If the pupil does not understand his short explanation), he should explain at greater length. When the pupil has heard it, he will correctly understand the Truth. A monk should utter pure speech, which is in accordance with the creed (of the Ginas), and should declare the distinction of sin.
He should well learn the (sacred texts) as they have been revealed; he should endeavour (to teach the creed), but he should not speak unduly long. A faithful man who is able to explain the entire creed  will not corrupt the faith.
He should not pervert nor render obscure (the truth); he should fabricate neither text nor meaning, being a saviour; being devoted to the Teacher and considering well his words, he delivers faithfully what he has learned.
He who correctly knows the sacred texts, who practises austerities, who understands all details of the Law, who is an authentic interpreter, clever, and learned–such a man is competent to explain the entire creed.
Thus I say.
- 324:1 Nissariyam = nihsaritam. I follow in the text the interpretation of the commentators. But I think that instead of mannamana we must read, as in the preceding verse, mannamanam; and translate: believing himself rich in control (vasimam) though he be still wanting in strength (nissariyam).
- 324:2 Samahim.
- 325:1 Susadhuyukta.
- 325:2 Sammam tayam thirato na'bhigakkhe. I translate according to the commentators, as I am unable to understand the words in the text.
- 327:1 Gotra, explained by mauna.
- 327:2 Sankiggiya = sankyeta.
- 327:3 Vibhagyavada. The saptabhanginaya or seven modes of assertion are intended by the expression in the text. See Bhandarkar, Report, 1883-84, p. 95.
- 327:4 See above, <page 304>, note . The first and fourth kinds of speech are here intended.
- 328:1 Samahi = samadhi.
15 - the yamakas
What is past, present, and to come, all this is known to the Leader, the Saviour, who annihilates the hindrances to right faith.
The annihilator of doubt knows the incomparable (Law); he, the expounder of the incomparable (Law), is not inclined towards this or that (heretical doctrine). .
On this or that (article of the creed he has) the correct opinion; hence he is rightly called a true (man); he who always possesses the truth, is kind towards his fellow-creatures.
Towards your fellow-creatures be not hostile: that is the Law of him who is rich in control; he who is rich in control renounces everything, and in this (world meditates on the) reflections on life .
He whose soul is purified by meditating on those reflections is compared to a ship in water; like a ship reaching the shore he gets beyond misery.
A wise man gets beyond it who knows the sins of this world; sinful acts are got rid of by him who does not undertake any new acts.
He who does not undertake new acts does not acquire Karman, and he verily understands (Karman); understanding it he becomes a Great Hero , who is not born (again) and does not die.
A Great Hero, who has no Karman, does not die.–As the wind extinguishes a light, (so he puts down) the lovely women in this world.
Those men whom women do not seduce, value Moksha most; those men are free from bondage and do not desire life.
Turning from worldly life, they reach the goal by pious acts; by their pious acts they are directed (towards Liberation), and they show the way to others.
The preaching of the Law (has different effect) on different creatures; he who is rich in control, is. treated with honour , but does not care for it; he exerts himself, subdues his senses, is firm, and abstains from sexual intercourse. (i1)
(He should not yield to temptations as a pig which) is decoyed by wild rice, being proof against sins, and free from faults. Being free from faults he always subdues his senses, and has reached the incomparable cession of Karman .
Knowing the incomparable (control), he should not be hostile towards anybody, in thoughts, words, or deeds, having eyes (to see everything).
He truly is the eye of men who (dwells so to speak) on the end  of desire; on its end (i.e. edge) glides the razor, on its end (i.e. rim) rolls the wheel.
Because the wise use the ends (of things, i.e. bad food, ), they are called 'makers of an end' here. Here in the world of men we are men to fulfil the Law.
In this creed which surpasses the world, (men) become perfected saints or gods, as I have heard; and I have heard that outside the rank of men this is not so .
Some (heretics) have said that they (viz. the gods) put an end to misery ; but others (Gainas) have repeatedly said that this (human) body is not easily obtained.
To one whose soul has left (human life), it is not easy again to obtain instruction (in the Law), nor is such a mental disposition which they declare appropriate for adopting the Law .
How can it even be imagined that he should be born again, who professes the pure, complete, unparalleled Law, and is a receptacle of the unparalleled Law?
How could the wise Tathagatas be born again, the Tathagatas who engage in no undertakings, the supreme, the eyes of the world?
And there has been declared by the Kasyapa the supreme condition , by realising which some happy and wise men reach excellence.
A wise man who has gained strength (in control) which leads to the expiation of sins, annihilates his former works, and does not do new ones.
The Great Hero does no actions which are the effects of former sins. By his actions he is directed (towards Moksha), abstaining from works which are entailed by birth .
That which all saints value highly (viz. control), destroys the thorn (viz. Karman); practising it some have been liberated, and others have become gods.
There have been wise men, and there will be pious men, who having come to the end and made manifest the end of the incomprehensible path, have been liberated.
Thus I say.
- 329:1 This lecture has been named from its opening words gamaiyam, which also means, consisting of yamakas (compare Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. xl, p. 101). For in this lecture each verse or line opens with a word repeated from the end of the preceding one. This artifice is technically called srinkhala-yamaka, or chain-yam aka, a term which seems to be contained in another name of our lecture, mentioned by the author of the Niryukti (verse 28), viz. adaniya-sankaliya. For sankaliya is the Prakrit for srinkhala (e.g. in our text I, 5, 2, 20), though Silanka here renders it wrongly sankalita; and adaniya by itself is used as a name of our lecture.
- 329:2 These are the twelve bhavanas or meditations on the vanity of life and the world in general, and on the excellence of the Law,
- 330:1 Mahavira.
- 330:2 Puyanasae, explained by pugana-asvadaka. I should prefer puga-nasaka, who abolished the worship of gods, in which case the following word anasae = an-asaya might be rendered: he makes no plans.
- 331:1 Sandhipatte. Sandhi is explained Karmavivaralakshanam bhavasandhim.
- 331:2 There is a play on the word 'end' in this and the next verse which to a modern mind savours more of the absurd than the profound.
- 331:3 Perfection cannot be obtained by other creatures than men.
- 331:4 I.e. reach final beatitude.
- 331:5 The words as they are preserved do not construe; the meaning, however, must have been about what I have given in the translation.
- 332:1 Viz. control.
- 332:2 Gammayam. The commentators explain it yan matam; but I think it is = ganmagam.
16 - the song
Now the Venerable One said: He who thus subdues his senses, who is well qualified (for his task)  and abandons his body, is to be called a Brahmana, a Sramana, a Bhikshu, a Nirgrantha. (The pupil) replied: Why is he who thus subdues his senses, who is well qualified (for his task) and abandons his body, to be called a Brahmana, a Sramana, a Bhikshu, a Nirgrantha? Tell this, O great sage!
He is a Brahmana for this reason that he has ceased from all sinful actions, viz. love, hate, quarrel, calumny, backbiting, reviling of others, aversion to control, and love of pleasures, deceit, untruth, and the sin of wrong belief; that he possesses the Samitis, always exerts himself, is not angry, nor proud.
He is a Sramana for this reason that he is not hampered by any obstacles, that he is free from desires, (abstaining from) property, killing, telling lies, and sexual intercourse; (and from) wrath, pride, deceit, greed, love, and hate: thus giving up every passion that involves him in sin, (such as) killing of beings. (Such a man) deserves the name of a Sramana, who subdues (moreover) his senses, is well qualified (for his task), and abandons his body.
He is a Bhikshu for this reason that he is not conceited, but modest, and obedient (to his Guru), that he subdues his senses, is well qualified (for his task), and abandons his body, that he sustains all troubles and calamities, that he practises with a pure mind the (prescribed) conduct, exerts himself well, is steadfast, and eats but a moderate quantity  of food which is given him by others. (Such a man) deserves the name of a Bhikshu.
He is a Nirgrantha for this reason that he is single , knowing the absolute (atman), awakened, proof against sins, well disciplined; that he possesses the Samitis and equanimity, knows the true nature of the Self, is wise, has renounced the causes of sin both (objectively and subjectively ), does not desire honour, respect, and hospitality, but searches and knows the Law, endeavours to gain Liberation, and lives restrained. (Such a man) deserves the name of a Nirgrantha, who subdues his senses, is well qualified (for his task), and abandons his body.
Know this to be thus as I have told you, because I am the Saviour.
Thus I say.
- 333:1 Gaha = gatha. In this lecture, which is in prose as regards form and contents, there is nothing that could justify the title given it.
- 333:2 Davie = dravya.
- 334:1 Samkhaya. The commentator takes this word as a gerund and explains it: knowing (the vanity of the world).
- 334:2 Eka, i.e. free from love and hate.
- 334:3 Dravyato bhavatas ka.
1 - the lotus
O long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse from the Venerable (Mahavira). We now come to the Lecture called 'the Lotus.' The contents of it are as follows:
There is a lotus-pool containing much water and mud, very full and complete, answering to the idea (one has of a lotus-pool), full of white lotuses, delightful, conspicuous, magnificent, and splendid.
And everywhere all over the lotus-pool there grew many white lotuses, the best of Nymphaeas, as we are told, in beautiful array, tall, brilliant, of fine colour, smell, taste, and touch, ( all down to) splendid.
And in the very middle of this lotus-pool there grew one big white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, as we are told, in an excellent position, tall, ( all down to) splendid.
[ section section 3 and 4 are to be repeated with the word 'all' or 'whole' added to 'lotus-pool' .]
Now there came a man from the Eastern quarter to the lotus-pool, and standing on the bank of it he saw that one big white lotus, ( as above). Now this man spoke thus: 'I am a knowing, clever, well-informed, discerning, wise, not foolish man, who keeps the way, knows the way, and is acquainted with the direction and bent of the way. I shall fetch that white lotus, the best of all Nymphaeas.' Having said this the man entered the lotus-pool. And the more he proceeded, the more the water and the mud (seemed to) extend. He had left the shore, and he did not come up to the white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, he could not get back to this bank, nor to the opposite one, but in the middle of the lotus-pool he stuck in the mud.
This was the first man. Now (we shall describe) the second man. There came a man from the Southern quarter to the lotus-pool, and standing on the bank of it he saw that one big white lotus ( all as above). There he saw one man who had left the shore, but had not come up to the white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, who could not get back to his bank, nor to the opposite one, but stuck in the mud in the middle of the lotus-pool. Now the second man spoke of the first man thus: 'This man is not knowing, not clever, ( see above, all down to) not acquainted with the direction and bent of the way.' For that man said: 'I am a knowing, ( all down to) I shall fetch that white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas.' But this white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, cannot be got in the way this man tried.
'However, I am a knowing, clever, ( all down to the end of the paragraph) he stuck in the mud.' This was the second man. (The same thing happened to a third and a fourth man, who came from the Western and Northern quarters respectively, and saw two and three men respectively sticking in the mud. Some MSS. give the story at length, others abbreviate it.) (8, 9)
Now a monk living on low food and desiring to get to the shore (of the Samsara), knowing, clever, ( all down to) acquainted with the direction and bent of the way, came to that lotus-pool from some one of the four quarters or from one of the intermediate points (of the compass). Standing on the bank of the lotus-pool he saw the one big white lotus, ( as above). And he saw there those four men who having left the shore, ( all as above) stuck in the mud. Then the monk said: 'These men are not knowing, ( all down to) not acquainted with the direction and bent of the way; for these men thought: We shall fetch that white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas. But this white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, cannot be got in the way these men tried. I am a monk living on low food, ( all down to) acquainted with the direction and bent of the way. I shall fetch that white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas.' Having said this the monk did not enter the lotus-pool; but standing on the bank of it he raised his voice: 'Fly up,
I have told you, O long-lived Sramanas, a simile ; you must comprehend the meaning of it . The Nirgrantha monks and nuns worshipped and praised the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, and then spoke thus: 'You have told, O long-lived Sramana, the simile, but we do not comprehend its meaning, O long-lived Sramana!' The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira addressed the crowd of Nirgrantha monks and nuns, and spoke thus: Ah, you long-lived Sramanas! I shall tell, declare, explain, expound, and demonstrate it with its meaning, reasons, and arguments. Thus I say:
O long-lived Sramanas , meaning  the world I spoke of the lotus-pool. Meaning Karman I spoke of the water. Meaning pleasures and amusements I spoke of the mud. Meaning people in general I spoke of those many white lotuses, the best of Nymphaeas. Meaning the king I spoke of the one big white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas. Meaning heretical teachers I spoke of those four men. Meaning the Law I spoke of the monk. Meaning the church  I spoke of the bank. Meaning the preaching of the Law I spoke of (the monk's) voice. Meaning Nirvana I spoke of (the lotus') flying up. Meaning these things, O long-lived Sramanas, I told this (simile).
Here in the East, West, North, and South many men have been born according to their merit, as inhabitants of this our world, viz. some as Aryas, some as non-Aryas, some in noble families, some in low families, some as big men, some as small men, some of good complexion, some of bad complexion, some as handsome men, some as ugly men. And of these men one man is king, who is strong like the great Himavat, Malaya, Mandara, and Mahendra mountains, ( all down to) who governs his kingdom in which all riots and mutinies have been suppressed .
And this king had an assembly of Ugras  and sons of Ugras, Bhogas  and sons of Bhogas, Aikshvakas and sons of Aikshvakas, Gnatris and sons of Gnatris, Kauravas and sons of Kauravas, warriors and sons of warriors, Brahmanas and sons of Brahmanas, Likkhavis and sons of Likkhavis, commanders and sons of commanders, generals and sons of generals.
And of these men some one  is full of faith. Forsooth, the Sramanas or Brahmanas made up their mind to go to him. Being professors of some religion (they thought) 'We shall teach him our religion.' (And they said): 'Know this, dear sir, that we explain and teach this religion well.
'Upwards from the soles of the feet, downwards from the tips of the hair on the head, within the skin's surface is (what is called) Soul , or what is the same, the Atman. The whole soul lives; when this (body) is dead, it does not live. It lasts as long as the body lasts, it does not outlast the destruction (of the body). With it (viz. the body) ends life. Other men carry it (viz. the corpse) away to burn it. When it has been consumed by fire, only dove-coloured bones remain, and the four bearers return with the hearse to their village. Therefore there is and exists no (soul different from the body). Those who believe that there is and exists no (such soul), speak the truth. Those who maintain that the soul is something different from the body, cannot tell whether the soul (as separated from the body) is long or small, whether globular or circular or triangular or square or sexagonal or octagonal or long, whether black or blue or red or yellow or white, whether of sweet smell or of bad smell, whether bitter or pungent or astringent or sour or sweet, whether hard or soft or heavy or light or cold or hot or smooth or rough. Those, therefore, who believe that there is and exists no soul, speak the truth. Those who maintain that the soul is something different from the body, do not see the following (objections):
'As a man draws a sword from the scabbard and shows it (you, saying): “Friend, this is the sword, and that is the scabbard,” so nobody can draw (the soul from the body) and show it (you, saying): “Friend, this is the soul, and that is the body.” As a man draws a fibre from a stalk of Munga grass and shows it (you, saying): “Friend, this is the stalk, and that is the fibre;” or takes a bone out of the flesh, or the seed of Amalaka  from the palm of his hand, or a particle of fresh butter out of coagulated milk, and shows you both things separately ; or as he presses oil from the seed of Atasi , and shows the oil and oil-cake separately, or as he presses the juice from the sugar-cane, and shows the juice and the molasses  separately, so nobody can show you the soul and the body separately. The same applies also when fire is churned from Arani-wood. Those who believe that there is and exists no soul, speak the truth. Those who say that the soul is different from the body, are wrong.'
This murderer says: 'Kill, dig, slay, burn, cook, cut or break to pieces, destroy! Life ends here; there is no world beyond.'
These (Nastikas) cannot inform  you on the following points: whether an action is good or bad, meritorious or not, well done or not well done, whether one reaches perfection or not, whether one goes to hell or not. Thus undertaking various works they engage in various pleasures and amusements for their own enjoyment.
Thus some shameless men becoming monks propagate a Law of their own. And others believe it, put their faith in it, adopt it, (saying:) 'Well, you speak the truth, O Brahmana, (or) O Sramana! We shall present you with food, drink, spices, and sweetmeats, with a robe, a bowl, or a broom.'
Some have been induced to honour them, some have made (their proselytes) to honour them.
Before (entering an order) they were determined to become Sramanas, houseless, poor monks who would have neither sons nor cattle, to eat only what should be given them by others, and to commit no sins. After having entered their order they do not cease (from sins), they themselves commit sins, they cause others to commit sins, and they assent to another's committing sins. Thus they are given to pleasures, amusements, and sensual lust; they are greedy, fettered, passionate, covetous, the slaves of love and hate; therefore they cannot free themselves (from the Circle of Births), nor free anybody else from it, nor free any other of the four kinds of living beings from it. They have left their former occupations, but have not entered the noble path. They cannot return (to worldly life), nor get beyond it; they stick (as it were) in pleasures and amusements. Thus I have treated of the first man (as one who believes that) soul and body are one and the same thing.
Now I shall treat of the second man  (as one who believes that) everything consists of the five elements.
Here in the East, ( see section section 13, 14, all down to) teach this religion well.
'There are five elements  through which we explain whether an action is good or bad, ( see section 18, all down to) hell or not. Everything down to a blade of grass (consists of them).
'And one should know the intermixture  of the elements by an enumeration of them. Earth is the first element, water the second, fire the third, wind the fourth, and air the fifth. These five elements are not created, directly or indirectly, nor made; they are not effects nor products; they are without beginning and end; they always produce effects, are independent of a directing cause or everything else; they are eternal. Some, however, say that there is a Self besides the five elements. What is, does not perish; from nothing nothing comes.
All living beings, all things, the whole world consists of nothing but these (five elements). They are the primary cause of the world, even down to a blade of grass.
'A man buys and causes to buy, kills and causes to kill, cooks and causes to cook, he may even sell and kill a man. Know, that even in this case he does not do wrong.'
These (Nastikas) cannot inform you, ( see section section 15-18, all down to) they stick (as it were) in pleasures and amusements.
Thus I have treated of the second man (who believes that) everything consists of the five elements.
Now I shall treat of the third man (who believes that) the Self  is the cause of everything.
Here in the East, ( see section section 12, 13, all down to) teach this religion well.
'Here all things have the Self for their cause and their object, they are produced by the Self, they are manifested by the Self, they are intimately connected with the Self, they are bound up in the Self.
'As, for instance, a tumour is generated in the body, grows with the body, is not separate from the body, but is bound up in the body: so all things have the Self for their cause, ( all as above).
'As, for instance, a feeling of indisposition is generated in the body, grows with the body, is never separate from the body, but is bound up in the body: so all things have the Self for their cause, ( all as above).
'As, for instance, an anthill is made of earth, grows through earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up in earth: so all things, ( all as above).
'As, for instance, a tree springs up on earth, grows on earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up in earth: so all things, ( all as above).
'As, for instance, a lotus springs up in earth, grows on earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up in earth: so all things, ( all as above).
'As, for instance, a mass of water is produced by water, grows through water, is not separate from water, but is bound up in water: so all things, ( all as above).
'As, for instance, a water-bubble is produced in water, grows in water, is not separate from water, but is bound up in water: so all things, ( all as above).
'And the twelve Angas, the Canon of the Ganins , which has been taught, produced, and declared by the Sramanas, the Nirgranthas, viz. the Akaranga (all down to) the Drishtivada, is wrong, not true, not a representation of the truth; but this (our doctrine) is correct, is true, is a representation of the truth.'
The (heretics in question) make this assertion, they uphold this assertion, they (try to) establish this assertion.
Therefore they cannot get out of the misery produced by this (error), even as a bird cannot get out of its cage.
These (heretics) cannot inform you, ( see section section 16-19, all down to) they stick, as it were, in pleasures and amusements.
Thus I have treated of the third man (who believes that) the Self is the cause of everything.
Now I shall treat of the fourth man who believes that Fate is the cause of everything.
Here in the East, ( see section section 12, 13, all down to) teach this religion well.
'There are two (kinds of) men. One man admits action, another man does not admit action. Both men, he who admits action, and he who does not admit action, are alike, their case is the same, because they are actuated by the same force .
'An ignorant man thinks about the cause as follows: “When I suffer, grieve, blame myself, grow feeble , am afflicted, or undergo great pain, I have caused it; or when another man suffers, he has caused it.” Thus an ignorant man thinks himself or another man to be the cause of what he or the other man experiences.
'A wise man thinks about the cause as follows: “When I suffer, I did not cause it; and when another man suffers, he did not cause it .”
'A wise man thinks thus  about the cause of what he himself or another man experiences. I say this: “Movable or immovable beings in all the four quarters thus (i.e. by the will of Fate) cone to have a body, to undergo the vicissitudes of life, to lose their body, to arrive at some state of existence, to experience pleasure and pain .”'
Entertaining such opinions these (heretics) cannot inform you, ( as in section 17, down to the end).
These worthless men entertain such opinions, and believe in them till they cannot return, ( as in section 19 down to) amusements.
I have treated of the fourth man who believes that Fate is the cause of everything.
These four men, differing in intellect, will, character, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, have left their former occupations, but have not entered the noble path. They cannot return (to worldly life) nor get beyond it; they stick (as it were) in pleasures and amusements.
I say: here in the East, West, North, and South there are some men, viz. Aryas, non-Aryas, ( as in section 13, all down to) ugly men. They own small or large houses and fields, they own few or many servants and peasants. Being born in such-like families, they renounce (their possessions) and lead a mendicant's life. Some leave their kinsmen and their property to lead a mendicant's life; others, who have no kinsmen nor property, lead a mendicant's life. Whether they have kinsmen and property or not, they renounce them and lead a mendicant's life.
Previously, however, they thought thus: 'Here, indeed, a man, who is on the point of turning monk, makes the following reflections with regard to different things: I possess fields, houses, silver, gold, riches, corn, copper, clothes, real valuable property, as riches, gold, precious stones, jewels, pearls, conches, stones, corals, rubies . I enjoy sounds, colours, smells, tastes, and feelings of touch. These pleasures and amusements belong to me, and I belong to them.'
A wise man, previously, should thus think to himself: 'Here, indeed, some painful illness or disease might befall me, unwished for, unpleasant, disagreeable, nasty , painful and not at all pleasant. O ye dear pleasures, take upon you this painful illness or disease, unwished for, unpleasant, disagreeable, nasty, painful and not at all pleasant, that I may not suffer, grieve, blame myself, grow feeble, be afflicted, and undergo great pain . Deliver me from this painful illness or disease, ( all as above).' But this desire of his has never yet been fulfilled.
Here, in this life, pleasures and amusements are not able to help or to save one. Sometimes a man first forsakes pleasures and amusements, sometimes they first forsake him. Pleasures and amusements are one thing, and I am another. Why then should we be infatuated with pleasures and amusements which are alien (to our being)? Taking this into consideration, we shall give up pleasures and amusements. A wise man thinks them alien to himself.
There are things more intimately connected with me, viz. my mother, father, brother, sister, wife, children, grandchildren, daughters-in-law, servants, friends, kinsmen, companions, and acquaintances. These my relations belong to me, and I belong to them. A wise man, previously, should think thus to himself: 'Here, indeed, some painful illness or disease might befall me, ( all as in section 37 down to the end, but substitute “relations” for “pleasures”).
'Or some painful illness or disease, unwished for, ( all down to) not at all pleasant might befall my dear relations. I will take upon me this painful illness or disease, that they may not suffer, (all down to) undergo great pain. I will deliver them from this painful illness or disease.' But this desire of his has never yet, been fulfilled. For one man cannot take upon himself the pains of another; one man cannot experience what another has done .
Individually a man is born, individually he dies, individually he falls (from this state of existence), individually he rises (to another) . His passions , consciousness, intellect, perceptions, and impressions belong to the individual exclusively. Here, indeed, the bonds of relationship are not able to help nor save one. (All as in section 38 down to the end; substitute 'bonds of relationship' for 'pleasures and amusements.') (40
There are things more intimately connected with me, viz. my hands, feet, arms, legs, head, belly, character, life, strength, colour, skin, complexion, ear, eye, nose, tongue, and touch; they are part and parcel of me. But I grow old with regard to life, strength, (all down to) touch. The strong joints become loose, the body is furrowed with wrinkles, the black hair turns white, even this dear body which has grown with food, must be relinquished in due time.
Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, and so are even some Sramanas and Brahmanas. They themselves kill movable and immovable living beings, have them killed by another person, or consent to another's killing them.
Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, and so are even some Sramanas and Brahmanas. They themselves acquire sentient or senseless objects of pleasure, have them acquired by another person, or consent to another's acquiring them.
Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, and so are even some Sramanas and Brahmanas. But I am no killer (of beings) nor an acquirer of property. Relying upon  householders and such Sramanas and Brahmanas as are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, we shall lead a life of chastity. (He should, however, part company with them.) (The pupil asks): What is the reason thereof? (The teacher answers): As before (their ordination they were killers of beings), so (they will be) afterwards, and vice versa. It is evident that (householders) do not abstain (from sins) nor exert themselves (in control); and (as monks) they will relapse into the same (bad habits).
The householders and those Sramanas and Brahmanas, who are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, commit sins both (from love and hatred). But a monk who takes this into consideration, should lead a life subject to neither (love nor hatred).
I say: in the East, West, North, and South (a true monk) will have renounced works, be exempt from works, will have put an end to them. This has been taught (by the prophets, ).
The Venerable One has declared that the cause (of sins) are the six classes of living beings, earth-lives As is my pain when I am knocked of-struck with a stick, bone, fist, clod, or potsherd; or menaced, beaten, burned, tormented, or deprived of life; and as I feel every pain and agony from death down to the pulling out of a hair: in the same way, be sure of this, all kinds of living beings feel the same pain and agony, as I, when they are ill-treated in the same way . For this reason all sorts of living beings should not be beaten, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor deprived of life .
I say: the Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, present, and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus: all sorts of living beings should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. This constant, permanent, eternal, true Law has been taught by wise men who comprehend all things. Thus a monk abstains from (the five cardinal sins) slaughter of living beings He does not clean his teeth with a tooth-brush , he does not accept collyrium, emetics, and perfumes.
A monk who does not act, nor kill, who is free from wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, who is calm and happy, should not entertain the following wish: May I, after my departure from this world, by dint of my intellect, knowledge, memory, learning, or of the performance of austerities, religious duties, chastity, or of this habit to eat no more than is necessary to sustain life, become a god at whose command are all objects of pleasure, or a perfected saint who is exempt from pain and misery. (Through his austerities) he may obtain his object, or he may not obtain it.
A monk should not be infatuated with sounds, colours, smells, tastes, and feelings of touch; he should abstain from wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, from love, hate, quarrel, calumny, reviling of others, aversion to control and delight in sensual things, deceit and untruth, and the sin of wrong belief. In this way a monk ceases to acquire gross Karman, controls himself, and abstains from sins.
He does not kill movable or immovable beings, nor has them killed by another person, nor does he consent to another's killing them. In this way a monk ceases to acquire gross Karman, controls himself, and abstains from sins.
He does not acquire sentient or senseless objects of pleasure, nor has them acquired by another person, nor does he consent to another's acquiring them. In this way, ( all as above).
He does no actions arising from sinful causes , nor has them done by another person, nor does he consent to another's doing them. In this way ( all as above).
A monk should not take food, drink, dainties, and spices when he knows that (the householder) to satisfy him, or for the sake of a co-religionist, has bought or stolen or taken it, though it was not given nor to be taken, but was taken by force, by acting sinfully towards all sorts of living beings ; nor does he cause another person to eat it, nor does he consent to another's eating it. In this way ( all as above).
A monk may think as follows: The (householders) have the means (to procure food for those) for whose sake it is prepared; viz. for himself , his sons, daughters, daughters-in-law, nurses, relations, chiefs, male and female slaves, male and female servants; for a treat of sweetmeats, for a supper, for a breakfast the collation has been prepared. This food is to be eaten by some people, it is prepared by some one else, it is destined for some one else, it is free from the faults occasioned either by the giver or by the receiver or by the act of receiving it , rendered pure , rendered free from living matter , wholly free from living things , it has been begged, has been given to the monk on account of his profession , it has been collected in small bits , it is food fit for a learned monk, it is lawful to eat it at the present occasion, it is of the prescribed quantity, it greases, as it were, the axle of the carriage and anoints the sore, being just sufficient to enable one to practise control and to carry the burden of it; he should consume that food (without delay) even as the snake returning to its hole; that is to say: one should eat when it is time for eating, drink when it is time for drinking, dress when it is time for dressing, seek cover when it is time for seeking cover, and sleep when it is time for sleeping.
A monk who knows the proper measure (in all things) travelling in one direction or other, should teach, explain, and praise (the Law), preach it unto those who exert themselves well, and to those who do not, to all who come to listen. (He should preach to them): indifference for the peace of mind, cessation of passion, Nirvana, purity, simplicity, humility, freedom from bonds . He should preach the Law which prohibits to kill any living being, after having well considered it.
When a monk preaches the Law, he should preach it not for the sake of food, drink, clothes, resting-place, or lodging, nor for any objects of pleasure; but he should preach the Law indefatigably, for no other motive than the annihilation of Karman.
Those heroes of faith who are instructed in the Law by such a monk and exert themselves well, are possessed of all (virtues), abstain from all (sins), cease from all (passions), conduct themselves well in every way, and reach final beatitude.
Such a monk searches the Law, knows the Law, and endeavours to gain Liberation; as it has been said: 'He may get the white lotus, the best of Nymphaeus, or he may not get it.' Such a monk knows and renounces actions, worldly occupations, and the life of a householder; he is free from passions, possesses the Samitis, is wise, always exerts himself; he is to be called: a Sramana, a Brahmana, calm, a subduer of his senses, guarding himself, liberated, a seer, a sage, virtuous, wise, a monk, living on low food, desiring to get to the shore (of the Samsara), fulfilling the general and particular virtues .
Thus I say.
- 335:1 With the exception of the fifth and sixth lectures, the whole Book (srutaskandha) is in prose. I have adhered to the subdivision of the lectures exhibited in the Bombay edition, which, on the whole, agrees with that of most MSS.
- 335:2 The lectures of this Book are called, according to the Niryukti, Great (maha) Lectures.
- 336:1 In the text the words savvavanti ka nam are prefixed to the text of section section 3 and 4. I give the explanation of Silanka.
- 338:1 Nae = gnatam, literally, that which is known.
- 338:2 In the text the sentence closes with bhante, a word frequently used in addressing members of the order.
- 338:3 These words are in the original repeated in each of the following sentences. I drop them in the translation.
- 338:4 Appahattu = atmany ahritya, literally, having in my mind.
- 338:5 Dharmatirtha.
- 339:1 This is one of the varnaka or typical descriptions which are so frequent in the canonical books. The full text is given in the Aupapatika Sutra, ed. Leumann, section II, p. 26 f. Of the many meanings the word varnaka may have, 'masterpiece' seems the one in which it must be taken here. Many varnakas are, partly at least, composed in a curious metre which I have named Hypermetron, see Indische Studien, vol. xvii, pp. 389 ff.
- 339:2 Concerning the Ugras and Bhogas compare note on <page 71>.
- 339:3 Apparently the king is meant.
- 340:1 Giva.
- 341:1 Emblica Myrobalanos.
- 341:2 I have somewhat condensed this passage.
- 341:3 Ayauttasi in Prakrit; it is Linum Usitatissimum.
- 341:4 Khoya. See Grierson, Peasant Life of Bihar, p. 236. The word is apparently derived from root kshud.
- 341:5 Padivedenti = prativedayanti. The commentators, however, explain it as 'understand.'
- 342:1 According to the commentators the Lokayatikas or the Sankhyas are intended. The latter explain the whole world as developed from the Prakriti or chaos, and contend that the atman does not act. The Lokayatikas deny the separate existence of the atman, and maintain that the elements are called atman when they manifest intellect (kaitanya).
- 342:2 Mahabbhuya = mahabhuta.
- 343:1 Samavaya.
- 343:2 The word used in the text is isara = isvara, but afterwards purisa = purusha is used in its place. Both words are synonymous [p. 344] with atman, the first may denote the highest atman as in the Yoga philosophy, or the paramatman as in the Vedanta.
- 345:1 Ganipidaga.
- 345:2 Viz. Fate. For it is their destiny to entertain one belief or the other, and they are not amenable to it. This is the interpretation of the commentators. But to the phrase karanam apanna they give here a meaning different from that in the following paragraphs. I therefore propose the following translation of the end of the [p. 346] paragraph: 'are equally (wrong), (err) alike as regards the cause (of actions).'
- 346:1 Tippami, explained 'lose strength of body.' The word cannot be tripyami, because it means 'I am satisfied.' The word is probably derived from the root tik 'to kill.' Tippami would be an irregular passive, just as sippami from sik, see Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung, vol. xxvii, p. 250. Leumann, Aupapatika Sutra, glossary sv. tippanaya, explains this word by 'crying' on the authority of Abhayadeva. Either meaning suits the passages where it occurs in our text.
- 346:2 But Fate is the cause.
- 346:3 That is to say, that Fate distributes pleasure and pain.
- 346:4 I render the rather ambiguous expressions in the original according to the interpretation of the commentators.
- 347:1 The same enumeration of valuable things occurs elsewhere, e.g. Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, section 90.
- 348:1 The original has six synonyms for disagreeable, which it is impossible to render adequately in English.
- 348:2 The same words occurred in section 31.
- 349:1 I.e. his Karman.
- 349:2 According to the commentators the last two passages should be translated: 'individually he leaves (his possessions, ), individually he is joined (to them).'
- 349:3 Ghangha = kalaha.
- 350:1 Nissae = nisraya, explained asrayena.
- 351:1 The text repeats the phrases just translated.
- 351:2 The same words form the text of the homily in Akaranga I, 4.
- 352:1 Or rather a piece of wood with which the Hindus rub their teeth.
- 353:1 Samparayika. The commentators say: tak ka pradveshanihnavamatsaryantarayasatanopaghatair badhyate.
- 353:2 Compare Akaranga Sutra II, I, I, II.
- 353:3 Apparently the householder is intended.
- 353:4 Udgama, utpadana, eshana. See above, <page 131>, note .
- 353:5 Sastratitam.
- 353:6 Sastraparinamitam.
- 353:7 Avihimsitam.
- 353:8 Vaishikam.
- 354:1 Samudanikam, i.e. as bees collect honey from many flowers. Cf. <page 80>, note .
- 354:2 Compare Akaranga Sutra I, 7, 4, I, part i, p. 68, note 3.
- 355:1 Karanakaranaparavid. Karana is explained by mulaguna, karana by uttaraguna. The mulagunas consist in the observance of the five vows, the uttaragunas are the five Samitis, the three Guptis, in short, the duties of a monk.
2 - on activity
O long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse from the Venerable (Mahavira). We now come to the Lecture called 'on Activity.' The contents of it are as follows:
(The former is when the Self is) at rest, (the latter, when it is) in disturbance .
Now the explanation  of the first subject, viz. demerit, is as follows. Here in the East, West, North, and South, ( all as in II, I, 12, down to) ugly men.
And as regards committing of sin , among denizens of hell, brute animals, gods, men, and whatever other suchlike beings there be, the sentient beings feel  the pain.
And these beings practise the following thirteen kinds of activity–
1. sinning for one's interest;
2. sinning without a personal interest;
3. sinning by slaying;
4. sinning through accident;
5. sinning by an error of sight;
6. sinning by lying;
7. sinning by taking what is not freely given;
8. sinning by a mere conceit;
9. sinning through pride;
10. sinning through bad treatment of one's friends;
11. sinning through deceit;
12. sinning through greed;
13. actions referring to a religious life.
1. The first kind of committing sins is that prompted by a motive. This is the case when a man for his own sake, for the sake of his relations, his house, his family, his friends, for the sake of Nagas, Bhutas, or Yakshas does injury to movable or immovable beings, or has it done by another person, or consents to another's doing it. Thereby the, bad Karman accrues to him. This is the first kind of committing sins, that prompted by a motive.
2. We now treat of the second kind of committing sins, viz. that which is not prompted by personal interest. This is the case when a man slays, kills, cuts, pierces, hacks, mangles, or puts to death movable living beings, not because he wants their body, skin, flesh, blood, heart, bile, feathers of their tail, tail, big or small horns, teeth, tusks, nails, sinews, bones, or marrow; nor because he has been wounded by them, or is wounded, or will be wounded; nor in order to support his children, or to feed his cattle, or to enlarge his houses, nor for the maintenance of Sramanas and Brahmanas, nor for the benefit of his body; setting aside reason a fool acquires the habit of cruelty, being a wanton killer.
This is the case when a man slays immovable living beings as Ikkata-reed, Kathina, Gantuka-grass, Para-grass , Moksha-trees , grass, Kusa-grass, Kukkhaka , Pappaka , or straw, not in order to support his children, ( all down to) wanton killer.
Or when a man on a marsh, a lake, a sheet of water, a pasture-ground, a place surrounded by a ditch, a moat, a thicket, stronghold  in a thicket, forest, stronghold in a forest, [mountain, stronghold on a mountain ], piles up grass and lights a fire, or has it lighted by another person, or consents to another's lighting it. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the second kind of committing sins, that prompted by no personal interest.
3. We now treat of the third kind of committing sins, called slaying. This is the case when a man thinking that some one has hurt, hurts, or will hurt him, or one of his people, or somebody else, or one of that person's people, kills movable and immovable beings, has them killed by another person, or consents to another's killing them. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the third kind of committing sins, called slaying.
4. We now treat of the fourth kind of committing sins, called accidental . This is the case when in marshes ( all as above, down to) strongholds in a forest, a man who lives on deer, who likes deer, who dotes on deer, goes a hunting deer. Fancying to see deer, he takes aim with his arrow to kill the deer. Thinking that he will kill the deer, he kills a partridge, or a duck, or a quail, or a pigeon, or a monkey, or a francoline partridge. Here instead of one (being) he hurts another, (therefore he is called) an accidental killer.
This is the case when a man weeding rice, Kodrava , panic seed, Paraka, or Ralaka, uses his knife to cut some weeds. Fancying that he is cutting some weed-grasses , he cuts rice ( down to) Ralaka. Here instead of one (plant) he hurts another; (therefore he is called) an accidental killer. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the fourth kind of committing sins, called accidental.
5. We now treat of the fifth kind of committing sins, viz. by an error of sight. This is the case when a man living together with his mother, father, brothers, sisters, wives, sons, daughters, or daughters-in-law, and mistaking a friend for an enemy, kills the friend by mistake.
This is the case when during a riot in a village , or a scot-free town, or a town with an earth wall, or a poor town, or an isolated town, or a large town, or a sea-town, or a mine, or a hermitage, or a halting-place of processions or caravans, or a capital, a man mistaking for a robber one who is not, kills him by mistake. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the fifth kind of committing sins, viz. by an error of sight.
6. We now treat of the sixth kind of committing sins, viz. by lying. This is the case when a man for his own sake, or for the sake of his relations, his house, or his servants tells lies, causes another person to tell lies, or consents to another's telling lies. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the sixth kind of committing sins, viz. by lying.
7. Now we treat of the seventh kind of committing sins, viz. by taking what is not freely given. This is the case when a man for his own sake ( as above) takes himself what is not freely given, has it taken by another person, or consents to another's taking it. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the seventh kind of committing sins, viz. by taking what is not freely given.
8. Now we treat of the eighth kind of committing sins, viz. by a mere conceit. This is the case when a man, without being disappointed by anybody in any way, meditates, melancholy, sorry, angry, downcast, anxious in thoughts and ideas, plunged in a sea of sorrow and misery, reposing his head on the palm of his hand, overcome by painful reflections, and casting his eyes on the ground . There are four mental, but real, conditions (of this kind), viz. wrath, pride, deceit, and greed; for wrath, pride, deceit, and greed are mental conditions. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the eighth kind of committing sins, viz. by a mere conceit.
9. Now we treat of the ninth kind of committing sins, viz. through pride. This is the case when a man drunk (as it were) with pride of caste, family, beauty, piety, knowledge, success, power, intelligence , or any other kind of pride, slights, blames, abuses, reviles, despises somebody else and extols himself, (thinking:) 'he is my inferior, I am of better caste or family, and possess greater power and other advantages.' When he leaves this body and is only accompanied by his Karman, he, without a will of his own, goes forth from womb to womb, from birth to birth, from death to death, from hell to hell. He is cruel, stubborn, fickle, and proud. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the ninth kind of committing sins, viz. through pride.
10. We now treat of the tenth kind of committing sins, consisting in bad treatment of one's friends. This is the case when a man living together with his mother, father, brothers, sisters, wives, sons, daughters, or daughters-in-law, severely punishes even the smallest offence of theirs; e.g. he ducks the offender  in cold water, or pours hot water over him, or scalds him with fire, or lashes his sides sore with a halter, reed, rope , strap of leather, whip, or thong of a whip, or he beats the offender with a stick, bone, fist, clod, or potsherd. When such a man is at home, (his people) are miserable; but when he is abroad, they rejoice. Such a man, who is for ever punishing, severely punishing, is hateful in this world and the next, irritable, passionate, an extortioner . Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the tenth kind of committing sins, consisting in bad treatment of one's friends.
11. We now treat of the eleventh kind of committing sins, viz. through deceit. Those who conceal their thoughts, who are shrouded in darkness, who are light as the feather of an owl or heavy like a mountain, use unworthy  speech though they be Aryas. They believe themselves different from what they really are; asked one thing, they answer another, they speak different from what is to be spoken.
As a man in whose body sticks an arrow , does not extricate it (fearing the pain), nor has it extricated by somebody else, nor destroys it, but hides it; and the arrow, being not removed, goes deeper and deeper (in the flesh); so a deceitful man, having practised deception, does not confess it, expiate it, blame the deed to himself or others, does not remove it, annihilate it, and endeavour not to do it again, does not practise the prescribed austerities and penance. A deceitful man is generally not trusted  in this world, a deceitful man is not trusted in the next world. He blames and reviles (the person whom he has deceived), he praises himself, and rejoices, and does not desist (from his vile practices); he conceals the wrong he has done to others, and does not acquire a pure Lesya. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the eleventh kind of committing sins, viz. through deceit.
12. We now treat of the twelfth kind of committing sins, viz. through greed. Those (heretical monks) who live in woods, in huts, about villages, or practise some secret rites, are not well controlled, nor do they well abstain (from slaying) all sorts of living beings. They employ speech that is true and untrue at the same time : 'do not beat me, beat others; do not abuse me, abuse others; do not capture me, capture others; do not torment me, torment others; do not deprive me of life, deprive others of life .' And thus they are given to sensual pleasures, desire them, are held captive by them, passionately love them for four or five years, for six or ten years–(the period) may be shorter or longer. After having enjoyed these pleasures, and having died at their allotted time, they will be born in some places inhabited by Asuras and evildoers. And when they are released therefrom, they will be born deaf and dumb, or blind , or dumb by birth. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the twelfth kind of committing sins, viz. through greed.
These twelve kinds of committing sins should be well understood by a pious Sramana or Brahmana .
13. We now treat of the thirteenth kind of acquiring Karman, that having reference to religious life . A monk  who controls himself for the benefit of his soul, who in walking carefully avoids to cause the death of any living creature , who uses gentle and righteous speech , who receives alms in a manner to avoid the forty-two faults , who is careful in receiving and keeping of things necessary for religious exercises , who performs the operations of nature (excrements, urine, saliva, corporal impurities and mucus) in an unfrequented place , who is careful with regard to mind, speech, and body , who guards his mind, speech, and body so as to protect his soul from passions , who guards his senses, who leads a chaste life regulated by the three Guptis, who carefully walks, stands, sits down, lies down, and speaks, who carefully takes up and lays down his cloth, alms-bowl, blanket, broom,–(even) such a monk performs various subtile actions called iryapathika (if it did but consist in moving an eyelash). This Karman is acquired and comes in contact (with the soul) in the first moment, in the second moment it is experienced, in the third it is destroyed; thus it is acquired, comes in contact (with the soul), takes rise, and is destroyed. For all time to come (the person in question) is exempt from Karman . Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him . This is the thirteenth kind of acquiring Karman, that inseparable from a religious life.
All the Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, present, and future have told, tell, and will tell, have declared, declare, and will declare the above thirteen kinds of acquiring Karman. They have practised, practise, and will practise the thirteenth kind of acquiring Karman.
As a supplement  to the above (discussion) will now be told the subject of men's success by occult sciences. Some men differing in intellect, will, character, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, study various evil sciences; viz. (the divination) from terrestrial accidents, from strange phenomena , from dreams, from phenomena in the air, from changes in the body, from sounds, from mystical signs , from seeds ; (the interpretation of the) marks of women, men, elephants, cows, partridges, cocks, ducks, quails, of wheels, parasols, shields, sticks, swords, precious stones, jewels ; the art to make one happy or miserable, to make a woman pregnant, to deprive one of his wits; incantations , conjuring ; oblations of substances; the martial arts; the course of the moon, sun, Venus, and Jupiter; the falling of meteors; great conflagration; divination from wild animals , the flight of crows, showers of dust, rain of blood, the Vaitali and Ardhavaitali arts , the art of casting people asleep, of opening doors, the art of Kandalas, of Sabaras, of Dravidas, of Kalingas, of Gaudas, of Gandharas; the spells for making somebody fall down, rise, yawn; for making him immovable, or cling to something; for making him sick, or sound; for making somebody go forth, disappear, (or come) . These and similar sciences are practised (by some men) for the sake of food, drink, clothes, a lodging, a bed, and various objects of pleasure. They practise a wrong science, the unworthy, the mistaken  men. After having died at their allotted time, they will be born in some places inhabited by Asuras and evildoers. And when they are released therefrom, they will again be born deaf and dumb, or night-blind.
Some man for his own sake or for the sake of his relations, family, or servants, or entering the service of an acquaintance or neighbour of his, becomes his companion or his helpmate, or he goes to meet him, or he becomes a burglar, or a cut-purse, or he tends sheep, or he becomes a hunter , or he catches birds, or he uses nets (for catching deer), or he becomes a fisherman or a cowherd or a slayer of cows or a dog-keeper or he hunts with dogs.
A man, becoming the companion of another man, will follow him everywhere, (and having inspired him with confidence) beats, cuts, pierces; tears, thrashes, or puts him to death, and thereby gets his food. By these very evil deeds he degrades himself .
A man, becoming the helpmate of another man, always attends on him, (and having inspired him with confidence) beats (all down to) degrades himself.
A man, going to meet somebody, on the road, beats (all down to) degrades himself. (3 I)
A man, becoming a burglar, breaks into a house and beats (all down to) degrades himself.
A man, becoming a cut-purse, cuts the purse and beats (all down to) degrades himself.
A man, becoming a tender of sheep, beats, cuts, pierces, tears, thrashes, or puts to death a ram or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, becoming a hunter, beats (all down to) puts to death a buffalo or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, using nets (for catching deer), beats, an antelope or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, catching birds, beats, a bird or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, becoming a fisherman, beats, a fish or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, becoming a cowherd, beats, a cow or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, slaying cows, beats, a cow or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, becoming a dog-keeper, beats, a dog or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, becoming the helpmate of a dog-keeper, beats, a dog or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, rising in an assembly, may promise to kill some (animal) and he will beat, a partridge, duck, quail, pigeon, monkey, a francoline partridge, or some other animal. (The rest as above.)
A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because his granary or his liquor-cask runs short , sets fire to the cornfields of the householders or their sons, has the fire set by another person, or consents to another's setting fire to them. (The rest as above.)
A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because his granary or liquor-cask runs short, makes a deep cut in the strong limbs of the camels, cows, horses, or donkeys of the householders or their sons, has it made by another person, or consents to another's making the cut. (The rest as above.)
A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because his granary or his liquor-cask runs short, covers with brambles or twigs the householders', or their sons', stable for the camels, cows, horses, or donkeys, and burns them, or has them burnt by another person, or consents to another's burning them. (The rest as above.)
A man, being angry for some reason (as above), steals a householder's or his sons' earrings (or girdle) , or jewels, or pearls, has them stolen by another person, or consents to another's stealing them. (The rest as above.)
A man, being angry (as before), robs Sramanas or Brahmanas of their umbrella, stick, staff, small property, pot, chair, clothes, blanket, leather boots, knife, or scabbard, has it done by another person, or consents to another's robbing them. (The rest as above.)
A man, without consideration (and without any provocation), sets fire to the cornfields of the householders (All as in section 44.)
A man, without consideration, makes a deep cut in the strong limbs of the camels (All as in section 45)
A man, without consideration, covers with brambles and twigs the stables for the camels, and burns them (All as in section 46.)
A man, without consideration, steals the earrings (All as in section 47.)
A man, without consideration, robs Sramanas or Brahmanas of their umbrella (All as in section 48.)
A man, on seeing Sramanas or Brahmanas (whom he detests), degrades himself by various evil deeds. Either he gives them a slap with the open hand to turn them away , or he abuses them. And when the monk at the proper time calls (at his house on the begging-tour), he does not give him alms (but says): those who become Sramanas are the meanest workmen, men unable to support (their family), low-caste men, wretches, idlers!
Such men praise this life, this miserable life; they do nothing on behalf of the next world; they suffer, grieve, blame themselves, grow feeble, are afflicted, and undergo great pain; they do not cease to cause others to suffer, grieve, to slay and to put men in fetters; and while they make suffer or kill, or make suffer and kill (beings), and do various evil deeds, they enjoy the excellent pleasures of human life; viz. such a man eats at dinner-time, he drinks at drinking-time, he dresses himself at dressing-time, he goes to bed at the proper time, and sleeps at sleeping-time. Doing everything in its turn, he bathes, makes the offering (to the house-gods) , performs auspicious rites and expiatory acts, washes his head, hangs a wreath round his neck, adorns himself with precious stones and golden (trinkets), puts on (his head) a chaplet of flowers; with his body strengthened, with a wreath hanging down to the girdle of his loins, dressed in new clothes, his limbs and body anointed with sandal, (sitting) on a large throne in a lofty upper room (of his house), surrounded by women and a troop of followers, in the light (of torches) burning the whole night, under the great din of uninterrupted storytelling, dramatical plays, singing, and music, as beating of time, performing on the Vina, Turya, the great drum, and Patupataha , he enjoys the excellent pleasures of human life.
When he gives an order to one man, even four or five men will, without being asked, go up to him (and say): 'Speak, beloved of the gods, what shall we do? what shall we fetch? what shall we give you? what (trinket) shall we put on you? what is your heart's desire? what relishes your mouth?'
Unworthy men who see him will say: 'Forsooth, this man is a god; this man is the anointed of the gods, this man will support (us), as he supports others.' But noble men who see him will say: 'This man does cruel actions, and maintains himself by them. His is the southern region, the hell, the dark fortnight . In the future he will not easily obtain enlightenment.'
(The conduct described in the preceding) part  is agreeable to some (heretical) monks, to some householders, to men governed by love of life. This conduct is unworthy, impure, void (of virtues), not holy, not right, not eradicating sins; it is not the road to perfection, liberation, Nirvana, final delivery, not the road of those who are freed from all misery; it is thoroughly untrue, and bad.
This is the explanation of the first subject, viz. demerit.
Now the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit, is as follows:
Here in the East, West, North, and South there are some men, viz. Aryas, non-Aryas, (all down to) ugly men. They own fields and houses, ( all as in II, 1, section section 34-59, down to) reach final beatitude.
(The conduct described in this) part is holy, right, (all just the reverse of what was said in section 58, down to) thoroughly true, and good. This is the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit.
Now the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state, is as follows:
Those who live in woods, in huts, near villages, ( all as above, section 21, down to) or blind. (The conduct described in this) part is not holy, ( all as in section 57, down to) thoroughly untrue, and bad.
This is the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state.
Now the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit, is as follows:
Here in the East, West, North, and South there are some such men as abstain from undertakings and possessions, righteous men, men practising righteousness, ( all as in section 58, but substitute 'righteous' for 'unrighteous,' down to) men gaining a righteous livelihood. They are of good character and morals, they are easy to please and good. They abstain from killing living beings as long as they live, ( all just the reverse of what was said in section 62, down to) whatever other suchlike wicked actions there be, that cause pains to other beings: these men abstain from them as long as they live.
There are such monks as in walking carefully avoid to occasion the death of any living creature, ( all as in section 23, down to) as lead chaste lives regulated by the three Guptis, as are free from anger, pride, deceit, and greed, as are calm, tranquil, passionless, happy, free from the Asravas, and bondage, without sorrow; as water does not adhere to a copper vessel, or collyrium to mother-of-pearl
There are no obstacles anywhere for these reverend men. The obstacles have been declared to be of four kinds, viz. animals born from eggs, viviparous animals, things belonging to somebody, articles necessary for religious exercises . In whichever direction they want to go, there they meet with no obstacle; but being pure and free, full of learning, control, and austerities, they purify themselves. (7I)
These reverend men practise the following mode of living which just suffices for carrying on existence; they eat but one meal in two, three, four, five, six, seven days, in half a month, in one, two, three, four, five, six months; they (have vowed to) live on such food only as has been taken out of the cooking-vessel, or as is still in it, or the first kind of food in one place and the second in another, or on low food, or bad food, or food collected in small bits, or food given with a dirty hand, or the reverse, or food given with a hand soiled by it; they (have vowed to) accept such alms only as are within sight (when they beg), or are out of sight, as they are asked whether they would accept, or as they are not asked about, as are given with contempt, or the reverse; they beg (in houses where they are) unknown, or when food is scarce ; they accept only such things as are at hand, or only a limited number of gifts, or only a fixed quantity of food; they beg according to the rules (laid down for begging); they eat low food or bad food or tasteless food or badly tasting food or rough food or disagreeable food; they lead a low or mean life; they drink sour gruel, they eat nothing seasoned with ghee or similar materials; they do not drink liquors or eat meat, they do not eat highly-flavoured food; they eat standing, or supported by something, or sitting on a stool or an armchair; they lie down stretched out like a stick, or curved like a bent piece of wood ; they sit in the sun, they go naked ; they do not scratch themselves; they do not spit; they do not cut their beard, hair, and nails, they do not take any care of their person.
Living in this way they practise many years Sramanahood, and if then they fall sick, or even if they do not, they refuse food and omit many meals by abstaining from food. When they have attained that for whose sake they went about naked and bald-headed, did not bathe, nor clean their teeth, nor protect their head from the sun, nor wear shoes; they slept on the bare ground or a plank or a piece of wood, plucked out their hair, led a life of chastity, entered the houses of strangers, and bore, with indifference, success, failure, honour, disgrace, slights, blame, reviling, threatening, beating, all sorts of hardships , and the twenty-two calamities and troubles; (when they have attained their end), they reach, while they are breathing their last, the highest knowledge and faith, called Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, unobstructed, unimpeded, complete and full; and then they obtain absolute perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, final beatitude, and put an end to all misery.
Some become liberated  without assuming another body (after quitting the last). But others, having died at the allotted time, are, on account of a residue of (good) Karman, born in one of the regions of the gods. Among very beautiful, very splendid, very excellent, very glorious, very strong, very powerful, very happy (gods), they become very beautiful, very splendid, gods ; their breasts shining with necklaces; their arms encumbered with bracelets and armrings; wearing ear-ornaments  which play on their cheeks, and earrings which hang down to the bracelets on their upper arms; wearing various ornaments on their hands; their crowns adorned with gay wreaths; putting on highly perfumed, excellent clothes; using beautiful, excellent garlands and ointments; their splendid body ornamented with a long down-reaching garland; having divine colours, touches, constitution (of the body), and rank; lighting up and illumining all ten quarters (of the universe) with their divine beauty, splendour, lustre, brightness, brilliancy, and light; beautiful when they go, beautiful when they rest, and happy also in the time to come.
(The conduct described in the preceding) part is worthy, pure, ( see section 57, all down to) it is thoroughly true, and good.
This is the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit.
Now the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state, is as follows:
Here in the East, West, North, and South there are some such men as have few desires, few undertakings, few possessions, righteous men, men practising righteousness, ( all as in section 69, down to) men gaining a righteous livelihood. They are of good character and morals, easy to please, and good. They abstain, as long as they live, from one kind of killing living beings, but they do not abstain from another, ( similar as in section 62, all down to) whatever suchlike wicked actions there be, that cause pains to other beings, from some of them these men abstain as long as they live, from others they do not abstain.
There  are, for instance, followers of the Sramanas, who comprehend (the doctrine about) living beings and things without life, who understand (the difference between) virtues and sins, who are well grounded in (the knowledge of) the Asravas, Samvara, the realisation and annihilation (of Karman), the subject of actions , bondage, and final liberation; who, without anybody to back them , cannot be seduced from the creed of the Nirgranthas by hosts of gods, Asuras, Nagas, Suvarnas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Garudas, and snake-gods; who have no doubts, scruples, or misgivings about this creed of the Nirgranthas, but have grasped its meaning, got hold of its meaning, got information about its meaning, ascertained its meaning, and understood its meaning; whose very marrow  of the bones has been penetrated by their love (for the Nirgrantha creed), avowing that it alone is true, and all others futile. They keep the bar  (of their gates) raised and their door open, having no desire to enter a stranger's house or his seraglio. They strictly keep the Posaha-fast on the fourteenth and eighth days of the month, on certain festivals , and on full-moon days. They provide the Nirgrantha Sramanas with pure acceptable food, drink, dainties and spices, with clothes, alms-bowls, blankets and brooms, with drugs and medicines, with stools, planks, beds, and couches. They purify themselves by practising the Silavratas and Gunavratas , the Viramana, the Pratyakhyana, the Posaha-fasts, and austerities which they have vowed to perform .
Living in this way they are for many years followers of the Sramanas, and if then they fall sick, or even if they do not, they refuse food and omit many meals by abstaining from food. Having confessed their sins and expiated them, and having attained perfection , they die at their allotted time, to be born again as gods in one of the regions of the gods, ( all as in section 74, down to) it is thoroughly true, and good.
This is the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state.
He who does not practise cessation  (from sin), is called a foolish man; he who practises cessation (from sin), is called a wise man; he who in one regard practises cessation (from sin) and in another does not, is said to be in a state partaking of that of a wise man and that of a foolish man.
The conduct of him who does not practise cessation from all (sins), is that of a man who kills living creatures; it is unworthy, ( all down to) thoroughly untrue, and bad.
The conduct of him who practises cessation from all (sins), is that of a man who does not kill living creatures; it is worthy, pure, ( all down to) thoroughly true, and good.
The conduct of a man who in one regard practises cessation from all (sins) and in another does not, is that of a man who kills some living creatures and does not kill others; it is worthy, pure, ( all down to) thoroughly true, and good.
Those whom we have been treating of, fall under the two heads: merit and demerit; (the former is when the Self is) at rest, (the latter, when it is) in disturbance.
Now the explanation of the first subject is as follows:
There are enumerated three hundred and sixty-three philosophical schools : those of the Kriyavada, those of the Akriyavada, those of the Agnanikavada, and those of the Vainayikavada. These (philosophers) teach final beatitude, they teach final deliverance, they speak as Sravakas, they speak as teachers of Sravakas .
All these philosophers, founders of systems of their own, differing in intellect, will, character, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, formed one large circle, and every one of them stood in his place.
One man took hold of a vessel quite full of burning coals by an iron pair of tongs, and addressed those philosophers, founders of systems of their own, differing in intellect, ( all down to) undertakings and plans, in the following way: 'Heighho! ye philosophers, ( all down to) undertakings and plans! take this vessel full of burning coals and hold it for a minute in your hands! But do not take hold of it by a pair of tongs, nor put out the fire, nor come to the help of one of your own creed or of an alien creed (by putting out the fire, ); but fair and honest , without using any trick, stretch out your hands.' Having thus spoken, the man took hold of the vessel quite full of burning coals by an iron pair of tongs, and (offered to) put it in the hands of those philosophers. But the philosophers, ( all down to) undertakings and plans, held back their hands. On this the man addressed all the philosophers, ( all down to) undertakings and plans, in the following way: 'Heighho, ye philosophers, ( all down to) undertakings and plans! why do you hold back your hands?' 'Our hand will be burned.' 'What then, if it is burned?' '(We shall suffer) pain.' 'Because you are afraid of pain, you hold back your hands!' (So are all creatures averse to pain). This is a maxim of general application , it is a true principle, a religious reflection ; this maxim, this principle, this religious reflection holds good with regard to every (living being). Therefore those Sramanas and Brahmanas who say that all sorts of living beings may be beaten or treated with violence or abused or tormented or deprived of life, will in the time to come  suffer cutting or piercing, will experience birth, old age, death, conception in the womb, the Circle of Births, regeneration, existence as a foetus, the whole scale of mundane existences, and suffer a variety of pains ,
They will many times undergo punishment, pulling out of the hair, threatening, putting in irons, ( similar as in section 63, all down to) whirling round; (they will witness) the death of their mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, and daughters-in-law; (they will experience) poverty, bad luck, company of hated people, separation from those whom they love, misery, and despair; they will again and again wander about in the beginningless and endless, immense wilderness of the fourfold Samsara. They will not reach perfection, ( all down to) not put an end to all misery.–This is a maxim of general application, ( all down to) holds good with regard to every (living being).
But those Sramanas and Brahmanas who say that all sorts of living beings should not be beaten, will in the time to come not suffer cutting They will not undergo many punishments, ( all just the reverse of what has been said in section section 80, 81, down to) put an end to all misery.
Thus those beings who practise the first twelve kinds of actions , have not attained perfection, ( all down to) have not, nor do, nor will put an end to all misery.
But those beings who practise the thirteenth kind of action, have attained perfection, ( all down to) have put, or put, or will put an end to all misery.
Thus a monk who obtains his soul's good and benefit, who guards himself, who (well directs the functions) of his soul, who well exerts himself, who protects himself (from evil), who is careful of himself, who saves himself (from the Samsara), should withhold his soul (from the twelve kinds of committing sins).
Thus I say.
- 355:2 Kiriyathane = kriyasthanam, literally, the subject of activity.
- 356:1 Upasanta and anupasanta.
- 356:2 Vibhanga, more literally, case.
- 356:3 Dandasamadana, explained papopadana.
- 356:4 A difference is made between feeling (anubhavanti) and knowing (vidanti): the sangnins or rational beings feel and know impressions; the Siddhas only know them; the reasonless beings only feel them; things without life neither know nor feel them. Sentient beings are those in Nos. 1 and 3.
- 357:1 Compare Akaranga Sutra II, 2, 3, 18, note 1. One MS. reads eraga for paraga. Eraka is the name of a reed.
- 357:2 Moksha is the name of a tree = mushkaka. The Akaranga and one of our MSS. have moraga, peacocks' feathers. But that is out of place here.
- 357:3 Kukkha is a white water-lily. The Akaranga Sutra has kukkaka = kurkaka, brush.
- 357:4 Pakkaka in the Akaranga Sutra.
- 358:1 Or a group of trees.
- 358:2 A nearly identical enumeration of places occurs in Akaranga Sutra II, 3, 3, 2. The words in brackets seem to be added later; for Silanka does not comment upon them, and expressly mentions ten places. They are generally omitted in the sequel when the same passage occurs again.
- 358:3 Akasmaddande. The commentators remark that the word akasmat is in Magadha pronounced by the people as in Sanskrit. The fact is that we meet here and in the end of the next paragraph with the spelling akasmat, while in the middle of the paragraphs it is spelled akamha, which is the true Prakrit form.
- 359:1 Paspalum Sobriculatum.
- 359:2 They are specialised in the text as Syamakam trinam, mukundaka vrihiusita, and kalesuka. Only the two first are mentioned in our dictionaries.
- 359:3 In the Dipika the following versus memorialis is quoted, in which the names of places mentioned in the text are defined: gramo vritya vritah syan nagaram urukaturgopurodbhasisobham khetam nadyadriveshtam parivritam abhitah kharvatam parvatena | gramair yuktam matambam dalitadasasataih (?) pattanam ratnayonir dronakhyam sindhuvelavalayitam atha sambadhanam va'drisringe || It will be seen that the meaning of these terms given in this verse differs from that given in notes -, <page 176>.
- 360:1 The same passage occurs Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, section 92, part i, p. 249.
- 361:1 These are the eight kinds of pride, madasthanani.
- 361:2 The original has kayam, the body.
- 361:3 Nettena = netrena. The commentator says that it is a particular tree; but I think the usual meaning of netra, viz. rope, suits better.
- 362:1 Pitthimamsi, literally, who eats the flesh of the back.
- 362:2 Anarya.
- 362:3 Salya.
- 362:4 Pakkayati, pratyayati. Dipika: avisvasyataya pratyayati prakhyatim yati.
- 363:1 Concerning the fourfold division of speech see above, <page 335>, and part i, p. 150, note 2.
- 363:2 The meaning is that Brahmans declare it a capital crime to kill a Brahman, but a venial one to kill a Sudra.
- 363:3 Tammuyattae = tamomukatvena, explained either, blind by birth, or absolutely stupid or ignorant.
- 364:1 The Karman of the preceding twelve kinds of sins is called samparayika . It takes hold of the Atman till it is annihilated; it is a lasting Karman, while that described in the next paragraph is of a momentary existence.
- 364:2 Iriyavahiya = iryapathika or airyapathika. The term iryapatha literally means, way of walking, but technically it denotes the actions of which the life of a correct ascetic consists, and airyapathika, therefore, is the Karman inseparable from it.
- 364:3 The text consists of a string of technical terms, many of which have been explained already. I here incorporate the explanation in the translation. For more particulars see Bhandarkar's Report, p. 98.
- 364:4 Iryasamita.
- 364:5 Bhashasamita.
- 364:6 Eshanasamita.
- 364:7 Bhandamatradananikshepanasamita.
- 364:8 Ukkara-prasravana-sleshma-galla-sringhana-parishthapanika-samita.
- 364:9 Manah-, vak-, kaya-samita.
- 364:10 Manah-, yak-, kaya-gupta.
- 365:1 An almost identical passage occurs in the Uttaradhyayana XXIX, section 71, above p. 372.
- 365:2 This typical passage is repeated here though it is apparently out of place.
- 365:3 Not only this paragraph but also all that follows up to the last paragraph seems to be a later addition. For in the last paragraph the subject treated of in section section 1-27 is taken up again and brought to its conclusion. After the supplement section section 25-27 a separate treatise on the main subject is inserted section section 28-60 (28-57 on demerit, 58-59 on merit, section 60 on a mixed state); after this follows a similar treatise in section section 61-77 (61-68 on demerit, 69-74 on merit, 75-77 on a mixed state). In section 78 we have again a supplement, and section section 79-82 contain another supplement (or perhaps two). section section 83-85 give the conclusion of the first treatise ( section section 1-24) and must originally have followed immediately after section 24. So we have here, besides some appendices, three distinct original treatises on the same subject, very awkwardly pieced together to form one continuous lecture.
- 366:1 E. g. the laughing of monkeys.
- 366:2 Lakshana. The mystical signs meant are the svastika,
- 366:3 Vyangana. The seeds are sesamum, beans,
- 366:4 Kakini, rendered ratna in the commentary.
- 366:5 Atharvani.
- 366:6 Pakasasani = indragala.
- 366:7 Mrigakakra.
- 366:8 According to the commentary the Vaitali art teaches to raise a stick (? dandam utthapayati, perhaps to lay a punishment on somebody) by spells; and the Ardhavaitalika, to remove it. In Pali vetalam means the magic art of bringing dead bodies to life by spells, see Childers' Dictionary of the Pali Language, sub voce.
- 367:1 Ayamanim, it is omitted in some MSS. and in the commentaries.
- 367:2 Vipratipanna.
- 367:3 Sovariya, translated saukarika.
- 367:4 I.e. he will be born in one of the low courses of existence.
- 369:1 Khaladanena va surathalaena va. My translation is conjectural.
- 369:2 Guna; omitted in the printed text.
- 370:1 Akkharae apphaletta bhavai = apsarayas kaputikayas asphalayita bhavati. I am not sure that I have hit the meaning; apsara is perhaps derived from apasarayati, the word is wanting in our dictionaries.
- 371:1 Compare Kalpa Sutra. Lives of the Ginas, section 66, notes. Our commentator explains the prayaskitta (expiatory acts) as ceremonies counteracting bad dreams.
- 371:2 Compare Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, section 14, part i, p. 223.
- 372:1 For according to the commentaries the worst of all regions is the south, the worst state of being that of denizens of hell, and the dark fortnight is the worse half of the month.
- 372:2 Thane = sthanam.
- 373:1 These words are in the 2nd person sing. of the imperative, which, according to Panini III, 4, 2, may be used to express a repeated or habitual action.
- 373:2 Utkunkana.
- 373:3 Gilli, purushadvayotkshipta ghollika.
- 373:4 Thilli, explained: a vehicle drawn by a pair of mules; but, according to Leumann sv., saddle.
- 373:5 Siyasandimaniya, explained sibikavisesha.
- 374:1 Masha is a weight of gold.
- 374:2 A sort of rice.
- 374:3 A sort of pulse or lentil.
- 374:4 A sort of kidney-bean.
- 374:5 Probably Dolichos Sinensis.
- 374:6 A sort of pulse, Dolichos Uniflorus.
- 374:7 I cannot identify this plant, our dictionaries do not contain this or a similar word.
- 374:8 This word ought perhaps to be divided in two; ela are cardamoms, but what mikkha is I cannot say.
- 374:9 Bhagilla = bhagika, one who gets the sixth part of the products (e.g. of agriculture) of the work for which he is hired.
- 375:1 The following two words, vegakkhahiya and angakkhahiya, I cannot translate.
- 375:2 Compare section 55.
- 375:3 Compare section 21.
- 375:4 These words from the end of the paragraph are to be supplied here, or rather the following passage has been inserted in the [p. 376] middle of the sentence so that it is apparently cut in two, of which the first lacks the verb.
- 376:1 There is, apparently, a pun in the three words vagga, panka, ayasa, for they mean also steel, mud, iron.
- 376:2 Muim or sayam or suim. The Dipika has sruti. The following words are rati, dhriti, mati.
- 377:1 Compare section 56 and note  on <page 372>.
- 378:1 The same passage occurs, mutatis mutandis, in the Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, section 118; see part i, p. 261, and notes 1 and 2.
- 378:2 The author of the Dipika offers diverse interpretations of this division of obstacles, which are apparently guesses and not based on a solid tradition. In the parallel passage of the Kalpa Sutra, section 119, the division is according to: matter, space, time, and affects.
- 379:1 The author of the Dipika states that such monks beg in the morning.
- 379:2 Lagandasaino. They lie in such a position that only their heels and head, or the back touch the ground.
- 380:1 I leave out agattaya or agamaya, which is not explained in the Dipika.
- 380:2 Gramakantaka, either the abuse met with in villages, or the objects of the senses (indriyagrama).
- 380:3 Bhayantaro bhavanti. Bhayantaro is explained: who go (gantarah) from bhava to Moksha.
- 381:1 The following description contains passages recurring in the Kalpa Sutra, section section 14, 15.
- 381:2 Karnapitha.
- 382:1 Silanka says with regard to section 76: 'The MSS. of the text generally differ from one another in this passage; the text commented upon in the Tika does not agree with that of any MS. I therefore comment upon the text exhibited in one MS. If, therefore, my text does not agree with that (of the reader) he should not be alarmed.' All the MSS. I use have the same text, that of the commentator. It is characteristic of the way in which Harshakula, the author of the Dipika, worked, that he copies Silanka's above remark with some verbal alterations.
- 382:2 Kriyadhikarana.
- 382:3 Asahaya.
- 383:1 Here the commentator inserts the following story: In Ragagriha lived a friar versed in magic arts; he carried off every woman he saw. On the citizens complaining about the rape, the king resolved to find out and punish the man. Catching sight of him at last on the fifth day, the king went after him till the friar disappeared in a hollow tree of the park, which led to an underground room. There the king followed and killed him. He released all the women whom the friar had captured. But one of them would not return to her husband, being desperately smitten with love for her seducer. On the advice of some wise men she was made to drink the friar's (pounded) bones mixed up with milk. This took the spell off her and cured her of her strange passion.
- 383:2 Usiyaphaliha = ukkhritaparigha. The commentator mistakes phaliha for spatika, and vainly labours to make out a sound meaning.
- 383:3 Uddishta.
- 383:4 Concerning the Gunavratas see Bhandarkar's Report, 1883, 1884, p. 114. The Silavratas are apparently identical with the Anuvratas, ibidem. Hoernle translates this passage: by exercises in the moral restraints (imposed) by the religious vows as well as in the (general) renunciations and (special) Posaha-abstinences. Uvasaga Dasao, translation, p. 41.
- 384:1 The same passage occurs below, 7, 4, and Aupapatika Sutra, section 124. Upasakadasa, section 66.
- 384:2 Samadhi, which is elsewhere explained by moksha, but in our case it cannot be final liberation, but a state of purity of the soul.
- 384:3 Virati.
- 385:1 According to the commentators there are 180 schools of Kriyavadins, 84 of Akriyavadins, 67 of Agnanikavadins, and 32 of Vainayikavadins. These numbers are arrived at by calculation, not by actual observation. E.g. the 180 possible schools of the Kriyavadins are calculated in the following way. The nine categories of the Gainas are: giva, agiva, asrava, samvara, nirgara, punya, papa, bandha, and moksha. Each of them may be regarded as svatah and paratah, as nitya and anitya with regard to kala, isvara, atma, niyati, and svabhava. By multiplying 9 successively in 2, 2, 5, we find 180 to be the number of possible schools of Kriyavadins.
- 385:2 I.e. they learn these heresies from their teachers, and teach them to their pupils.
- 386:1 Niyagapadivanna.
- 386:2 Tula.
- 386:3 Samosarana = samavasarana, explained: dharmavikara, viz. of the true adage: atmavat sarvabhutani yah pasyati sa pasyati.
- 387:1 Agantu.
- 387:2 Kalankalibhava.
- 387:3 Described in section section 5-21. See <page 365>, note .
3 - knowledge of food
O long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following discourse from the Venerable (Mahavira). We now come to the Lecture called 'Knowledge of Food.' The contents of it are as follows:
Here in the East, West, North, and South there are, all in all, in the world four kinds of seed: seeds generated at the top (of the plant), at its root, at its knots, at its stem . According to the seed and place
These living beings feed on the liquid substance  of these particles of earth, the origin of various things; these beings consume earth-bodies, water-bodies, fire-bodies, wind-bodies, bodies of plants; they deprive of life the bodies of manifold movable and immovable beings; the destroyed bodies which have been consumed before, or absorbed by the rind, (are) digested and assimilated (by them). And the bodies of these (trees) which bring forth their different parts, are of manifold colours, smells, tastes, touches, forms, and arrangement of corporeal particles .
These beings (animating trees) come into existence because of their Karman; so we are taught (by the Tirthakaras, )
And again it has been said of old: some beings born in trees, originated by trees, sprung from trees, ( as in section 1, down to) springing from trees that originated in earth, come forth as trees originated by trees . These beings feed on the sap of the trees originated in earth, ( all as in section 2, down to the end).
(In the same way, and in nearly the same words, the offshoots of the trees mentioned in the preceding paragraph are treated of.)
And again it has been said of old: some beings born in trees, ( all as above, down to) growing in trees, that are originated by trees, come forth as their roots, bulb, stem, branches, twigs, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds . These beings feed on the sap of those trees originated by trees, ( all as in section 2, down to) and the bodies of the roots, bulb, stem are of manifold colours, ( all as in section 2, down to the end).
(The four paragraphs that come next, 6-9, are identical with the preceding ones, except that 'creeper ' is substituted for 'tree.') (6-9)
(In the same way 'grass ' is treated in four paragraphs, but the whole is much abridged; then it is said that 'herbs ' and 'plants ' are to be treated in four paragraphs each.) (10-15)
And again it has been said of old: some beings born in earth, ( all as in section 1, down to) growing there in particles of earth that are the origin of various things, come forth as Aya, Kaya, Kuhana, Kandu, Uvvehaliya, Nivvehaliya, Esava, Sakkha, Khattaga, Vasaniya . (The rest as in section 2, but substitute the words Aya for 'trees.') Here there is only one paragraph, the remaining three do not apply here .
And again it has been said of old: some beings born in water, ( all as in section section 1-11, substitute only 'water' for 'earth.' Thus we have four paragraphs for trees, four for creepers, four for grass, four for herbs, four for plants).
Now it has been said of old: some beings born in water, ( all as above, down to) growing in particles of water that are the origin of various things, come forth as Udaga, Avaga , Panaga, Sevala , Kalambuya , Kaseruya , Kakkhabhaniya, Uppala,
And again it has been said of old: some beings come forth as movable beings from trees born in earth, from trees originated by trees, from the roots, ( down to) seeds produced by trees, originated by creepers born on trees, from creepers born on creepers, from the roots of creepers born on creepers, from grass , from herbs , from plants , from Aya, ( all down to) Kura born in earth; from trees born in water (the rest similar as with trees born in earth), from Udaga, ( all down to) Pukkhalatthibhaga born in water.
These creatures feed on the sap of the trees, creepers, grass, herbs, plants, be they born in earth or water, on trees or creepers or grass or herbs or plants; (the sap) of their roots, ( all down to) seeds, of Ayas, of Udakas And these creatures consume earth-bodies, ( all as in section 2, down to) assimilated by them. And the bodies of these beings born of trees, creepers, grass, herbs, plants, their roots, of Ayas, of Udagas, are of manifold colours, ( the rest as in section 2, down to the end).
And again it has been said of old: a man and a woman combine in cohabitation in a cunnus, which was produced by their Karman, and there they deposit their humours. Therein are born the souls of different men, viz. of those born in Karmabhumi , or in Akarmabhumi, or in the minor continents, of Aryas and barbarians, as women or men or eunuchs, according to the semen and blood of the mother  and the other circumstances  (contingent on their coming into existence). These beings at first feed on the menses of the mother and the semen of the father, or both combined into an unclean, foul (substance). And afterwards they absorb with a part (of their bodies) the essence  of whatever food the mothers take. Gradually increasing and attaining to the proper dimensions of a foetus  they come forth from the womb, some as males, some as females, some as neuters. As long as they are babies, they suck the mother's milk; but when they grow older, they eat boiled rice, or gruel, or both movable and immovable beings. These beings consume earth-bodies, ( all as before, down to) assimilated by them. And the bodies of these men, viz. those born in Karmabhumi, or Akarmabhumi, or in the minor continents, of Aryas and barbarians, are of manifold colours, ( all as in section 2, down to the end).
(This paragraph is nearly identical with the preceding one, but substitute 'aquatic animals of five organs of sense, viz. fishes, (all down to)  porpoises,' for 'different men' in the beginning and the end. The following sentence in the middle is slightly different; it runs thus: 'as long as they are young, they feed on the mothers' humours, but when they grow older they eat plants, or both movable and immovable beings.')
(This paragraph treats of) quadrupeds , terrestrial animals with five organs of sense, viz. solidungular animals, biungular animals, multiungular animals, and animals having toes with nails. (All as in the last paragraph, only 'as long as they are young, they feed on their mothers' milk.')
(This paragraph treats of) reptiles moving on the breast, (being) terrestrial animals with five organs of sense, viz. snakes, huge snakes , Asalika, and dragons . (All as before, but the following passage is different.) Some bring forth eggs, some bring forth living young ones; some come out of the egg as males, some as females, some as neuters. As long as they are young, they live on wind. (The rest as above.)
(This paragraph treats of) terrestrial animals with five organs of sense, walking on their arms, viz. iguanas, ichneumons, porcupines, frogs, chameleons,
(This paragraph treats of) aerial animals with five organs of sense: birds with membranous wings, birds with feathered wings, birds with wings in the shape of a box, and birds (which sit on) outspread wings . (All as before; only the following passage is different): 'As long as they are young, they are hatched by their mothers' warmth.' (The rest as above.)
And again it has been said of old: there are beings of manifold birth and origin, ( all as in section 1, down to) growing there on the animate or inanimate bodies of manifold movable or immovable creatures, come forth as parasites . These beings feed on the humours of various movable and immovable creatures And the bodies of these movable and immovable parasites are of manifold colours, ( as above).
In the same way vermin generated in filthy substances  and in the skin of living animals  are to be treated of. (28, 29)
And again it has been said of old: there are some beings of manifold birth and origin, ( all as in section 1, down to) growing thereon (or in) the animate or inanimate bodies of manifold movable or immovable creatures as that (water)-body , which is produced by wind, condensed by wind, and carried along by wind; it goes upwards, when there is an upward wind; it goes downwards, when there is a downward wind; it goes in a horizontal direction, when there is a horizontal wind; (its varieties are) hoar-frost, snow, mist, hailstones, dew, and rain. These beings feed on the humours of these manifold movable and immovable creatures And the bodies of these (water-lives, viz.) hoar-frost, produced by manifold movable or immovable creatures, are of manifold colours, ( as above) .
And again it has been said of old: some beings, born in water, ( all similar as in section 1, down to) come forth in water(-bodies) in the water produced by manifold movable or immovable beings. These beings feed on the humours of the water(-bodies) produced by manifold movable and immovable creatures. (The rest similar as above.)
And again it has been said of old: some beings, born in water, ( all similar as in section 1, down to) come forth in water-bodies produced by other water-bodies. These beings feed on the humours of those other water-bodies produced by water-bodies. (The rest similar as above.)
And again it has been said of old: some beings, born in water, ( all similar as in section 1, down to) come forth as movable creatures in the water produced by water-bodies. These beings feed on the humours of the water(-bodies) produced by water. (The rest similar as before.)
And again it has been said of old: some beings, of various birth and origin, ( all as in section 1, down to) come forth as fire-bodies in the manifold animate or inanimate bodies of movable or immovable creatures . These beings feed on the manifold movable or immovable creatures. The rest similar as before.)
The remaining three paragraphs are similar (to those treating of) water-bodies.
(This paragraph treats of wind-bodies in the same way as the preceding ones treated of fire-bodies; like it, it consists of four paragraphs).
And again it has been said of old: some beings, of various birth and origin, ( all as in section 1, down to) come forth, in the manifold animate and inanimate bodies of movable and immovable creatures , as earth, gravel Here the following verses (from the Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 74-77) are to be made use of:
1. Earth, gravel, sand, stones, rocks, rock-salt, iron, copper, tin, lead, silver, gold, and diamond;
2. Orpiment, vermilion, realgar, Sasaka, antimony, coral, Abhrapatala, Abhravaluka; these are varieties of gross (earth-)bodies, and precious stones.
3. Hyacinth, natron, Anka, crystal, Lohitaksha, emerald, Masaragalla, Bhugamokaka, and sapphire;
4. Kandana, red chalk, Hamsagarbha, Pulaka, and sulphur; Kandraprabha, lapis lazuli, Galakanta, and Suryakanta.
These beings feed on the humours of these manifold movable and immovable beings. (The rest as above.)
The remaining three paragraphs are similar (to those treating of) water-bodies.
And again it has been said of old: all sorts of living beings, of manifold birth, origin, and growth, born in bodies, originated in bodies, grown in bodies, feeding on bodies, experience their Karman, are actuated by it, have their form and duration of life determined by Karman, and undergo changes through the influence of Karman. This you should know, and knowing it you will be careful and circumspect with regard to your food, and always exert yourself.
Thus I say.
- 388:1 The commentators here give the reading of the Nagarguniyas: 'the growth of seeds of the plants is fivefold, viz. they grow from the top (of the plant), its root, its knots, its stem, and its beads; [p. 389] and some are of a sixth kind called sammurkhima' (i.e. those plants which are believed to be originated by the coalescing particles of the substance in which they grow, e.g. grass springing up on ground lately cleared by fire).–The various readings of the Nagarguniyas are occasionally quoted in commentaries . But I do not think that it has been satisfactorily made out who these Nagarguniyas were.
- 389:1 The meaning is, that souls who on account of their Karman are to be born as trees, previously are embodied in earth, and thence they are transferred by their Karman to the seed which brings forth the tree.
- 389:2 Sineha, explained: snigdhabhava. In the sequel where plants are spoken of, I shall render this word by 'sap' or 'humours,' as the context may require.
- 389:3 I.e. the food assimilated by the tree is the material of which its different parts, as root, stem, leaves, are formed, and these parts are of manifold form, colours,
- 390:1 Apparently trees sprung from shoots, sprouts, aerial-roots are meant. They are considered as a class different from those whose offshoots they are.
- 390:2 One soul, giva, pervades the whole tree; it is the soul of the tree. Separate givas, however, reside in the roots,
- 390:3 Agghoruha = adhyaroha, explained in the Dipika: vallivriksha.
- 390:4 Trina.
- 391:1 Osahi = Oshadhi.
- 391:2 Hariya = harita.
- 391:3 All the commentators say about the words Aya (which offer some various readings in the MSS.), is that they denote particular plants (vanaspativisesha) which must be learned from people (who know them). I give the words in their Prakrit form, and do not attempt to transpose them into Sanskrit.
- 391:4 For there are no Ayas originated by Ayas except through their seed.
- 391:5 Avaka, a grassy plant growing in marshy land, Blyxa Octandra.
- 391:6 Saivala, the aquatic plant Vallisneria.
- 391:7 Kadamba, Nauclea Kadamba.
- 391:8 Kaseru, Scirpus Kysoor.
- 392:1 The last four are well-known varieties of lotus, called in Sanskrit: utpala, padma, kumuda, nalina.
- 392:2 The Sanskrit of the last seven items is: pundarika, mahapundarika, satapattra, sahasrapattra, kahlara, kokanada, and tamarasa; they are all varieties of lotus.
- 392:3 Pushkara.
- 392:4 This is to be detailed in the same way as with trees and creepers.
- 393:1 Compare note , <page 225>.
- 393:2 Both are indicated in the text by biga. According to Silanka, a male will be produced if the semen is in excess; a female, if the blood; a neuter, if they are equally balanced.
- 393:3 Avakasa. According to Silanka, a male is produced from the right side of the womb, a female from the left, a neuter from both together.
- 393:4 Oyam = ogas.
- 393:5 Paliyagam, explained garbhaparipaka.
- 394:1 See Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 173; above, p. 223.
- 394:2 Compare Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 180, ibidem.
- 394:3 Agagara, literally serpents which devour goats.
- 394:4 Mahoraga. According to the Guzerati gloss these snakes are a thousand yoganas long.
- 395:1 Grihakokila, probably identical with grihagolika, a lizard.
- 395:2 Visvambhara is given in the smaller Petersburg Dictionary as the name of a scorpion or some similar animal. However, it must denote here some other animal.
- 395:3 This may be katushpadika, quadruped; but then the word must be taken in a restricted sense, perhaps, small quadrupeds.
- 395:4 See Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 187; above, <page 224>. Perhaps beetles and butterflies are intended by the two last kinds of pakshins?
- 395:5 Anusuya = anusuta or anusyuta.
- 395:6 Duruvasambhava.
- 395:7 Khuruduga.
- 396:1 There is apparently no predicate in this sentence.
- 396:2 This paragraph gives the 'scientific' explanation of the way by which water-bodies or the bodies of water-lives are produced by wind.
- 397:1 E.g. when two bulls or elephants rush upon one another, sparks of fire are seen issuing from their horns or teeth. Fire is produced when two pieces of wood or stone are rubbed one against the other.
- 397:2 According to the commentators, earth-bodies are produced in the shape of precious stones, in the head of snakes, of pearls in the teeth (sic) of elephants, and so in reeds,
4 - renunciation of activity
O long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse from the Venerable (Mahavira). We now come to the Lecture called 'Renunciation of Activity.' The contents of it are as follows:
It is the Self that may  not renounce (activity),that may be accustomed to act, that may adhere to errors, that may be prone to sin, that may be thoroughly ignorant, that may be thoroughly stolid , that may not consider the operations  of mind, speech, and body, that may not avoid and renounce sins.
The Venerable One has said, 'He (i.e. the Self) is uncontrolled, unresigned, does not avoid and renounce sins, is active, careless, prone to sin, thoroughly ignorant, thoroughly stolid. Though a fool does not consider  the operations of his mind, speech, and body, nor does see even a dream ; still he commits sins .
The opponent says to the teacher: 'There can be no sin, if (the perpetrator of an action) does not possess sinful thoughts, speech, and functions of the body, if he does not kill, if he has no internal organ, if he does not consider the operations of mind, speech, and body, if he does not see even a dream.'
Here the teacher says to the opponent: 'It is true what I have just said: there is sin, though (the perpetrator of the action) do not possess sinful thoughts, ( all as above, down to) though he do not see even a dream.' 'What is the reason thereof?' (The Akarya says) : 'The Venerable One has assigned the six classes of living beings as the reason: the earth-lives, ( all down to) movable beings. With regard to these six classes of living beings, the Self does not avoid and renounce sins, he is wicked and does harm through cruelty: (this holds good with regard to the five cardinal sins ) killing of living beings (and the passions): anger (down to) the sin of wrong belief.'
(The Akarya says): 'The Venerable One has illustrated this by the example of a murderer: a murderer (who hates) a householder or his son or the king or his servant, resolves, on an occasion offering, to enter (the victim's house) and to kill him when he finds an opportunity . Is not this murderer who has formed this resolution , (a man) who, day and night, whether sleeping or waking, is full of hostility and wrong; who is wicked and does harm through cruelty? An unbiassed opponent before whom this is laid, will answer: Indeed, he is!'
(The Akarya says): 'As this murderer who has formed the above resolution is a man who ( all as in section 4, down to) does harm through cruelty–(and this holds good with regard to the five cardinal sins:) killing of living beings (and the passions:) anger, (down to) the sin of wrong belief–so it has been said of him by the Venerable One: he  is uncontrolled, unresigned, he does not avoid and renounce sins, he is active, careless, prone to sins thoroughly ignorant, thoroughly stolid. Though a fool does not consider the operations of his mind, speech, and body, nor does see even a dream, still he commits sins.
As a murderer who entertains (murderous) intentions towards a householder, is a man who ( all as in section 4, down to) does harm through cruelty; so an ignorant man who entertains (cruel) intentions towards all sorts of living beings, is a man who ( all as in section 4, down to) does harm through cruelty.
(An opponent might object): This is no good reasoning. (For) there are many living beings which one, during one's whole life, never saw, nor heard of, nor cared for, nor took notice of. Towards these beings, therefore, one cannot (be said to) entertain (murderous) intentions, nor to be one who, day and night, whether sleeping or waking, is full of hostility and wrong, ( the rest as in section 4). 
(The Akarya says): The Venerable One has refuted this by two illustrations, one of a sentient being, the other of a senseless being. The first is as follows: A sentient being, possessing five organs of sense and a developed internal organ, may with regard to the six classes of living beings, viz. earth-bodies, (all down to) movable beings, impose some restriction upon himself; (e.g.) that he will meet his wants, or have them met by others, by means of earth-bodies only. His intention is: I shall meet my wants, or have them met by others, by means of earth-bodies only. His intention is not (to make use of) this or that (particular earth-body): he meets his wants, or has them met by others, by means of earth-bodies in general. With regard to them, therefore, he is uncontrolled, unrestrained, does not avoid and renounce sins. The same applies to the remaining five classes of living beings.–Some one may meet his wants, or have them met by others, by means of the six classes of living beings. His intention is: I shall meet my wants, or have them met by others, by means of the six classes of living beings; it is not: by means of some particular beings. He meets his wants, ( ) by means of living beings in general. With regard to them, therefore, he is uncontrolled (This holds good with the five cardinal sins): killing of living beings, (and with the passions): anger, ( all down to) the sin of wrong belief. The Venerable One has said that such a creature, ( all as in section 1, down to) commits sins.
The illustration of senseless beings is as follows: Senseless beings, viz. earth-bodies, ( all down to) plants, to which must be added, as a sixth item, some movable beings, which have no reason nor consciousness, nor intellect, nor mind, nor speech, in order to do something, or to have it done by others, or to consent to others' doing it; these benighted creatures (are to be considered as murderers), are full of hostility and wrong (all as in section 4)  against all sorts of living beings. (This holds good with the five cardinal sins:) killing of living beings, (and with the passions, all down to) the sin of wrong belief. Know this: though these beings have neither mind nor speech, yet as they cause pain, grief, damages, harm, and injury, they must be regarded as not abstaining from causing pain
Thus even senseless beings are reckoned instrumental in bringing about slaughter of living beings, ( all down to) the sin of wrong belief. Beings, whatever their origin, who were sentient (in one existence) will become senseless ones (in another) and vice versa. Not getting rid of, nor shaking off, nor annihilating, nor destroying their Karman, the thoroughly wicked and ignorant wander from the body of a senseless being into that of sentient ones, or from the body of a sentient being into that of senseless ones, or from the body of a sentient being into that of another, or from the body of a senseless being into that of another. The sentient beings and the senseless ones, both are wrong in their conduct and commit sins through cruelty. The Venerable One has said that such a (creature) is uncontrolled, ( all as in I, down to) commits sins.
(The opponent asks): 'What must one do or cause to be done, in order to become controlled and restrained, to avoid and renounce sins?' (The Akarya answers): The Venerable One has declared that the cause (of sins) are the six classes of living beings, earth-lives As I feel pain, so they do. Therefore they should not be injured or killed .
This constant, permanent, eternal, true Law has been taught by wise men who comprehend all things. Thus a monk abstains from (the five cardinal sins): slaughter of living beings, (and of vices, all down to) the sin of wrong belief. He does not clean his teeth with a tooth-brush, he does not accept collyrium, emetics, and perfumes. Such a monk does not act nor kill, he is free from wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, he is calm and happy. The Venerable One says that such a (monk) is well controlled and restrained, does avoid and renounce sins, is not active, but careful and thoroughly wise.
Thus I say.
- 399:1 'May' is to render yavi = kapi. This word is used here to indicate that the reverse is true in other cases. This paragraph emphasises the Gaina doctrine that the Self or atman is the direct cause of all actions of an individual being, in opposition to the Sankhya philosophers who maintain the absolute inactivity of the purusha, and to the Bauddhas who deny the existence of a separate atman altogether.
- 399:2 Literally, sleeping (sutta = supta).
- 399:3 Literally, speeches (vakka = vakya).
- 399:4 We ought, perhaps, to translate: if he is not conscious of,
- 399:5 I.e. when consciousness is fainter than in a dream.
- 399:6 The doctrine of the Gainas is that Karman is the result of the action of every being, even of those whose intellect or consciousness is not developed, as with the ekendriyas or beings who possess but one organ of sense. The opponent, however, maintains that only conscious actions of intelligent beings bring about Karman. This question is discussed in the following paragraphs.
- 400:1 These words here and in the sequel are in Sanskrit; they probably are a gloss.
- 401:1 The Nagarguniyas have another reading (where, is not stated by Silanka): If he sees no opportunity, or his proposed victim is always on his guard, he does not kill him, but he resolves in his mind: If I get an opportunity, or I find that man off his guard, I shall certainly kill him.
- 401:2 The original repeats the preceding passage in full. I abridge it here and in the sequel.
- 401:3 I.e. every soul, even that of a being with but one organ of sense.
- 402:1 Silanka here makes it clear that the discussion, in the preceding paragraphs, is carried on in the form of a syllogism of five parts established in Hindu logics. section 1 contains the proposition, pratigna, section 3 the cause, hetu, section 4 the exemplification, udaharana or drishtanta, section 5 the upanaya or that part which shows that the hetu is in the subject of the syllogism, and section 6 the conclusion, nigamana. We thus see how deeply rooted in, and how genial to, the mind of the Hindus was the pankavayavam anumanam or syllogism of five parts; for the author conforms to it, I dare say, unintentionally.
- 403:1 If the passage were printed in full, the most glaring contradictions would stare the reader in the face. The cause hereof is not that the passage cannot correctly be rendered, but that the authors of the Sutras always make use of set phrases whether all parts of them suit the case in hand or not. Sometimes we can avoid downright nonsense by selecting a somewhat different rendering from what was given in another part of the book; and so I do in the last sentence of this paragraph. But this is only a makeshift.
- 404:1 I here abridge the text which is identical with II, 1, 48 ff., <page 351>.
5 - freedom from error
A very clever (monk) who practises the vow of chastity, should not adopt the following (heretical) doctrines, nor behave badly in this religion.
He should not believe that (this world) is without beginning or without end, eternal or not eternal, according to the argumentation (of heretics) . From these alternatives you cannot arrive at truth; from these alternatives you are, certainly, led to error.
One should not say: that there will be an end of beings who (know and) teach the truth ; nor that all beings are not alike, nor that they shall be in (perpetual) bondage, or (that the prophets are) eternal.
From these alternatives you cannot arrive at the truth .
One should not say: the guilt of killing small and great animals is the same, or not the same. From these alternatives
One should know that those who accept things especially prepared for them , will be affected by demerit (in some cases), or will not be affected (where it is allowed by scripture).
From these alternatives
One should not maintain the identity of the audarika , aharika, and karmana bodies, nor that everything cannot everywhere come into existence , nor that it can.
From these alternatives
Do not maintain that the world does not exist, maintain that it exists.
Do not maintain that Giva and Agiva do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that Dharma and Adharma do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that bondage and liberation do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that virtue and vice  do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that Asrava and the stoppage of Asrava do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that the experiencing of the effect, and the annihilation of Karman do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that activity and non-activity do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that anger and pride do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that deceit and greed do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that love and hate do not exist, but that they exist.
Do not maintain that the fourfold Circle of Births does not exist, but that it exists.
Do not maintain that there are no gods and goddesses, but that there are.
Do not maintain that there is no such thing as perfection and non-perfection, but that there is such a thing.
Do not maintain that there is no place exclusively reserved for those who attain to perfection, but that there is such .
Do not maintain that there are no pious and wicked men, but that there are.
Do not maintain that there is no such thing as good and bad, but that there is good and bad.
The theory will not work that (a man is always) good, or (always) bad. The wrongly instructed Sramanas do not comprehend the (soul's) bondage  (through Karman).
(Do not assert) that everything is imperishable, or full of pains, nor that criminals should be put to death or not be put to death; one should not speak in this way.
Do not assert that those men are well-behaved monks who lead a pure life, and that those others lead an impure life.
A wise monk should not say: we get alms (from this householder) or we do not; but he should improve his chances for final liberation .
A monk should conform himself to these opinions taught by the Ginas, and wander about till he reaches final liberation.
Thus I say.
- 405:1 The Gainas decide all such questions with the help of the syadvada, which in an admirable way removes all difficulties; e.g. the world is eternal as far as that part is concerned which is [p. 406] the substratum of the idea (samanya) 'world'; it is not eternal as far as its ever-changing state is meant.
- 406:1 Sastarah, teachers, here those who reach perfection. The meaning is that the world would become empty if all beings should reach perfection. This should not he maintained, nor the opposite opinion, that some beings are qualified for Nirvana and others not.
- 406:2 Ahakammani, see <page 131>, note .
- 406:3 The Gainas assume that each individual possesses five bodies: audarika, or the body that is seen; karmana, receptacle of Karman, it is composed of Karman particles; taigasa, a body composed of particles of fire, it causes digestion; aharaka, a subtile body of the soul, with which he goes to distant places (e.g. when a katurdasapurvin goes to the Kevalin to clear up some doubt); vaikriya, a subtile body which can be changed at will. All these 'bodies,' except the first, are what in common language are called spirits or souls. We have here a Hindu counterpart of the belief in the plurality of souls shared [p. 407] by many ancient and modern nations. Compare the following verses quoted in Tylor, Origin of Culture, Chapter XI:
'Bis duo sunt homini, manes, caro, spiritus, umbra: Quattuor haec loci bis duo suscipiunt. Terra tegit carnem, tumulum circumvolution umbra Manes Orcus habet, spiritus astra petit.'
- 407:1 According to the commentator this is said against the Sankhya philosophy, for as everything is an effect of Prakriti, and Prakriti is present everywhere, everything may come into existence everywhere.
- 407:2 Punyam and papam. The one is the good Karman (subham karmapudgalam); the other, the bad.
- 408:1 See Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 62, 63, p. 212.
- 408:2 Vera = vaira, explained karmabandha.
- 409:1 Santimaggam ka vuhae = santimargam ka vrimhayet.
6 - gôsâla and ârdraka
'Listen, Ardraka , to what (Mahavira) has done. At first he wandered about as a single monk; but now he has surrounded himself by many monks, and teaches every one of them the Law at length.
'The inconstant man has decided upon this mode of life : to stand up in a crowd of men, surrounded by monks, and to teach his doctrines for the benefit of many people. Therefore his former and his present life are not of a piece.
'Either to live as a single mendicant (was right conduct) or his present life; therefore both do not agree with each other.'
“His past, present, and future lives agree with each other; for he is really always single and alone (though he be now surrounded by many followers).
“For if a Sramana or Brahmana who causes peace and security, comprehends the nature of movable and immovable living beings and explains it in a crowd numbering thousands, he realises singleness, remaining in the same mental condition as before .
“It is no sin to teach the Law, if (he who teaches it) is patient and resigned, subdues his senses, avoids bad speech, and uses virtuous speech.
“He who (teaches) the great vows (of monks) and the five small vows (of the laity ), the five Asravas and the stoppage of the Asravas, and control, who avoids Karman in this blessed life of Sramanas, him I call a Sramana.”
('As your Law makes it no sin for Mahavira to surround himself by a crowd of disciples), so according to our Law an ascetic, who lives alone and single, commits no sin if he uses cold water, eats seeds, accepts things prepared for him, and has intercourse with women.'
“Know this: those who use cold water, eat seeds, accept things especially prepared for them, and have intercourse with women, are (no better than) householders, but they are no Sramanas.
“If those who eat seeds, use (cold) water, and have intercourse with women, are admitted to be Sramanas, then householders too are Sramanas; for they do the same things .
“Monks who eat seeds and use cold water, who beg alms as a means of living, will, though they leave their relations, be born again and again, and will not put an end to mundane existence.”
'In making this statement you blame all philosophers alike! '
“Every philosopher praises his own doctrines and makes them known.
“Sramanas and Brahmanas blame one another when they teach (their doctrines). (The truth, they say,) is all on their side; there is none on that of the opponents. But we blame only the (wrong) doctrines and not at all (those who entertain them).
“We do not detract from anybody because of his personal qualities; but we make known the path pointed out in our creed. I have been taught the supreme, right path by worthy, good men.
“If a well-controlled man, afraid of injuring any movable or immovable living beings, above, below, or on earth, condemns (evil deeds), he does not at all blame (anybody) in this world.”
'Out of fear your Sramana will not stay in houses for travellers or in public garden-houses; for in such places he would meet with many clever people, with lower or nobler men, with talkative or silent ones.
'He will not stay there because he fears lest some monks, wise, well instructed, learned men, who are well versed in the sacred texts and their meaning, should put questions to him.'
“Doing nothing without a purpose, nor without consideration, neither on the behest of the king nor from fear of anybody, he answers questions or not (according to the circumstances); but he (answers) worthy people with a definite purpose (in his mind) .
“He, the wise man, impartially teaches (the Law) whether he goes (to his pupils) or not; because unworthy men have fallen from the true faith, he does not go to places (frequented by them).”
'As a merchant desirous of gain (shows) his wares and attracts a crowd to do business, in a similar way (acts) the Sramana Gnatriputra. This is what I think and calculate about it.'
”(Mahavira) acquires no new (Karman), he annihilates the old, avoiding wrong opinions; and thus the saviour said to others: Herein is contained the vow (leading to) Brahman (i.e. Moksha); this is the gain which a Sramana is desirous of. Thus I say.
“A merchant kills living beings and desires property; not leaving his kinsmen, he attracts a crowd in order to do business.
“Desiring riches and addicted to sensuality, merchants wander about to earn their living. But we (say) that they are passionately fond of pleasures, unworthy, and desiring the enjoyment of love.
“They do not abstain from slaughter and the acquirement of property, they are in bondage and full of wickedness; and their gain of which you spoke,. will be the endless Circle of Births and pains manifold .
“They do not always make profit, nor does it last for ever; they meet with both results (success and failure) in their quest of gain . The profit (of the teacher), however, has a beginning, but no end; the saviour and sage shares his profit (with others).
“Him who kills no (living beings), who has compassion on all creatures, who is well grounded in the Law, and causes the truth of the Law to be known, him you would equal to those wicked men! This is the outcome of your folly.”
A Buddhist .
'If (a savage) thrusts a spit through the side of a granary , mistaking it for a man; or through a gourd, mistaking it for a baby, and roasts it, he will be guilty of murder according to our views.
'If a savage  puts a man on a spit and roasts him, mistaking him for a fragment of the granary; or a baby, mistaking him for a gourd, he will not be guilty of murder according to our views.
'If anybody thrusts a spit through a man or a baby, mistaking him for a fragment of the granary, puts him on the fire, and roasts him, that will be a meal fit for Buddhas to break fast upon.
'Those who always feed two thousand worthy monks, acquire great merit  and become powerful gods in Arupa (dhatu) .'
“Well-controlled men cannot accept (your denial of) guilt incurred by (unintentionally) doing harm to living beings. It will cause error and no good to both who teach such doctrines and who believe them.
“A man who knows the nature of movable and immovable living beings, above, below, and on earth, who is afraid of injuring them and abstains from wicked deeds, may speak and act (in accordance with our Law); he will not be guilty of any (sin).
“It is impossible to mistake (a fragment of the granary) for a man; only an unworthy man can say it. How can (the idea of a man) be produced by a fragment of the granary? Even to utter this is an untruth.
“Do not use such speech by means of which you do evil; for such speech is incompatible with virtues. No ordained (monk) should speak empty words .
“Oh! you have explored this subject; you have thoroughly examined the consequences of acts  of living beings; your (fame) reaches the Eastern and Western oceans; you view (the universe as if) it stood on the palm of your hands!
“Thoroughly examining the consequences of acts of living beings, (our monks) have found out a pure way of sustaining life. It is a maxim  of the monks of our creed , that nobody who lives by secret sins , should lay down the Law.
“A man who always feeds two thousand worthy monks, does not control himself, and will be blamed in this world like a man with bloody hands.
“They kill a fattened sheep, and prepare food for the sake of a particular person; they season the meat with salt and oil, and dress it with pepper.
“You are irreligious, unworthy men, devoted to foolish pleasures, who say that partaking heartily of this meat you are not soiled by sin.
“All who partake of such food, commit sins in their ignorance; but the wise do nothing of the kind. Even to utter it is an untruth.
“In compassion to all beings, the seers, the Gnatriputras , avoid what is sinful; afraid of it, they abstain from food especially prepared for them.
“They abstain from wicked deeds, afraid of injuring living beings, and do no harm to any creature; therefore they do not partake of such food. This is a maxim of the monks of our creed.
”(Having reached) this perfection  in the Law of the Nirgranthas and standing firm in it, one should live without deceit . The awakened sage who is endowed with all virtues thereby obtained very great fame.”
A Vedic Priest.
'Those who always feed two thousand holy  mendicants, acquire great merit and become gods. This is the teaching of the Veda.'
“He who always feeds two thousand holy cats  (i.e. Brahmanas), will have to endure great pains in hell, being surrounded by hungry (beasts).
“He who despises the Law that enjoins compassion, and praises the Law that permits slaughter, and who feeds but a single unprincipled man, even if he be a king, will go to darkness , and not to the gods.”
A Vedantin .
'Both of us follow (very much the same) Law; we stood firm in it, and shall do so in the time to come; (we believe that) virtue consists in good conduct, and that knowledge (is necessary for liberation); and with regard to the Circle of Births there is no difference between us.
'(But we assume) an invisible, great, eternal, imperishable, and indestructible Soul, who excels all other beings in every respect, as the moon excels the stars.'
”(If there were but one Soul common to all beings) they could not be known (from one another), nor could they experience different lots; there would not be Brahmanas, Kshattriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras , insects, birds, and snakes; all would be men and gods.
“Those who do not know all things by Kevala (knowledge), but who being ignorant teach a Law (of their own), are lost themselves, and work the ruin of others in this dreadful, boundless Circle of Births.
“Those who know all things by the full Kevala knowledge, and who practising meditation teach the whole Law, are themselves saved and save others.
“You have, in your mind, made equal both those who lead a blameable life, and those who in this world practise right conduct. Friend, you are deluded,”
A Hastitapasa .
'Every year we kill one big elephant with an arrow, and live upon it in order to spare the life of other animals.'
“If every year you kill but one animal without abstaining from sin, though you are not guilty of the slaughter of other creatures, there is little difference between you and a householder.
“If a man kills every year but one animal, and lives (in other respects) as a Sramana, he is unworthy, and works his perdition. Such men will not become Kevalins.”
A (monk) who has achieved his religious perfection through the instruction of the Awakened One , and stands firm in it, who guards himself in the threefold way (i.e. with regard to thoughts, words, and acts), and who possesses the things requisite for crossing the immense ocean of existence, may preach the Law.
Thus I say.
- 409:2 The commentators relate a romantic story about prince Ardraka, which need not be repeated here. Suffice it to say that he became monk, and after many adventures held the disputation which forms the subject of our lecture. After having vanquished his opponents, he was about to join Mahavira, when a newly-tamed elephant broke his chain, rushed on him, but just in front of him went down on his knees and paid him reverence. King Srenika witnessed this scene, and wondered how the elephant could have broken his chains. Ardraka replied that it was still more strange that a man could break the fetters which worldliness had fastened upon him. The whole story must be very old, for it is epitomised in ten gathas by the author of the Niryukti.–The names of the opponents not stated in the text of the verses are supplied from the commentaries.
- 409:3 This name is spelt either Ardra or Ardraka, Adda in Prakrit.
- 410:1 According to the commentators, Gosala intimates that Mahavira had found it very inconvenient to live alone, because he was then exposed to many injuries; so he set up as a Tirthakara.
- 410:2 Tahakke = tatharka. Arka is here explained as equal to lesya.
- 410:3 Anuvrata. They are a modification of the great vows, intended for the laity. See Bhandarkar's Report, p. 114.
- 411:1 I.e. if the characteristic mark of a Sramana is to wander about without a companion, and to bear all sorts of hardship, then householders are included in this definition; for some of them also wander about without a companion and bear the same hardships.
- 412:1 As the commentators explain: he is actuated by the Karman, by virtue of which he has become a prophet (tirthakaranamakarman); and this Karman must take effect and so be annihilated.
- 413:1 Neha or nedha. According to Silanka it is = na iha: 'not even here (do they find the profit they seek).' I think it may be the Prakrit of anekadha. It may, however, stand for snehah, in which case the meaning would be: love's (reward will be) pain.
- 414:1 Vayanti to dovi gune'dayammi = vraganti te dvavapi gunav udaye. The usual reading adopted by the commentators is guno for gune. They translate: vadanti te dvau vigatagunodayau bhavata iti: (the experts) say that both (kinds of profit) are without value and duration. It is obvious that this interpretation is wrong.
- 414:2 Ardraka after having put down Gosala is met, on his way to Mahavira, by Buddhists who engage him in the following discussion.
- 414:3 Pinnagapindi. The commentators explain pinnaga ( = pinyaka) by khala, and pindi by bhinnaka (?) or sakala. Silanka gives the following explanation. During a struggle with savage men (mlekkha) some one runs away and throws his cloak off on a granary. An enemy in pursuit of that man mistakes it for him and takes hold of it, together with the part of the granary.–This interpretation looks absurd; but it will appear not so if we remember that granaries are beehive-shaped reservoirs made of sun-baked mud or wattle and mud; compare Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life, p. 17.
- 414:4 Milakkhu = mlekkha.
- 415:1 Punnakhandha = punyaskandha.
- 415:2 Aroppa. This is apparently derived from Arupa as rendered in the text. Arupadhatu is the highest heaven of the Buddhists; compare Burnouf, Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi, p. 807.
- 415:3 Urala = udara, here explained nissara, void of sense.
- 416:1 Anubhae = anubhagah, explained karmavipaka.
- 416:2 Anudharma.
- 416:3 Iha samyatanam, who control themselves in this (creed of the Gainas).
- 416:4 Khannapadopagivin.
- 416:5 I.e. the Gainas.
- 417:1 Samadhi.
- 417:2 Anihe.
- 417:3 Snataka, cf. Manu XI, 1.
- 417:4 Kulalaya = kulata, explained margara. Another explanation is: who live (alaya) in houses.
- 417:5 Nisam, literally, night.
- 417:6 Silanka calls this opponent an Ekadandin, and ascribes to him the views of the Sankhya philosophy. But it is evident from the sequel that he is a Vedantin, as the commentators admit in their comment on the next verse.
- 418:1 Pessa = preshya, literally, servants or slaves.
- 418:2 The Hastitapasas are thus named from the fact that they kill an elephant and live upon its flesh for a whole year or for six months, as Silanka adds, explaining thus the words avi ya (api ka) after samvakkharena. The Hastitapasas are mentioned in a list of the different Tapasas in the Aupapatika Sutra, ed. Leumann, section 74.
- 419:1 Buddhassa anai.
7 - nalanda
At that time, at that period, there was a town of the name Ragagriha: it was rich, happy, thriving  Outside of Ragagriha, in a north-eastern direction, there was the suburb Nalanda; it contained many hundreds of buildings 
In that suburb Nalanda there was a householder called Lepa; he was prosperous, famous; rich in high and large houses, beds, seats, vehicles, and chariots; abounding in riches, gold, and silver; possessed of useful and necessary things; wasting plenty of food and drink; owning many male and female slaves, cows, buffaloes, and sheep; and inferior to nobody.
This householder Lepa, a follower of the Sramanas, comprehended (the doctrine of) living beings and things without life, ( all as in II, 2, 76, p. 382, down to the end of the paragraph).
This householder Lepa possessed, in a northeastern direction from the suburb Nalanda, a bathing-hall, called Seshadravya ; it contained many hundreds of pillars, was beautiful In a northeastern direction from this bathing-hall Seshadravya, there was a park called Hastiyama. (Description of the park .)
And there in some house the Venerable Gautama was staying. The venerable (man) was in the garden, and so was Udaka, the son of Pedhala, a Nirgrantha and follower of Parsva , of the Medarya Gotra. He went there where the Venerable Gautama was, and said: 'O long-lived Gautama, I want to ask you about a point (of faith); O long-lived one, please explain it to me so as it has been taught (by the Tirthakara).' And the Venerable Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, the son of Pedhala: “Well, long-lived one, I shall see about it, when I have heard and understood (your question).” And Udaka, the son of Pedhala, spoke thus to the Venerable Gautama:
'O long-lived Gautama, there are Nirgrantha Sramanas, called Kumaraputras, who profess your creed; they make a zealous  householder, a follower of the Sramanas, renounce injury to movable beings except on the order (from an established authority), as the householder caused one of the captured thieves to be set free . Those who make this renunciation, make a bad renunciation; those who cause this renunciation to be made, cause a bad renunciation to be made; in causing another to make this renunciation, they annul their own allegation . Why do I say this? Beings belong to the Circle of Births; though they be (now) immovable beings, they will (some time) become movable ones, or though they be (now) movable beings, they will become immovable ones; when they leave the bodies of immovable beings, they will be born in bodies of movable ones, and when they leave the bodies of movable beings, they will be born in bodies of immovable ones. When they are born in bodies of immovable beings, it is no sin to kill them.
'(But if they make him renounce) injury to creatures which are, for the time being, movable beings, except on the order (from an established authority)–as the householder caused one of the captured thieves to be set free–(if they take this vow), those who make this renunciation, make a good renunciation; those who cause this renunciation to be made, cause a good renunciation to be made; in causing another to make this renunciation, they do not annul their own allegation. Though in this way  a correct expression is found, some (monks) from anger or greed cause the householder to make the renunciation (without the necessary restriction). Is not this our interpretation right? O long-lived Gautama, do you approve of it?'
And Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, the son of Pedhala: “O long-lived Udaka, we certainly do not approve of it. The Sramanas or Brahmanas who say thus, speak thus, declare thus, and explain thus, do not speak as Sramanas or Nirgranthas, they speak noxious speech. They mislead laymen. They make void all vows undertaken for sparing particular living beings . Why do I say this? Beings belong to the Circle of Births; though they be (now) immovable beings, they will (some time) become movable ones, ( all as in section 6, down to) when they leave the bodies of movable beings, they will be born in the bodies of immovable ones. When they are born in the bodies of movable beings, it is a sin to kill them.”
And Udaka, the son of Pedhala, spoke thus: 'Which beings do you call movable beings? movable ones or others? '
And Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, the son of Pedhala: “O long-lived Udaka, what you call beings which are, for the time being, movable ones, we call movable beings; and what we call movable beings, you call beings which are, for the time being, movable ones. Both expressions are equal, and mean the same thing. O long-lived one, why do you think it more correct to say: beings which are, for the time being, movable ones; and why do you think it incorrect to say: movable beings, that you censure the one expression, and applaud the other? This your interpretation is not right.
“And the Venerable One has spoken thus: Some men there are who say: we cannot, submitting to the tonsure, renounce the life of a householder and enter the monastic state, but we shall gradually conform to the Gotra (i.e. community of the monks). Accordingly they make known the limits , fix the limits, determine the limits (beyond which they will not go in the enjoyment of worldly goods); and renounce injury to movable beings, except on the order  (of an established authority)–as the householder caused one of the captured thieves to be set free. And this turns out to their benefit.
“Movable beings are called so, when they get this character  through the taking effect of the Karman relating to movable beings. But when their duration of life as movable beings comes to its close, the (soul), embodied in a movable being, leaves its life as such and becomes embodied in an immovable being. Immovable beings are called so, when they get this character through the taking effect of the Karman relating to immovable beings. But when their duration of life as an immovable being comes to its close, the (soul), embodied in an immovable being, leaves its life as such and takes again a new form of existence; they are (then) called  animated beings, (animals) of large bodies, or of long life.”
And Udaka, the son of Pedhala, spoke thus to the Venerable Gautama: 'Is there not a chance, that a follower of the Sramanas, though he has renounced slaughter of but one class of living beings, ceases altogether to injure any ? Why do
And the Venerable Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, the son of Pedhala: “O long-lived one, we  do not admit what you say; viz. that there is a chance that a follower of the Sramanas should cease to do injury to any kind of living beings. Why do we say this? Beings belong to the Circle of Births, ( all as above, down to) when they are born in bodies of movable beings, it is a sin to kill them. They are called animated beings, (animals) of large bodies, or of long life. There are always a great many animate beings, (the slaughter of) which a follower of the Sramanas must renounce, there are none, (the slaughter of) which he need not renounce. If he ceases, or has done with, or has given up (injuring) the large class of movable beings, his renunciation is good. What you or somebody else says, that there is a chance of a layman's ceasing to do an injury altogether, by renouncing slaughter of one kind of beings; this interpretation of yours is not right.”
The Venerable One  gave an illustration: “I put a question to the Nirgranthas: O long-lived ones, (suppose) there be some men who have made the following declaration: 'I shall not inflict punishment on those who, submitting to the tonsure, renounce the life of a householder and enter the monastic state; but I shall inflict punishment on those who lead a domestic life.' Some Sramana, who for four or five years, or for six or ten years–the period may be shorter or longer–has wandered about in the land, returns to domestic life. Now answer me: does the man break his word when he puts to death this (renegade) householder?” 'Certainly not!' “It is just the same with a follower of the Sramanas, who has renounced injury to movable beings, but not to immovable ones. If he kills immovable beings, he does not transgress his vow. This you acknowledge, O Nirgranthas, this you must acknowledge!”
The Venerable One gave another illustration: “I put a question to the Nirgranthas. O long-lived Nirgranthas, (suppose) there be householders or sons of householders, born in respectable families, who come to you for instruction in the Law. Ought they to be instructed in the Law?” 'Yes, they should.' “When they have learned and understood this Law, will they say: this creed of the
The Venerable One gave (another) illustration: “I put a question to the Nirgranthas. O long-lived
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some followers of the Sramanas, who have made this declaration: we cannot, submitting to the tonsure, renounce the life of a householder and enter the monastic state, but we shall strictly observe the Posaha on the fourteenth and the eighth days of each fortnight, (on the new-moon, and) full-moon days, we renounce gross ill-usage of living beings, grossly lying speech, gross taking of things not given, (unlawful) sexual intercourse, (unlimited) appropriation of property; we shall set limits to our desires in the two forms and in the three ways . They will also make the following renunciation: 'neither do nor cause anything (sinful) to be done for my sake.'
The Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some followers of the Sramanas, who have made this declaration: we cannot, submitting to the tonsure, renounce the life of a householder and enter the monastic state; we also cannot strictly observe the Posaha on the fourteenth and the eighth days of each fortnight, (on the days of new-moon) and full-moon; but while we are preparing ourselves for death by fasting , we shall abstain from food and drink without longing for the end; we shall renounce all ill-usage of living beings, all lying speech, all taking of things not given, all sexual intercourse, all property, (saying): 'neither do nor cause anything (sinful) to be done for my sake.' (All the rest as in the preceding paragraph)”
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some men of great desires, great undertakings , who do not abstain from all ill-usage of living beings, ( down to) from all property. During the whole time, from their taking the vows of a follower of the Sramanas till their death, they abstain from injury to living beings. Then they die; in their next existence they experience their Karman, and receive an evil lot. (The rest as before)”
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some men of no desires, no undertakings, who abstain from all ill-usage of living beings, ( down to) from all property. During the whole time, from their taking the vows of a follower of the Sramanas till their death, they abstain from injury to living beings. Then they die; in their next existence they experience their Karman, and receive a happy lot. (The rest as before)”
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some men of few desires, few undertakings, who abstain from ill-usage of one sort of living beings, ( down to) from one sort of property. During the whole time, ( the rest as in the last paragraph).”
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some men who live in woods, in huts, near villages, or practise some secret rites, who are not well controlled, do not well abstain (from slaying) all sorts of living beings. They employ speech that is true and untrue at the same time: do not beat me, beat others, ( all as in II, 2, 21, down to) having died at their allotted time, they are born in some places inhabited by Asuras  and evil-doers. And when they are released therefrom, they will be born deaf and dumb or blind. They are called animated beings, ( the rest as in section 13).”
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some beings of a long life, which a follower of the Sramanas abstains from injuring through life. They die after him. They are called animated beings, ( the rest as in section 13).”
(The two next paragraphs treat in exactly the same way of beings of an equally long life, which die simultaneously with him, and of beings of a short life, which die before him.) (24, 25)
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “There are some followers of the Sramanas, who have made this declaration: we are not able to strictly observe the Posaha-days, but we are able, when preparing ourselves for death by fasting, to abstain from food and drink without longing for the end. The vow of such a man is the Samayika Desavakasika : (he declares) in the morning: (I shall travel) only thus or thus far in an eastern, western, southern, northern direction. He renounces injury to all beings: I shall cause peace and security to all sorts of living beings.
“Within those (limits) the movable living beings, which the follower of the Sramanas abstains from injuring till his death, will leave their life, and will then be born, within the same limits, as movable living beings, which the follower of the Sramanas abstains from injuring till his death. With regard to them the follower of the Sramanas has made a good renunciation. They are called animated beings, ( the rest as before).
“The movable beings within those limits , will, after their death, be born within the same limits as immovable beings, from injuring which without a purpose the follower of the Sramanas abstains till death, but not with a purpose , ( the rest as before).
“The movable beings within those limits, will, after their death, be born, beyond those limits, as movable or immovable beings, ( the rest as before).
“The immovable beings within those limits, will, after their death, be born, within the same limits, as movable beings, ( the rest as before).
“The immovable beings within those limits, will, after their death, be born, within the same limits, as immovable beings, ( the rest as before).
“The immovable beings within those limits, will, after their death, be born, beyond those limits, as immovable beings, ( the rest as before).
“The movable and immovable beings beyond those limits, will, after their death, be born, within those limits, as movable beings, ( the rest as before).
“The movable and immovable beings beyond those limits, will, after their death, be born, within those limits, as immovable beings, ( the rest as before).
“The movable and immovable beings beyond those limits, will, after their death, be born, beyond those limits, as movable and immovable beings, ( the rest as before).”
The Venerable One spoke thus: “It has never happened, it does not happen, nor will it ever happen, that all movable beings will die out and become immovable ones, nor that all immovable beings die out and become movable ones. Since movable and immovable beings never die out, there is no chance, as you or somebody else say, that a layman ceases to do injury altogether by renouncing slaughter of one kind of beings; this interpretation of yours is not right.”
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “If (a man) who has been instructed in right knowledge, faith, and conduct for the avoidance of sins, blames a (righteous) Sramana or Brahmana though he is well disposed towards them, he effects the loss of his merit for another world; but if he does not blame them, he heightens the purity of his merit for another world.”
On this Udaka, the son of Pedhala, took no further notice of the Venerable Gautama and was about to return in the direction in which he had come.
And the Venerable One spoke thus: “O long-lived Udaka, he who has learned from a Sramana or Brahmana whomsoever even one noble religious truth, and considers himself thereby furthered with regard to his peace and happiness, will respect, acknowledge, praise, salute, honour, reverence, and worship him even as a blessed and holy deity or sacred shrine.”
Then Udaka, the son of Pedhala, spoke thus to the Venerable Gautama: 'As I had not before known, heard, understood, and comprehended these words, I did not believe in the meaning (of your words), which I had never perceived nor heard nor understood nor appreciated, and which were never explained nor defined nor delivered nor made clear to me, nor pondered over by me. But now, Reverend Sir, as I do know, these words which I have perceived, heard, I believe, accept, and approve of their meaning. It is just as you say!'
Then the Venerable Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, the son of Pedhala: “Believe it, sir; accept it, sir; approve of it, sir; it is just as we have said.” Then Udaka, the son of Pedhala, spoke thus to the Venerable Gautama: 'I desire, Reverend Sir, in your presence to pass from the creed which enjoins four vows , to the creed which enjoins the five great vows and the Pratikramana .'
Then the Venerable Gautama went with Udaka, the son of Pedhala, to the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira. Then Udaka, the son of Pedhala, solemnly circumambulated the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira three times from the left to the right, and having done so he praised and worshipped him, and then he spoke thus: 'I desire, Reverend Sir, in your presence to pass from the creed which enjoins four vows, to the creed which enjoins the five great vows and the Pratikramana. May it so please you, beloved of the gods, do not deny me!' Then, in the presence of the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, Udaka, the son of Pedhala, passed from the creed which enjoins four vows, to the creed which enjoins the five great vows and the Pratikramana.
Thus I say.
- 419:2 This ' ' refers to the typical description of towns. Our text contains only the first words of the description, but the Aupapatika Sutra, section 1, gives it at length.
- 420:1 I cannot tell where the full description occurs.
- 420:2 The name denotes: the rest of materials, i.e. the hall which was built with the materials not used (in building the house), the well-known 'few remaining bricks.'
- 420:3 The text is given in the Aupapatika Sutra, section 3.
- 420:4 Compare the Twenty-second Lecture of the Uttaradhyayana.
- 421:1 Uvasampanna.
- 421:2 These words seem to refer to an apologue told by the commentator: King Ratnasekhara of Ratnapura, once making a pleasure trip, issued an order that nobody should remain in the town. Six brothers disobeyed, were brought before the king, and sentenced to death. Their father in vain implored the king to spare them, or to spare five, four, three, two of his sons. At last the king consented to pardon the eldest son, at which the old father rejoiced.–The six sons are likened to the six classes of living beings. As a householder cannot altogether abstain from injuring them, as monks do, he is content to abstain from injuring movable beings or animals.
- 421:3 Viz. that by abstaining from slaughter of living beings they kill no living beings.
- 422:1 I.e. by specifying the movable beings as beings which are movable ones for the time being.
- 422:2 E.g. if a man vows to kill no Brahmana (and does not add the restriction 'for the time being'), he may kill no man or animal whatever; for the soul of that man or animal may, in the past, have been embodied in a Brahmana.
- 423:1 Literally, the number. A sample of such vows is given in the beginning of the Uvasaga Dasao, see Hoernle's edition, section 16 ff.
- 424:1 Abhiyoga. Silanka enumerates four kinds of abhiyoga: gana-, bala-, devata-abhiyoga, and gurunigraha.
- 424:2 Nama, literally, name.
- 424:3 They are called (vukkanti = ukyante) is apparently equivalent with: they get the name (nama); 'name,' however, means in Gaina and Bauddha terminology as much as 'the nature of the thing.' The words of the text, therefore, come to mean: 'they become or are animated beings,'
- 424:4 The question discussed in the following paragraphs is whether, at some future time, all movable beings in the Samsara might not die out, and none but immovable beings be left. This idea is combated at great length by Gautama.
- 425:1 The meaning is, that at some future time movable beings may have ceased to exist, since they are all born as immovable beings, and vice versa. If the latter is the case, a layman, who abstains from killing animals, practically does injury to no being whatever; if the former is the case, he cannot transgress his vow even if he would.
- 425:2 The text has the Sanskrit word asmakam, of which the commentator alleges that it was thus pronounced by all people in Magadha, compare note , <page 358>.
- 426:1 Gautama.
- 427:1 Se ge se give, literally, his soul.
- 427:2 Here the last sentence but one of the preceding paragraph ought to be repeated. But there is no trace of it in my MSS. or the commentary.
- 428:1 No in'atthe samatthe; I think the Sanskrit of this phrase, which is not explained by the commentator, is no ayam arthah samarthah.
- 428:2 Viz. 'I will not do it, nor cause it to be done, either in thought or in word or in deed.' Compare Uvasaga Dasao, Hoernle's edition, section13 ff.
- 429:1 Samlehanaghusanaghusiya.
- 429:2 See II, 2, 61.
- 430:1 Asuriya. Silanka here offers a second explanation of this word, viz. asurya, where no sun ever shines.
- 431:1 The Desavakasika 'consists in drawing closer or contracting every day the limits already laid down (in accordance with the Gunavratas) to the range of one's travels,' The Gunavrata referred to is the Digvirati, i.e. 'to lay down a limit beyond which one shall not travel in the different directions, or a limit as to the countries one shall visit for the acquisition of wealth.' From Bhandarkar Report, p. 214 f. The explanation in the commentary materially agrees with the above.
- 431:2 The original repeats the phrases of the preceding paragraph. [p. 432] I abridge them as far as possible, and give the full text only where it differs from that of section 26.
- 432:1 This clause comes always after the words 'immovable beings' down to section 34.
- 434:1 See above, <page 121>, note . In this way the creed of Parsva is characterised in contradistinction to that of Mahavira.
- 434:2 'Pratikramana is the expiation of sins . . . by means of Nindana Garhana, Alokana, and other processes. Nindana is condemning the sinful act or repenting of it to oneself; Garhana is doing the same before a Guru; and Alokana is making a confession of it to the Guru.' Bhandarkar, Report, p. 9, note ++.